Promoting engagement of smallholders in agricultural markets is a core part of Oxfam livelihoods strategy Major agricultural programmes in Ethiopia, Mali, Tanzania, attempting to scale up impact on poor rural people’s livelihoods Significant livelihoods resources invested in support to rural producer groups – for instance, a significant proportion of Oxfam’s overall development programme budget (of a valued at over £40mil in 2008/09 NB: Calculated at 18% expenditure of total £ 235.8m, see 2008/09 annual report ) is spent promoting rural producer groups. Other development agencies actors and private companies are also directing large amounts of resources to rural producer groups as part of their agriculture strategies. For example, over half (57%) of training/extension grants awarded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (this project’s funders) involve partnerships with farmer’s organisations. It’s farmer organisation strategy will prioritizes investments that strengthen Farmers’ Organizations that are inclusive of smallholders and women. There is evidence demonstrating benefits from membership But, women – despite being key to meeting global food demand – are not fully reaping the benefits of engaging in agricultural markets . There is a lack of evidence demonstrating which strategies work best for women, and current attempts to engage women in collective action are either insensitive to gender, or have focussed on organising women into all-female producer groups, which does not automatically translate into improved livelihoods and/or empowerment of these producers.
Reasons for enhaincing women’s economic leadership in agricultural markets -improved efficiency and yields Enhanced decision-making capacity at household, community and policy level
Regional and National
West Gojam Presentation (Zewdi)
Researching Women’s Collective Action Phase2 Findings from Amhara Region Ethiopia Presentation for PTM Bamako Aril 2011 Zewdi Abadi
Food for Thought: Ethiopia is the fastest growing economy in the world after China and India . Women are the main producers in the agricultural sector; how are smallholders organizing to access the market? Will the current growth benefit women small holder? Will they be able to control what used to be a typically women susbsector or will they lose it to men or big enterprises? Will technology/labor saving devises in a specific subsector (Irrigation) benefit women or steal what used to be their subsector? How are women organizing themselves to reach the market and be part of the growing economy? What are the gaps?
Amhara region population estimated for 2010/11 to be 18.19 million. Males 50.16% Females 49.84% Gross population density 114 persons/km2 West Gojjam is relatively densely populated which has an implication in terms of man land ratio. Age structure estimated for 2010 more than 42.6 % age range of 0-14 years. while 3.9 percent of the region’s population is too old being in age range of 65 years and above. Settlement pattern: nearly 88.6 per cent of the population, resides in rural areas and is engaged mainly in agricultural activities
Gender Issue <ul><li>Amhara region has the the highest cases of Early Marriage (Harmful Practice) in comparison with other regions </li></ul><ul><li>Low literacy level </li></ul><ul><li>Access </li></ul>
Infrastructure 24.3 % of households travel more than three hours on foot to reach the nearest market. Transport in rural areas usually off-road non-motorized and predominantly by head carrying including women and children of loads of up to 30 kg. Travel is time-consuming especially accessing markets and services. Lack of village level infrastructure and lack of affordable transport services means that harvest and other commodities loose their value in the market if transport is not provided and farmers are exposed to exploitation by traders and middlemen. (ANRS, 2004)
Policy environment vis a vis Collective Action The Cooperative proclamation No 147/1998 enables to establish democratically and voluntarily managed market oriented cooperatives The establishment of an institution which promotes cooperatives (e.g. cooperatives commission and CPB) The attention of the Federal Government in its Rural Development Policy, Strategy document, emphasized the role of cooperatives in developing agricultural marketing system in Ethiopia. The Cooperatives Promotion Bureau’s (CPB) role SME…. The BPR, change process….. Does it work for women??
Formal CAs There are 17 types of legally registered CAs in Amhara region; 10 are agriculture related and 7 are other types of CAs. Among the Agriculture related 70% are Multipurpose (1453 coop), the highest number of coops and capital (1.3 Bill) followed by Irrigation (302 coops) and (18 Mill). In Total there are 4,603 cooperatives in Amhara region, with a total of 1.43 million members, of which 13% (187,547) are women. 84% of S&C are located in the urban area See: Amhara Region registered Coop. 2010
Access <ul><li>Access to land </li></ul><ul><li>Access to services: Married women versus FHH </li></ul>
Methodology <ul><li>Selection of Communities </li></ul><ul><li>FGD 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of Community </li></ul><ul><li>Distance /Diversity/ </li></ul><ul><li>List all CAs in the area </li></ul><ul><li>FGD 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Selection of 12 to 18 participants (challenges) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals not in CAs </li></ul><ul><li>Women from the SSector CA and other Informal CAs (Overlap) </li></ul>
Stakeholders <ul><li>Honey </li></ul><ul><li>OXFAM WEL </li></ul><ul><li>Primary Coop. </li></ul><ul><li>Zenbaba Union (9 Cooperatives) </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Milk Primary Cooperatives </li></ul><ul><li>Land O’ Lakes (USAID) </li></ul><ul><li>BoARD Staff at Wereda and Kebele level </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Inventory of CA </li></ul><ul><li>Other: Key informants (BoARD, WEA, ANRA, CDB, Union, NGOs) </li></ul>
Gendered Value Chain The selected Subsectors in Amhara Region (Honey and Milk) also feature in the legally registered CAs and Milk has a very high number of Coops (110) with 5.2 mill Birr capital. Honey (40 Coops) with 4.2 mill Birr Capital See Revised Milk and Honey Value chain map
Table 2. Constraints to acting in markets x x x 9. Modern beehive management x x x 8. Pesticide spayed during the day x x x 7. Restrictions placed by husband x x x 6. Family responsibilities of women (lack of free time) x 5. Low bargaining power (of farmers) x 3. Lack of information on prices and markets x x Gender issues and inequality x 1. Get a low price Honey Summary Women-only group Mixed group Individual woman Constraints to acting in markets Sub-sector
Table 2. Constraints to acting in markets x x x 9. Modern beehive management x x x 8. Pesticide spayed during the day x 7. Restrictions placed by husband control over the income x 6. Family responsibilities of women (lack of free time) x 5. Low bargaining power x Women are further disadvantaged in terms of training, and leadership in mixed coops. x x x 5. Security/thieves x 4. Lack of information and market intelligence x X x 4. Lack of improved crossbred x x x 3. Lack of a reliable and responsible recipient in Bahirdar 2. Transportation problems/expensive/ unreliable x x x 1. Get a low price during fasting season Milk Women-only group Mixed group Individual woman Constraints to acting in markets Sub-sector
Benefits for women of being members of a CA group SebatAtmit Table 2: Benefit Matrix 100% 140 Total 6% 9 Getting forage seed for cow feed 7% 10 Training 21% 30 Access to stable market 25% 35 Reduced cost and time (due to short distance) 40% 56 Increased income Share in % Total Kernels Benefits
Andassa Table 2: Benefit Matrix Tis Abbay Table 2: Benefit Matrix 100% 130 Total 18% 23 Social 18% 23 Getting improved crossbred cows 21% 27 Reduced cost and time due to vicinity of Coop collecting point 21% 27 Access to stable market 23% 30 Training Share in % Total Kernels Benefits 100% 160 Total 1% 2 Increased assets of the Association 14% 23 Savings 20% 32 Access to stable milk market 25% 40 Reduced cost and time due to short distance 39% 63 Increased income Share in % Total Kernels Benefits
Robit Table 2: Benefit Matrix 100% 130 Total 3% 6 Being a good example to others 8% 16 Profit sharing 13% 24 Growth and change 9% 17 Training 7% 13 Reduced cost and time due to short distance 9% 17 Access to stable market 18% 35 Saving 33% 62 Getting additional income Share in % Total Kernels Benefits
Trends <ul><li>. The categories of women more active in trading , are young women who are engaging more and more to trading these days as there is no enough land for agriculture due to population growth. Therefore they look for any means to be able to support themselves and to get out of the rural areas. Targeted supported to this particular category would lead to (self) employment. </li></ul>