Mali phase ii_presentation_en


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Mali phase ii_presentation_en

  1. 1. Presentation of results in Mali: Phase II Aboubacar TRAORE, June 2011
  2. 2. Outline of this presentation <ul><li>Context of Collective Action </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of the branches included in the study/Regions and Districts/Communities </li></ul><ul><li>Key results </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of main results </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations for Phase III </li></ul>
  3. 3. Context of collective action in Mali 8 regions: agriculture (41% GDP); services (42% GDP); industry (17% GDP) <ul><li>Agricultural Framework Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair access to land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10% of cultivated area to be assigned to women </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Code of land rights in modern and traditional law </li></ul><ul><li>CA: Law on Cooperatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before GIEF (external support) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No improvement in Services </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Overview of the branches included in the study/Regions <ul><li>Millet/ Sorghum </li></ul><ul><li>Groundnuts </li></ul><ul><li>Sesame </li></ul><ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Shea butter </li></ul><ul><li>Tiger nuts </li></ul><ul><li>Koulikoro </li></ul><ul><li>Pop. 2.4 million (growth rate 4%) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall 500-1300 mm (20 – 51 inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Exodus from the land is occurring </li></ul><ul><li>Different socio-cultural status within the family and in the communities </li></ul><ul><li>Sikasso </li></ul><ul><li>2.6 million (growth rate 3.6%) </li></ul><ul><li>Rainfall 700-1500 mm (28 – 59 inches) </li></ul><ul><li>Less young people leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Men and women have different roles/power </li></ul><ul><li>Good potential for agriculture/livestock </li></ul>
  5. 5. Gender in the production systems of the regions studied <ul><li>Important role of women in agricultural work : 70% of agricultural labour force, often unpaid </li></ul><ul><li>Little control over resources : 3% of holdings managed by women; 54% of women with < 1 ha (17% of men) </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal access for women to inputs, credit, fertiliser, advice/support </li></ul><ul><li>Limited access for women to markets through lack of mobility, social attitudes, and small volumes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Key results (Tiger nuts Sikasso) 20% tiger nuts 80% tiger nuts Local market Producers 70% women and 30% men Circle (district) : Sikasso, Kadiolo Communities : Farakala, Kapolondougou, Kofan, Kolokoba, lobougoula, Kaboïla ; Kaï, Loulouni, Natien, Missirikoro, Kapala, Sokourani Missirikoro, Central Sikasso AC : mixed groups and women’s and men’s Union: Jèkafo and Nipangatiè Supply and market research Malian exporters Arouna Konaté Ousmane Sow Collectors/ Intermediaries Semi-wholesalers and wholesalers Sub-regional market (Senegal, Liberia, Guinea, Central African Republic, Ghana, Burkina Faso) National and local markets Local market Processing (exclusively by women) Structure of the branch at the local level (unions) - Technical and financial support by the partners - Emerging branch <ul><li>Source of income for </li></ul><ul><li>women </li></ul><ul><li>- Existence of export market </li></ul>Factors which encourage collective action by women Factors which discourage collective action by women Low access to means of production (land, equipment) Low level of processing at local level
  7. 7. Key results (Groundnuts, Koulikoro) Primary Producers Intermediaries Buyers Local market Traders Domestic and sub-regional consumers Co-operatives/ Women’s Associa-tions Kolokani circles Women engaged in value-adding processing Factors which encourage collective action by women Local market Consumers at the local level Factors which discourage women’s collective action Lack of support structures for this type of production Women are assigned infertile land No access to agricultural equipment when needed No organised market exists Lack of access to fast-growing (3 months) and high yield s eeds Weak ability to control prices to intermediaries/ buyers Existence of women’s groups offering rotating credit and/or savings and loans Groundnuts: a basic food Support for setting up savings and credit groups from the CAEB NGO in Kolokani Circle
  8. 8. Links between organisations: Rice, Sikasso Women’s network Teriya de Niena Cooperative ACOD Nyeta so CRA Agricultural sector COFRN T é gu éré ni group Female producers: Courageous and dedicated women Training Working capital, equipment Supply of inputs, Marketing Membership fee Operational support Advice support Training / Information Information exchange Membership fee Savings / Loans
  9. 9. Constraints Type of constraint Tiger nuts Rice Shea butter Sesame Millet/ sorghum Ground-nuts Limited access to means of production X X X X X Late payment of cash after sales X X Lack of working capital X X Lack of equipment for processing and difficulties of storage X X Merchants charge high prices for fertiliser X X Low crop yields X Lack of means and high cost of transport X X Weak negotiating power of women vis-à-vis intermediaries/traders X X X Illiteracy among women X X Drop in price at harvest time X X
  10. 10. Benefits Type of benefits/ Branch of production Groundnuts Millet/ Sorghum Sesame Shea butter Tiger nuts Rice Access to property ownership XX Access to inputs XXX XXX XXX XXX Access to equipment for production XXX Access to processing equipment XXX XXX Access to the market XXX XXX XXX XXX XX Savings/loans (by deposit and by rotation) XXX XXX X XXX X Increase in incomes (joint sales at profitable price) X XX XXX XXX XXX XX Improvement in social status XX XX XX XX XX XX Social cohesion XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX Strengthening of skills X X XXX XXX XX XX Investment (personal wealth) XX XX XX XX XX XX
  11. 11. Detailed analysis
  12. 12. Discussion of the main results Rice Shea butter Tiger nuts Groundnuts Millet/ Sorghum Sesame Types of collective action Mixed and women’s; formal and informal; non specialised; affiliated and not Mixed and women’s; specialised; affiliated and not Mixed, men’s and women’s; specialised; affiliated Non specialised; CAs mixed and women’s; formal and informal. Formal mixed and women’s affiliated to the unions; formal and informal non-affiliated. Predominance of mixed and women’s CAs specialised affiliated to the unions; some CAs not affiliated. Women’s roles Predominant in mixed CAs; men in the secretariat in women’s CAs Strong representation in mixed CAs; men in the secretariat in women’s CAs. Weak representation in mixed CAs. Not very active in mixed CAs; replacement of men by women in some women’s CAs. Not very active in mixed CAs; preference for women’s CAs (men in the secretariat) Not very active in mixed CAs (Banamba); men in the secretariat in women’s CAs. Production Individual or collective; income-generating activities Individual or collective. Internal savings/loan system; some CAs have external supported for specific purposes. PAM market Individual or collective; DERK/SNV support for affiliated women’s CAs
  13. 13. Key findings <ul><li>CAs are present in all the value chains of the different types of production: more marked in the more structured branches like sesame, tiger nuts and shea butter. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a predominance of women in certain products (shea butter) and certain value-add activities (processing ). </li></ul><ul><li>A strong preference is expressed in some communes for women-only groups. </li></ul><ul><li>There are constraints which prevent speeding up the creation of women’s CAs to enable access to markets, e.g. social pressures, the low literacy rate among women, the lack of equipment and of appropriate infrastructure. </li></ul><ul><li>Changing trends: the positive effects of some successful women’s collective actions help to break down some taboos.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. Recommendations for phase III <ul><li>In Sikasso, Oxfam GB’ s choice. </li></ul><ul><li>In Koulikoro, sesame as the most appropriate product to produce. </li></ul><ul><li>At the national workshop, validated analysis tools to apply to other types of production. </li></ul><ul><li>In all cases the future criteria for choosing between different types of production must include the predominance of women (individually or collectively) and whether the collective actions are sustainable. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Thank you for your attention