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WJEC AS Media Studies

WJEC AS Media Studies

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    Audience Keynotes Audience Keynotes Presentation Transcript

    • A U D I E N C E R E S P O N S E R E C A P O N T H E O R I E S & A P P LY I N G E X A M P L E S A S M E D I A S T U D I E S
    • T O D AY S S E S S I O N • Revising and application of; • Audience grouping • Audience theories • Audience past question planning • Issues & events guidance I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theori
    • A U D I E N C E In the MS1 exam, audience may be the focus for either Question 2c or 3. So you will need to consider; • The ways in which audiences can be categorised and described. This may change according to the industry. For example, the advertising industry describes audiences differently and more specifically than other media industries. • The ways in which audiences and users are constructed by media texts and the response an audience may have to that construction. • The ways in which media texts position audiences. This may be to involve the audience or to elicit (evoke or draw-out) a response. • The ways in which different audiences and users respond to, use and interpret different texts. • The ways in which media texts target and appeal to audiences. This will also come from an understanding that all media industries operate in a competitive market and must ensure that they market to the audience effectively.
    • A U D I E N C E G R O U P S
    • Audience Profiling Age, Gender, Race and Sexuality Education Occupation Annual Income Disposable Income Current Lifestyle/ Aspirational or Desired Lifestyle Culture Media Interests Buying Habits Loyalty to Brands Before planning and producing any product, institutions need to carry out market research. They plan who is going to buy their product and why, doing this can influence a number of decisions. When defining an audience, factors that must be considered include:
    • Socio-economic / Demographics groups Broken down into 6 categories, demographics defines the adult population largely by their occupations, income and status.
    • Psychographic Categories Who do you think you are?
    • S U G G E S T T W O D I F F E R E N T A U D I E N C E G R O U P S F O R T H E N O A H F I L M P O S T E R
    • A U D I E N C E T H E O R I E S
    • H Y P O D E R M I C N E E D L E T H E O RY • The audience are a mass that behave the same way in response to a media text. • The media text injects ideas into the minds of the assumed passive audience. • Suggests that the information from a text passes into the mass audience. • Often quoted to support moral panics. For example, video games and films, cause the audience to behave violently.
    • R E C E P T I O N T H E O RY Media Producer - encodes text and creates text with preferred meaning Different audiences may decode the preferred meaning differently
    • R E C E P T I O N T H E O RY ! ! H T T P S : / / W W W. Y O U T U B E . C O M / WAT C H ? V = G J D 1 R K D O U R A & L I S T = P L N 3 U K O R J V 4 V S 4 1 2 D H E D S G O N H 4 S P X B 3 _ B J
    • R E C E P T I O N T H E O RY Extending the concept of an active audience still further, in the 1980s and 1990s a lot of work was done on the way individuals received and interpreted a text, and how their individual circumstances (gender, class, age, ethnicity) affected their reading. This work was based on Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model of the relationship between text and audience - the text is encoded by the producer, and decoded by the reader, and there may be major differences between two different readings of the same code. However, by using recognised codes and conventions, and by drawing upon audience expectations relating to aspects such as genre and use of stars, the producers can position the audience and thus create a certain amount of agreement on what the code means. This is known as a preferred reading.
    • B A R T H E S - O B S T I N AT E A U D I E N C E Media Producer - encodes text and creates text with preferred meaning Different audiences may decode the preferred meaning differently VA L I D O P I N I O N VA L I D O P I N I O N VA L I D O P I N I O N
    • U S E S A N D G R AT I F I C AT I O N S T H E O RY https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Vn9_0mTfT3Y&list=UUZFUrFoqvqlN8seaAeEwjlw
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Preferred reading This is where the audience accepts the dominant reading and message of the media text, interpreting the text in the ways that the producer intended. The audience doesn’t usually challenge this message, often agreeing with message.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Negotiated reading This is where the audience accepts some of the text and disagree with others, therefore negotiating over their acceptance of what is presented to them.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Oppositional reading This is where the audience may not agree with the ideology of the text or its content. This could be related to the culture, age, gender, regional identity or other factors affecting audience response
    • C U LT I VAT I O N T H E O RY https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=7hKaIeAi7OI&list=UUZFUrFoqvqlN8seaAeEwjlw&index=10
    • T W O - S T E P F L O W T H E O RY https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=hFpBLeOHfxs&index=9&list=UUZFUrFoqvqlN8seaAeEwjlw
    • T R A N S C E N D A N C E T R A I L E R https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VCTen3-B8GU
    • T R A N S C E N D A N C E T R A I L E R Audience groups • Explorers - universal themes to the effects on the world • Men - presented to be a male dominated profession • Women - variations of characters and ages (blonde girl offered a younger demographic appeal), Depp’s love interest (romance conventions), women’s position in profession. Decision makers? • Mainstreamers - A-list star billing (Depp) • E>C2 entertainment and social interactions. • C1>A scientific themes could challenge audience ideologies and professionals may interested in AI and educational elements Audience theories • Uses & Gratifications - educate and inform (scientific elements/AI) • Cultivation theory - the fear of AI and advancements of technology (presented to be a good idea, but goes wrong and becomes a threat - moral panic) - borrowing genre and narrative conventions from similar films to appeal to audiences. • E>C2 audiences may contextualise ideas of health services and reflect on own experiences - would do anything to help/save loved one.
    • TA C K L I N G A U D I E N C E Q U E S T I O N S When approaching audience questions. You should be able to; • Identify the target audience / potential audiences • Techniques used to attract this audience and suggest how media texts position audience - technical codes, visual codes, language, mode of address, genre, stars. • How audience reacts - passive vs. active (audience theories) • The expectation is that in your discussion of ‘detailed examples’ that you will support your answer with at least three examples from more than one media form in your response.
    • PA S T A U D I E N C E Q U E S T I O N S - P L A N N I N G A R E S P O N S E Summer 2013 • With reference to your own detailed examples, explore what affects how an audience may respond to a media text [30] 45 minutes Winter 2013 • With reference to your own detailed examples, explore how audiences are categorised by the producers of media texts. [15] 20-25 minutes
    • H O M E W O R K R E V I S I O N T O O L S - A U D I E N C E G R O U P S & A U D I E N C E T H E O R I E S C A S E S T U D I E S - A N A LY S I S O F 3 D I F F E R E N T M E D I A T E X T S For homework, design revision resource for audience groups and theories - • Demographics & Psychographics • Stuart Hall • Semiotics • Uses & Gratifications • Hypodermic Needle Theory • Reception Theory & Obstinate audience • Gauntlett’s Pick & Mix I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theories I will revise audience theori
    • What affects the way in which media an audience responds to a media text? • Gender! • Age! • Ethnicity! • Culture and cultural experience - upbringing / psychographics ! • Cultural competence - experiences and understanding! • Situated culture - where the audience is and who they’re with.
    • How media texts target and appeal to audiences • Technical and audio codes! • The language and mode of address! • The construction! • The context! • The positioning of the audience
    • MS1 MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES
    • MS1 EXAM MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES Aims 1. Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of media concepts, contexts and critical debates. 2. Apply knowledge and understanding when analysing media products and processes, and when evaluating their own practical work, to show how meanings and responses are created. • Two and a half hours, assessing AO1 and AO2. This will consist of three questions: Question 1 requires an analysis of an audio/visual or print-based extract (40). Questions 2 and 3 will be based on representation and audience issues (30 and 30).
    • MS1 EXAM MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES Textual Analysis • Genre and conventions • Narrative • Technical codes for moving image and print • Use of language and mode of address
    • MS1 EXAM MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES Representations • The role of selection, construction and anchorage in creating representations. • How media texts use representations and the effect those representations may have upon audiences. • The point of view, messages and values underlying those representations. • Study a range of examples that include representations of gender, ethnicity, age, issues, events and regional and national identities.
    • MS1 EXAM MEDIA REPRESENTATIONS AND RESPONSES Audience responses • The ways in which audiences can be categorised. • The ways in which the producers of media texts construct audiences and users. • How audiences and users are positioned.
    • HOW WE APPROACH MS1 PRINT MEDIA • Magazine front covers • Print advertisements • Film posters • Website pages • Newspapers • CD covers • Computer game covers
    • Key Concept Semiotics! The theory and description of sign systems. ! Examination of the way signs are produced, disseminated and consumed.
    • But what actually is it? Denotation (Signifier) Connotation (Signified)
    • Denotation The literal or primary meaning of something. Connotation An idea or feeling that something invokes for a person in addition to its literal or primary meaning.
    • • Our perception of reality is influenced by the words and signs we use.! • We don’t just label the world, we give it meaning through our words and therefore construct it.! • We give things their meaning, they do not have it implicity.! • The media have a huge impact in constructing these meanings. Semiotics
    • How can we use semiotics to understand media texts? • We are exposed to so many different images because of the media.! • Do the media construct connotations and meanings?! • Do they use denotations and connotations to create meanings and provoke a reaction?! • Signs position their audience in particular modes of appreciation and understanding, just as audiences themselves comprehend signs in particular ways. ! • Semiotics looks at how signs are used, accepted and rejected and this suggests the tastes and desires of wider society! • Denotation - What you see?! • Connotation - What does it mean, what is its purpose, how does it position the audience?
    • RESPONDING TO MEDIA TEXTS • Media texts are constructed in order to place audiences in a particular position in relation to that text. • Audience positioning concerns the relationship between the text and the responses an audience may have to the text. • The producers of the texts encode the texts with signs and denotations and audience decode these signs with connotations and messages. • Different audiences will decode the same texts in different ways and will therefore have a different response. • In the exam you may be asked to discuss how media texts position audiences.
    • ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE Active Audience • This describes an audience who responds to and interprets the media texts in different ways and who actively engages with the messages. Passive Audience • This describes an audience that does not engage actively with the text. They are more likely to accept the preferred meaning of the text without challenge. This also suggests that passive audiences are more likely to be directly affected by the messages contained within the text.
    • How different audiences may respond to Gender Age Ethnicity Culture and cultural experience Cultural competence Situated culture
    • AUDIENCES AND RESPONSE
    • RECAP • What is the study of signs known as? • What is the difference between an active and a passive audience? • Identify ways why different audiences may respond to a media text differently?
    • MEDIA PROFILES Consider • How you consume; TV, web, on demand, mobile apps, streaming services, YouTube, through consoles/Smart TV apps. • Where you consume and who with; at home, on the go, with friends, family, on own. • Be honest. • Provide any relevant information about your background that you believe may influence your media consumption.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Cultural theorist who looked at the role of audiences positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different social groups.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Media texts are encoded by the producers of the text and decoded differently by different audiences. Encoded Decoded
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Preferred reading This is where the audience accepts the dominant reading and message of the media text, interpreting the text in the ways that the producer intended. The audience doesn’t usually challenge this message, often agreeing with message.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Negotiated reading This is where the audience accepts some of the text and disagree with others, therefore negotiating over their acceptance of what is presented to them.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Oppositional reading This is where the audience may not agree with the ideology of the text or its content. This could be related to the culture, age, gender, regional identity or other factors affecting audience response
    • STUART HALL Within your media profiles, state whether you accept (a) or challenge (c) any of the media you consume. Choose some examples you wish to share with rest of group.
    • IDEOLOGIES AND VALUES
    • IDEOLOGY The values and messages held by the producers of a media text that may appear in the text itself. Ideologies and values are encoded within texts.
    • IDEOLOGY DAILY MAIL • Conservative values • Right wing - traditional values, selfish,unregulated economy, freedom to succeed over equality. • Middle class readership • Directed to appeal to women • 5.5 million circulation (2nd largest)
    • IDEOLOGY What effect can ideologies have to audiences?
    • IDEOLOGY RESEARCH • Individually, research a media institutions ideology. • Either a UK TV channel, newspaper or magazine. You could use a institution that you have included in your media profile. • Present the ideologies of the institution in an in-depth fact file. Include; • history timeline - history > present day - any key developments • mission statement - usually find on website • key values and aims - usually find on website • target audience, audience figures (BARB) and circulation and readership • types of programs and articles, annotations/textual analysis on program or article, relate to audience • controversies - include examples of how and why the institution may have caused controversy. • personal opinion on institution
    • Target audience How is the audience positioned by the text? Audience theories Audience responses and what might affect that response
    • A U D I E N C E T H E O R I E S & D O C U M E N TA RY 2 6 . 0 3 . 2 0 1 4
    • T O D AY S S E S S I O N • Audience theories and models • Hypodermic needle theory • Reception theory • Obstinate audience • Apply these theories to documentary • Modes of documentary
    • A U D I E N C E In the MS1 exam, audience may be the focus for either Question 2c or 3. So you will need to consider; • The ways in which audiences can be categorised and described. This may change according to the industry. For example, the advertising industry describes audiences differently and more specifically than other media industries. • The ways in which audiences and users are constructed by media texts and the response an audience may have to that construction. • The ways in which media texts position audiences. This may be to involve the audience or to elicit (evoke or draw-out) a response. • The ways in which different audiences and users respond to, use and interpret different texts. • The ways in which media texts target and appeal to audiences. This will also come from an understanding that all media industries operate in a competitive market and must ensure that they market to the audience effectively.
    • Audience Profiling Age, Gender, Race and Sexuality Education Occupation Annual Income Disposable Income Current Lifestyle/ Aspirational or Desired Lifestyle Culture Media Interests Buying Habits Loyalty to Brands Before planning and producing any product, institutions need to carry out market research. They plan who is going to buy their product and why, doing this can influence a number of decisions. When defining an audience, factors that must be considered include:
    • Socio-economic / Demographics groups Broken down into 6 categories, demographics defines the adult population largely by their occupations, income and status.
    • Psychographic Categories Who do you think you are?
    • H Y P O D E R M I C N E E D L E T H E O RY • The audience are a mass that behave the same way in response to a media text. • The media text injects ideas into the minds of the assumed passive audience. • Suggests that the information from a text passes into the mass audience. • Often quoted to support moral panics. For example, video games and films, cause the audience to behave violently.
    • A R E Y O U A N A C T I V E O R PA S S I V E A U D I E N C E ?
    • R E C E P T I O N T H E O RY Media Producer - encodes text and creates text with preferred meaning Different audiences may decode the preferred meaning differently
    • R E C E P T I O N T H E O RY Extending the concept of an active audience still further, in the 1980s and 1990s a lot of work was done on the way individuals received and interpreted a text, and how their individual circumstances (gender, class, age, ethnicity) affected their reading. This work was based on Stuart Hall's encoding/decoding model of the relationship between text and audience - the text is encoded by the producer, and decoded by the reader, and there may be major differences between two different readings of the same code. However, by using recognised codes and conventions, and by drawing upon audience expectations relating to aspects such as genre and use of stars, the producers can position the audience and thus create a certain amount of agreement on what the code means. This is known as a preferred reading.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Preferred reading This is where the audience accepts the dominant reading and message of the media text, interpreting the text in the ways that the producer intended. The audience doesn’t usually challenge this message, often agreeing with message.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Negotiated reading This is where the audience accepts some of the text and disagree with others, therefore negotiating over their acceptance of what is presented to them.
    • AUDIENCE RESPONSES STUART HALL Oppositional reading This is where the audience may not agree with the ideology of the text or its content. This could be related to the culture, age, gender, regional identity or other factors affecting audience response
    • R O L A N D B A R T H E S - O B S T I N AT E A U D I E N C E Write down what the meaning of this picture is - be as honest/creative as possible
    • B A R T H E S - O B S T I N AT E A U D I E N C E Media Producer - encodes text and creates text with preferred meaning Different audiences may decode the preferred meaning differently VA L I D O P I N I O N VA L I D O P I N I O N VA L I D O P I N I O N
    • TA C K L I N G A U D I E N C E Q U E S T I O N S
    • TA C K L I N G A U D I E N C E Q U E S T I O N S When approaching audience questions. You should be able to; • Identify the target audience / potential audiences • Techniques used to attract this audience and suggest how media texts position audience - technical codes, visual codes, language, mode of address, genre, stars. • The expectation is that in your discussion of ‘detailed examples’ that you will support your answer with at least three examples from more than one media form in your response.
    • M O D E S O F D O C U M E N TA RY M S 1
    • H O W D I F F E R E N T D O C U M E N TA R I E S P O S I T I O N A U D I E N C E S
    • DOCUMENTARY STYLES Bill Nichols (‘Representing Reality’) divides the documentary into five categories. • expository • observational • interactive • reflexive • performative
    • EXPOSITORY DOCUMENTARY Voice-of-God commentary and poetic perspectives sought to disclose information about the historical world itself and to see that world afresh, even if these views came to seem romantic and didactic. (pp.32-3) • authoritative voice-over commentary • series of images that aim to be descriptive and informative • voice-over addresses the spectator directly, offering a series of facts or arguments that are illustrated by the image track • aim: descriptive and informative or provide a particular argument • effect: direct and transparent representation
    • Bowling for Columbine (Moore, 2002, US) ! https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=oHZxA_Zi71k
    • H O W M AY A U D I E N C E S R E S P O N D T O O P E N I N G O F B F C ? • Audience supposed to be shocked and surprised and the easiness and accessibility of getting a gun from a bank - supposed to be safe, professional i.e. not encouraging the use of owning a gun. • Comical - because of the ‘ordinariness’ of the situation, bank clerks not effected by the fact they give free guns to people who open an account. • Some audiences may feel that it’s great that you can get a gun just by opening a bank account. • Active audience may question the filmmaker - did they manage to do a background check quickly so Moore could walk away with a gun. (Actually took 4 weeks - edited to reinforce Moore’s preferred reading. • Makes audience question America’s gun ownerships laws - active audience may consider events involved with this issue. Passive audience may make national identity stereotypes, active may not. • Moores techniques - subject, but appears he is given the opinion and shared opinions of audience.
    • OBSERVATIONAL DOCUMENTARY An observational mode of representation allowed the filmmaker to record unobtrusively what people did when they were not explicitly addressing the camera. But the observational mode limited the film maker to the present moment and required a disciplined detachment from the events themselves. (p.33) • characterised by the non-intervention of the filmmaker • no voice-over, intertitles, interviews • aim: present a slice-of-life or direct representation of filmed events • filmmaker attempts to be ‘invisible’ or an uninvolved bystander • emphasis is placed on recording events as they unfold in real time • aka: direct cinema • tends to use long takes • direct sound (recorded while the camera is rolling) • the aim is to persuade the viewer that what they are watching is an accurate slice-of-life • in actuality it is possible to discern the intervention of the director via a number of techniques (choices in relation to camera distance, edited footage, music etc.)
    • Educating Yorkshire (Channel 4, 2013, UK) ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RM1IxV7vyEA
    • H O W M AY A U D I E N C E S R E S P O N D T O E X T R A C T O F E D U C AT I N G Y O R K S H I R E ? • Audience reactions - • Sympathetic to Musharaf because of his severe stutter. • Techniques to gain this reading? • Long take of him struggling to speak - cuts to a close-up of Musharaf to show his emotion/facial expression (angry at himself) • Audience reactions - • some sympathy taken away • Techniques to gain this reading? • Head teacher explains in interview of his recent behaviour and comments on Facebook. • Audience reactions - • felt warmed by attitude of head teacher • Techniques to gain this reading? • Interviews cut with him dealing with the situation - happy conclusion as stutter disappeared (intertitles).
    • INTERACTIVE DOCUMENTARY Interactive documentary arose from the desire to make the film maker’s perspective more evident. Interview styles and interventionist tactics arose, allowing the film maker to participate more actively in present events. (Bill Nichols, p.33) • makes the film maker’s presence prominent and interacts with the people and events being filmed • interviews, which draw out specific comments and responses from those being filmed • may attempt to offer a ‘balanced’ view by juxtaposing one point-of-view with another • film maker may or may not appear on screen • sometimes the questions are heard, sometimes not (edited out) • the film maker plays the role of mediator in these films • the audience can see what effect the interview is having on the interviewee • the power relation is evident here • shots and scenes (and stock footage) often used by the film maker to make a point
    • The Most Hated Family in America (Theroux, 2007, UK) ! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQ8d39xQBUg
    • H O W M AY A U D I E N C E S R E S P O N D T O L O U I S T H E R O U X - M H I A • Audience reaction - angry • Techniques - • interview between them both > type of questions asked by Louis provoked emotional responses. Stays calm whilst interviewee gets angry. • British audience - Princess Diana - icon of kindness to British audience. • Long shot to show group and who is involved - young children being taught these homophobic values.
    • REFLEXIVE DOCUMENTARY! Reflexive documentary arose from a desire to make the conventions of representations themselves more apparent and to challenge the impression of reality which the other three modes normally conveyed unproblematically. (p.33) • attempts to expose the conventions of documentary representation, with the effect of challenging the documentary’s apparent ability to reveal the truth • focus on how events were filmed • the filmmaking process is revealed to the spectator • demonstrates how film images are constructed • illustrates the subjectivity of documentary filmmaking • example: Dziga Vertov’s The Man With the Movie Camera (1928) – shows both everyday life and how it is filmed (camerawork, editing and screening processes)
    • Live from Space (Channel 4, 2014, UK) ! https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=Q_4yJsWLph0
    • PERFORMATIVE DOCUMENTARY Performative doc. (1980s-90s): stress subjective aspects of a classically objective discourse.- possible limitations: loss of referential emphasis may relegate such films to the avant-garde; ‘excessive’ use of style. (p. 95) • emphasises the expressive dimension of film • aims to represent the world indirectly • evokes the mood and atmosphere traditionally associated with fiction film • subjective, expressive, stylised, evocative • but do events become distorted due to the way they are represented? • Example: The Thin Blue Line (Errol Morris, 1988)
    • T H E I M P O S T E R D I R . L A Y T O N ( 2 0 1 2 , U K )
    • H O M E W O R K TA S K With reference to particular scenes from The Imposter, answer the following question; • Identify two potential audiences • Identify techniques the producer has used to attract this audience • How is the audience positioned / how may these audiences respond to these techniques?
    • Recap Gender representation in music videos • Identify media regulations institutions in the UK • Define voyeurism • Who suggested that in music videos “There are frequent references to the notion of looking and the voyeuristic treatment of the female body.”
    • Today’s Session • By the end of the session, you will; • Be aware of the structure of the MS1 exam and the types of questions • Be able to identify purposes of music videos • Be able to apply Goodwin’s music video codes and convention theory
    • Exam Structure Question 1 - stimulus material How each of the following contribute to create meaning and portray a message/ideology • Visual codes - clothing, facial expression, gesture, technique, use of colour, mise-en-scéne, iconography, graphics • Technical codes - shot types, shot angles, camera movement, editing and audio codes - diegetic and non-diegetic • Narrative construction Magazine front covers, print advertisements, film posters, web pages, newspapers, CD covers, computer games covers, radio extracts, film trailers, television extracts, music video.
    • Exam Structure Question 2 - audiences a) identifying and suggesting audiences for stimulus material b) how text appeals to audience c) using own examples, how media texts position audiences and how audiences respond
    • Exam Structure Question 3 - representation • Gender • Age • Ethnicity • Issues • Events • Regional and National Identities
    • Music Videos Textual Analysis
    • What are the purposes of music videos? • Promotional material to market the artist and their music. • They are important to help the artist create and develop the ‘star image’. • The iconography employed in the music video may also give an indication of the style of the performer and the genre of music. • They are used to interpret and anchor the meaning of a song and to entertain an audience through a range of strategies.
    • When analysing music videos… You will need to analyse each of the following and explain how they contribute to create meaning and portray a message/ideology • Visual codes - clothing, facial expression, gesture, technique, use of colour, mise-en-scéne, iconography, graphics. As well as these are used to address audience. • Technical codes - shot types, shot angles, camera movement and editing. • Narrative construction - use of a narrative and its type and purpose.
    • Music Video - Starter Task Analyse how the following music video uses technical codes to create meaning. shot types, shot angles, camera movement and editing
    • In groups, write down at least 5 conventions of music videos. Consider what is typical of various styles of music video • Iconography/theme to reinforce star image • Genre could influence style (e.g. rock - low-key lighting) • Narrative • Performance of artists - studio or within narrative • rhythmic editing • Character (could relate to iconography/motif and star image) - may not be themselves could be actors or animation. • Lyrics sometimes relate to the video (narrative) • Focus (close-ups) of lead singer • Costume and make-up usually relates to the genre - repetition to establish star image, could also relate to lyrics of song • Colour and connotations will relate to genre • Slow motion - same as pace of music • Narrative, mise-en-scéne and location and iconography usually relates to genre • Suitable visual and technical codes for target audience. • Lyrics may be focus of iconography/props/costume/ mise-en-scéne
    • In groups, write down at least 5 conventions of music videos. Consider what is typical of various styles of music video • artist/group visible - vocalist/lead given more screen time • narrative • abstract - no relation to lyrics • performance - could be live • actors • film-genre conventions / short film • rhythmic editing • close up of artists to show emotion/reaction to lyrics • mise-en-scéne changes and alters • clothing style related to genre • dancing dancers • Show of wealth/ materialistic items • props can relate to lyrics - theme of song • pathetic fallacy
    • Performance Many music videos include the performance of the artist. • Shot of playing instruments, warming up, tuning instruments - This is used to show musical skill with playing instruments. It also gives the audience access to a more personal view of performer, even though it is usually still constructed. • Shots of live stage performances - To show fan interaction and advertise tours and live events. This gives the audience a sense of atmosphere and involvement without being there. • Shots (lots of close-ups) of artist - Close-ups of iconography may be used to develop star image. Performer have a direct mode of address in order to engage with audience, this can position the audience as a voyeur, attracting audiences of both genders. • To add entertainment value, the artists may perform in unusual places and will be synced.
    • Narrative Performer’s aims is to take the audience through the story of their music in some of the following ways; • Story may be linked to lyrics, may give audience a different interpretation than we may original connotate with lyrics or that is obviously suggested by the song lyrics. • Artist may act out narrative - audience may feel it is a personal story/experience. Alternatively, they will be actors • Visually the narrative element can be cinematic and feel like a mini-film. Particularly, with a high- budget and a linear narrative structure. Therefore can include conventions of film genres as well as enigmas to maintain attention of audience and intrigue them. • There may also be intertextual references - using one text within another. • Sometimes there may be stereotypical representations of characters that communicate the story effectively in a short time.
    • Goodwin’s Music Video Conventions Make sure you write down the following conventions. As you will expected to apply the theory when analysing music videos. There are six conventions according to Goodwin; 1. A relationship between lyrics and visuals 2. A relationship between music and visuals 3. Genre characteristics, style and iconography 4. Frequent references to notion of looking, including voyuerism 5. Intertextual references 6. Development of star image
    • 1. A relationship between lyrics and visuals • Visuals either illustrating, amplifying or contradicting the lyrics. • This can be achieved with performance and narrative element of music video • This can allow audiences to connate lyrics/words with visual images.
    • 2. A relationship between music and visuals • Visuals either illustrating, amplifying or contradicting the music. • Shots of instruments and performance • This can be achieved with technical codes - cinematography • This can also be achieved through editing (pace, rhythmic, slow-motion) • This can allow audiences to connate lyrics/words with visual images.
    • 3. Genre characteristics, style and iconography Each music genre can have specific style and this can be demonstrated within the visual codes, for example, Heavy Metal - head banging Pop Group - perform a dance routine Dance - nightclub, shots of DJ
    • 4. Frequent references to notion of looking, including voyeurism. • Voyeurism - the idea of a sexual pleasure by watching. • It can be referred as ‘sex appeal’ and this is used to sell the artist’s music. • Exhibitionist - somebody who performs to be watched. • Dancing, being sexually provocative, addressing the camera/audience, slow motion. • As well as the artist being sexually seductive. The notion of looking can also be referenced in the use of props; • Mirrors, TV screens, cameras, telescopes, binoculars, and magnifying glasses/scopes.
    • 5. Intertextual references References to other music videos, TV, film, media and popular culture to create a meaning and/ or establish ‘star image’.
    • 6. Development of star image • The artist may develop their own iconography in and out of their videos, which over time with consistent effort, this becomes part of their ‘star image’. • The artist may use a particular recognisable motif that is echoed throughout their videos. • How is this done in this video?
    • Music Video Analysis using Goodwin’s theory • Individually analyse the following music videos • Consider all six conventions as well as discussing how these have been constructed with visual and technical codes.
    • When analysing music videos… You will need to analyse each of the following and explain how they contribute to create meaning and portray a message/ideology • Visual codes - clothing, facial expression, gesture, technique, use of colour, mise-en-scéne, iconography, graphics. As well as these are used to address audience. • Technical codes - shot types, shot angles, camera movement and editing. • Narrative construction - use of a narrative and its type and purpose.
    • Homework • Analyse a music video of your choice. • Apply Goodwin’s 6 conventions and, if you can, visual and technical codes. • Deadline; Thursday 30th January 750 words ! • Coursework - storyboards and videos needs to be submitted by next Friday (31st January) • Storyboards - need to arrange to type up • Videos - need to be completed and on my memory stick • Report feedback next Tuesday.