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Chapter 8 cold war

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COLD WAR (ENGLISH VERSION)

COLD WAR (ENGLISH VERSION)

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  • 1. 1 Was the post-World War II era a period of stability? How did the Cold War Why did the Cold How did the Cold War affect the rest of the War break out? affect Europe? world?Factors leading to the Cold Ways in which the rest of Ways in which Europe wasWar between the USA and the world was affected by the affected by the Cold War.the USSR. Cold War. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 2. 2 In a Nutshell  A Cold War is defined as a situation of tense relations and fierce competition between nations.  There is however no direct confrontation as in an all-out war.  Such a situation occurred between 1945 and 1991, involving the superpowers, the USA and the USSR.  The superpowers divided Europe into two.  Eastern Europe was led by Communist USSR while democratic USA controlled Western Europe.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 3. 3 US Vice-President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev argued about who had a better life — Americans living in a democratic society or Russians in a Communist society. The 1956 debate is called the Kitchen Debate as it took place in Moscow at a kitchen exhibition.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 4. 4 Competing ideologies Why did the Cold War break out? Feelings of Wartime alliances mistrust broke downCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 5. 5 Competing ideologies An ideology refers to a set of ideas about how a society should be run. In many ways, the Cold War confrontation between the USA and the USSR was a clash between their opposing ideologies. Democracy The USA Communism The USSRCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 6. 6 Communism VS DemocracyWho controls the society? Communism Democracy The Communist Party rules the people. Only the Communist Party members can be People choose their government by in the government. This government is voting for the leaders they want. The considered a one-party dictatorship. leaders can belong to any party. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 7. 7 Communism VS DemocracyHow should people live?Communism Democracy The individual has more rights and someThe community is more important than of these rights are more important thanthe individual. So the individual should the needs of the community. Such rightsput the needs of the community beforehis own. include freedom of speech and the press. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 8. 8 Communism VS DemocracyHow should the wealth of the society becreated and shared? Communism The country’s wealth is owned collectively by the society. The Communist Party creates wealth by deciding what to produce. This is called a centrally planned economy. Everyone should work and should get an equal share of the benefits of the society.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 9. 9 Communism VS DemocracyHow should the wealth of the society becreated and shared? The country’s wealth is created by private enterprise and trade. Democracy Businessmen and entrepreneurs create wealth by deciding what to produce. This is called market economy. Some individuals may become wealthier than others. How wealthy one becomes depends on the individual’s skills as an entrepreneur or how well he invests his resources. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 10. 10 Communism VS DemocracyDemocracy Communism• For supporters of Democracy • Communists, on the other choosing between hand believed that the Democracy and Communism workers were not free in felt like choosing between democratic societies. freedom and slavery. • To them the workers in a• They believed that Communists democratic society, were had to accept the control of the slaves of the rich the Communist Party and give landowners, factory owners up all their freedom. and industrialists. BackCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 11. 11 Feelings of mistrust When the Communists came to power in the 1917 October Revolution in Russia, they lost the trust of the USA and other Western nations. This was because the Communist government called for a world revolution. Could this mean the end of Capitalism and Democracy? The West begin to question the actions of the Communists. Poor relations existed also because of the involvement of the West in the Russian Civil War. They provided aid to the anti-Bolshevik White armies. Since then, there had always been tension between the Communists and supporters of Democracy. The USA and the USSR had more power to spread their ideologies around after they became superpowers at the Back end of World War II.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 12. 12Wartime alliances broke down The Soviet Union joined the USA and Britain as one of the Allied Powers and joined in the fight against Japan, Italy and Germany. This alliance was only temporary. The feud was resumed after the war ended and when they found no common enemy to unite them against. The leaders of the USSR, the USA and Britain met at Yalta to discuss what to do with Germany once the war was over. It was decided that Germany was to be divided into four different zones. After the war ended, they met at Potsdam to resume the discussion that was stopped. Several misunderstandings arose out of the conferences which contributed to hostile relations.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 13. 13 The Potsdam Agreement What was agreed? Details of the zones of occupation of Germany were finalised. Reparations were to be collected in the form of industrial equipment from own zone. The USSR was to receive additional money from other zones as its zone was mainly agricultural and it had suffered the most during the war. The new borders of Poland were confirmed.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 14. 14 The Potsdam Agreement Stalin TrumanWhat to do with We should cripple We do not want to repeatGermany? Germany completely. the mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles.Should Germany pay Yes. 20 million Russians We do not want to repeatfor the reparations? were killed in the war. the mistakes of the Treaty of Versailles.What to do with We agreed at Yalta that We have to cultivate aEastern Europe? these would be under the ‘get tough’ attitude Soviet sphere of towards Stalin. influence; with united Eastern Europe, no one will dare to move a finger against them.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 15. 15 The Potsdam Agreement Significance  The USSR was suspicious of the West. Stalin imprisoned non-Communist Polish leaders and placed Communist leaders in the Polish government. Buffer zones were created to make Communism more powerful.  The poor relations between the two superpowers at the Potsdam Conference were a sign that their wartime alliance had come to an end and that the Cold War had begun. BackCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 16. 16 Europe was dividedNato and Warsaw Pact were set up Germany was divided How did the Cold War affect Europe? Marshall Plan was put Truman Doctrine was into action announced Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 17. 17 Europe was divided Europe was divided into two blocs between 1945 and 1948. The East comprised mainly of Communist governments and the West consisted of democratic countries. The USSR expanded its control over Eastern Europe by setting up Communist governments in these countries. The USSR could then influence these Communist governments to follow policies that were non-threatening to it. The countries with Communist governments were known as satellite states. The West criticised the USSR for setting up such governments without holding free elections and for their harsh tactics. Such actions further contributed to the bad blood between the two superpowers.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 18. Europe was divided 18 Back Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 19. 19 Germany was divided A crisis ensued among Britain, France, the USA and the USSR over how to administer Germany in 1948. Germany was to be divided into four parts and Berlin into four zones, according to peace talks in Britain. In 1948, Britain, France and the USA decided to join their separate zones in Germany. In order to help the West German economy recover, they agreed to create a new currency. Afraid that Germany would grow strong and threaten the USSR, Stalin planned to seize control of West Berlin through a blockade. He had hoped to force the Western powers to leave the city by blocking all supplies of food to West Berlin.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 20. 20 The Berlin Blockade 1948Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 21. 21 Germany was divided The USA was determined to support West Berlin as it represented the democratic system. It was afraid that if it did so, the USSR would become bolder and invade West Germany. However keen to avoid war, President Truman ordered an airlift of food and other supplies into West Berlin. This lasted for ten months. Realising that the West was determined to support West Berlin, the USSR ended the Berlin Blockade after ten months. The blockade was important in helping us understand why Germany became two separate countries.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 22. 22In August 1949, the West set up the German Federal Republic in West Germany.In October, the USSR set up the German Democratic Republic in East Germany. Back Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 23. 23 Truman Doctrine was announced Following Soviet expansion in Europe, President Truman decided that the USA must stop Communism from spreading. On 12 March 1947, he announced the Truman Doctrine. The Truman Doctrine provided American aid to Greece and Turkey in order to prevent the spread of Communism. Turkey controlled the Dardanelles and the Greek government was fighting against Communism. Agreeing with Truman’s sentiments, Congress soon voted $400 million of aid to Greece and Turkey. BackCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 24. 24The Marshall Plan was put into action on 5 June 1947 Following the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan was introduced. The Plan sought to make Europe rich and strong again and prosperous enough to resist Communism, by providing financial help. Between 1948 and 1952, 16 countries in Western Europe received a total of US$13 billion in aid, loans and goods. Soviet satellites were forbidden from accepting American financial aid. Stalin felt that the West was using this to expand its influence over Europe. BackCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 25. 25NATO and Warsaw Pact were set up The division of Europe into two spheres of influence forced both sides to set up military alliances. In April 1949, the USA set up the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) for collective security against any Soviet attack. Similarly, the USSR set up an alliance known as the Warsaw Pact in 1955, uniting all Communist countries in Eastern Europe except Yugoslavia.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 26. Military alliances 26 Back Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 27. 27 How did the Cold War affect the rest of the world? China joined the The Cuban Missile Cold War Crisis The Korean WarCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 28. 28 China joined the Cold War When China turned Communist in 1949, it became involved in the Cold War. The USA felt threatened by the Communist alliance between China and the USSR. The USA feared that the USSR might give China the technology to produce its own nuclear weapons.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 29. 29 Japan became the USA’s main anti-Communist ally Due to the threat of Communism in China, the USA strengthened Japan’s economy and introduced democratic reforms. Through this, the USA hoped to turn Japan into its main anti-Communist ally in the region. Other than strengthening Japan by providing economic aid, new technology and new industrial equipment, the USA also managed to get Japan to allow it to station its troops in Japan.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 30. 30 USA‘s One China Policy Due to unfriendly relations between the USA and Communist China, the USA adopted a One China Policy between 1945 and 1972. The USA refused to recognise the People’s Republic of China’s (PRC) Communist government. Instead, it recognised Taiwan (Republic of China) as the legitimate government of China.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 31. 31 Increased US support for anti-Communists in Asia Due to the rise of Communist China, the USA was eager to form allies in Asia. Other than Taiwan, the USA also sent troops to support anti-Communist governments in other countries such as South Korea and South Vietnam. Besides, it also formed an anti-Communist alliance in Southeast Asia (SEATO) in 1954 to oppose Communist gains in Southeast Asia. In the name of giving aid, sometimes cruel and corrupted governments were supported and maintained. BackCrisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 32. 32 Case Study 1: The Korean War Korea was divided at the 38th parallel after World War II.The USSR North: The People’s Democratic RepublicThe USA South: The Republic of Korea This division was supposed to be temporary. In June 1950, the North Koreans launched a surprise attack against the South and the capital Seoul fell in just three days. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 33. 33 Case Study 1: The Korean War The UN decided to send troops to the region under its UN flag. The huge bulk of the troops sent were American and command of them was given to General Douglas MacArthur. By the end of August 1950 only Pusan in the south-east corner of South Korea had not fallen to the North. In September, MacArthur took the huge risk of launching an amphibious landing at Inchon 200 miles behind enemy lines and from here he launched an attack against the North Koreans. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 34. 34 Case Study 1: The Korean War MacArthur later chose to advance north towards the Chinese border at the Yalu River. This provoked the Chinese to launch a massive attack against the UN forces and South Korea. The war became static warfare as both sides were entrenched in their positions. Peace talks started at Panmunjom and lasted for two years. An armistice was signed in 1953. The fighting ended but no peace treaty was signed.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 35. 35 China China showed that it was JapanKorea a major military power with Japan became a key USThe war cost the lives of its entry into the war. partner in Asia and a modelabout 2.5 million Koreans. China grew confident and of US democracy. The KoreanMany families were demanded a seat in the UN War also helped Japan’sseparated because of the in 1971. economy as it was the maindivision at the 38th parallel. supplier of South Korea. Impact of the USAGlobal impact Following the Korean War,The war also showed Korean War the USA was eager to formthat smaller countries alliances in Asia. Thiswere not always controlled included ANZUS (withby superpowers. In the Australia and New Zealand)case of Korea, both the and SEATO in SoutheastNorth and South used the Taiwan Asia.superpowers to achieve Fearing China might use thetheir aim of uniting Korea Korean War as a chance to attack Taiwan, the USA sent military support to Taiwan. Back Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 36. 36 Case Study 2: The Cuban Missile Crisis Trouble began in 1962 when the USA found out that the USSR had missiles in Cuba which could hit most of the major American cities. Furthermore, the Soviets had 40,000 troops in Cuba. More than 100,000 US soldiers were stationed at Florida, the American state closest to Cuba. The US forces around the world were also placed on high alert. Soviet submarines that were armed with nuclear weapons were also on their way to Cuba.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 37. Case Study 2 : The whole crisis was finally averted when Soviet ships decided to sail back. 37The Cuban Missile Crisis Following that, the USSR announced It President Kennedy ordered a US would also remove the missiles from naval blockade of Cuba to stop Cuba. supplies from reaching Cuba. Trouble began in 1962 when the USA found out that the USSR had missiles in Cuba which could hit most of the major American cities. Following that, the USA sent more than 100,000 soldiers to Florida prepared for a possible invasion. Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 38. 38 Causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis The USSR had been worried about US missiles in Turkey (an ally of the USA) due to its proximity to some of the Soviet cities. Soviet leader Khrushchev felt he should also find allies and build nuclear missile sites near the USA. In 1960, the USSR offered to protect Cuba by placing nuclear missiles in Cuba. Cuban leader Castro accepted the USSR’s offer and formed an alliance with it. In 1962, following reconnaissance reports of missiles belonging to the USSR in Cuba, US president Kennedy ordered a naval and air blockade of Cuba.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 39. 39 Causes of the Cuban Missile Crisis Putting its army on high alert, the USA warned that it would attack the USSR if the missiles were not removed from Cuba. The crisis was resolved when the USSR promised to remove all its missiles. The blockade on Cuba was also ended. In 1963, US nuclear missiles were removed from Turkey.Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold WarCopyright 2006
  • 40. 40 Cuba remained Communist Khrushchevs fall fromBetter US-Soviet relations Although the USSR removed its powerBoth sides realised that missiles, it promised to help The incident led tothey should not risk another Cuba if it was attacked. Khrushchevs fall from power.nuclear war. Both also The USSR also made the USA His decision to remove thesupported disarmament. promise that it would not missiles was criticised byIn 1963, the USA, the USSR attack Cuba. by other Soviet leaders.and Britain signed a Nuclear In 1964, he was removedTest Ban Treaty from his post. Impact of the Tense Soviet-Chinese Led to more stable Cuban Missile relations The crisis made Soviet- superpower relations Crisis Chinese relations tense. Both parties did not start a nuclear war because they China accused the Soviets realised no one could win one. for being weak. The quarrel Due to a possible Mutually between China and the Assured Destruction situation, USSR divided the both tried to solve problems international Communist without using nuclear movement into two groups. weapons. Back Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006
  • 41. Summary 41 Europe NATO Marshall Plan Korea divided Warsaw Pact Truman Doctrine Impact outsideGermany Cuba Impact on Europe Europe divided The Cold War Increasing Alliance Competing mistrust breakdown ideologies Crisis and Conflict: From a World War to a Cold War Copyright 2006