"Behind The Red Curtain" by WKR


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Presentation by Bill Ream, RA for University of Cincinnati DAAP graduate students within the JumpStart program presided over by Dr. Barry Stedman and Prof. Alex Christoforidis. 11/2009

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"Behind The Red Curtain" by WKR

  1. 1. BEHIND THE RED CURTAIN Introducing the most important member of your design team…
  2. 2. Hannibal Lecter!
  3. 3. Why?… Hammurabi’s Lecture <ul><li>First recorded instance of “building code” enacted in Babylon in 1758 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>There were no directions how to build. The Master Builder was fully responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>“… if the house he has built falls in and kills the owner, that builder shall be slain.” </li></ul>Sixth king of Babylon & first king of the Babylonian Empire from 1792 BC to 1750 BC.
  4. 4. Tragedy as Code’s Author <ul><li>The great fires of London in 1666 & Chicago in 1871 help create “set back & fire wall” along with chimney, fire escape, and combustibility concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerns of disease and contagion create local regulations concerning sanitation. </li></ul><ul><li>1905 “National Building Code” created by National Board of Fire Underwriters to minimize risks to properties and owners. </li></ul>
  5. 5. It continues to this day…. <ul><li>Hyatt Regency, Kansas City, July 17, 1981 </li></ul><ul><li>114 killed, 200 injured </li></ul>
  6. 6. What Happened??? <ul><li>Engineer’s original design was adequate </li></ul><ul><li>Engineer & Architect miss a shop dwg alt. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Closer to home… <ul><li>Beverly Hills Supper Club, Southgate, KY </li></ul>
  8. 8. 165 Cincinnatians perish <ul><li>  May 28, 1977 </li></ul><ul><li>Not matches, wires </li></ul>
  9. 9. Egress over Redress <ul><li>Egress – noun 1. the act or an instance of going, esp. from an enclosed place. 2. a means or place of going out; an exit. 3. the right or permission to go out. </li></ul><ul><li>Redress – noun 1. the setting right of what is wrong: redress of abuses. 2. relief from wrong or injury. 3. compensation or satisfaction for same. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cluster F#@%!!
  11. 11. Now our world is a little safer: <ul><li>Exits. In an investigation after the blaze, the National Fire Protection Association found several major code violations , including inadequate exits and improper construction materials. The lack of exits was acute in the Cabaret Room, where most victims were found. </li></ul><ul><li>The Life Safety Code in effect in Kentucky at the time of the fire could have avoided this large loss of life if it had been applied,'' the NFPA said. </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic fumes. Most of the victims died from smoke and a mixture of gases created when the fire consumed flammable materials such as seat cushions. The banquet captain recalled seeing dozens of bodies that weren't burned or covered with soot. The victims had died from smoke inhalation. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers. The nightclub didn't have sprinklers. After 1977, public-assembly buildings holding 300 or more people were required to have automatic sprinklers. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum wiring. Victims' attorneys believed old-technology aluminum wiring overheated in the Zebra Room and caused the fire. In 1985, after an 11-week civil trial in Ashland, a federal jury agreed. The product has since been taken off the market. </li></ul>
  12. 12. KOBE, JAPAN <ul><li>The earthquake in Kobe on January, 17, 1995 left 6425 dead </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 80 % of quake victims died from being crushed or suffocated </li></ul><ul><li>Many people were killed when heavy typhoon-resistant tile roofs collapsed </li></ul>
  13. 13. Worldwide Evolution in Engineering <ul><li>IDEERS competition held at NCREE in Taiwan </li></ul><ul><li>400 people (100 teams from New Zealand, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Korea, the Philippines, and of course Taiwan) design the most efficient structures that could survive a large earthquake. </li></ul><ul><li>Bristol teams won prizes for the &quot;Most creative structural engineering design&quot; and &quot;Most creative architectural design.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>The teams visited several previously damaged sites. </li></ul>/ new findings on earthquake ground shaking, faults, seismicity, and geodesy http://earthquake.usgs.gov/hazards/design Introducing and Demonstrating Earthquake Engineering Research in Schools National Center for Research on Earthquake Engineering
  14. 14. Rock n’ Roll vs. Rolls of Rock Wool <ul><li>THE  WORST  US  FIRE  IN  26  YEARS  R.I.P.S  THROUGH SMALLEST  STATE   </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>W. Warwick, RI: 2/20/2003 100 Die in Rapid Combustion Scenario Assembly Capacity: 250 Actually there for concert: 432
  15. 15. Homer Simpson “rules”!? <ul><li>The sparks coming out at a 45° angle from 2&quot; x 9&quot; tubes slapped into the foam. &quot;I think I'm in trouble,&quot; said GW tour manager Dan Biechele, who set the fireworks. </li></ul><ul><li>Owner Jeff Derderian was concerned about noise complaints, and the town was insisting on it for relicensing . A neighbor who had complained about the noise, Barry H. Warner, worked for American Foam and suggested and ordered it. It was &quot; the lowest grade, the cheapest stuff 2½&quot; thick packing foam costing $575 for 25 sheets of 3'x7' size installed in June 2000.” </li></ul><ul><li>Flame retardant foam would have cost double, or $6 per fatality. </li></ul><ul><li>Todd King (no relation) claims another bouncer at the front door, not understanding what was happening, pushed him and his wife back into the club. </li></ul><ul><li>John Gibbs claims he and his friend, Kevin Dunn, were prevented from exiting out the stage door and pushed towards the front of the club by workers, who claimed that exit &quot;was only for the band. His friend died. </li></ul><ul><li>Sited 3 times by inspectors, that door opened the wrong way into the club- and panic bar was broken. It was calculated two to three dozen more people would have lived had the door been fixed. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Meet the real Design Team heroes @ http://www.projo.com/extra/2003/stationfire/
  17. 17. Relax… it gets better now! <ul><li>Let’s look at some of the regulations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning & Zoning (uses, buildable area) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geotechnical Requirements (buildable soils) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State Building Codes (IBC Model Code) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Group Designation: A3/E </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Required Fire Sprinkling: Y or N? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing Act: Height & Area Limitations, Construction Type, Sprinkling & Fire Areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Occupancy & Health (RR & Air) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total Building Exits, Width, Remoteness & Protection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special Room Occupancies & Exits </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Planning & Zoning Regulations <ul><li>Zoning District: R-MD “Residential Medium Density” </li></ul><ul><li>Adjacent Zones: Same, Check Miami Township – MU “Mixed Use” </li></ul><ul><li>District-to-District Regulations: Not Applicable </li></ul><ul><li>Setbacks: 35’ Front, 15’ Side, 40’ Rear </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Height: 35’ Average Grade </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum Lot Coverage: Complies </li></ul>http://www.lovelandoh.com/building.cfm
  19. 19. Geotechnical/Seismic Requirements <ul><li>Soil Contamination, Remediation </li></ul><ul><li>Engineered Fill </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal Water Table </li></ul><ul><li>Site Drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Bearing Capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of Foundation </li></ul>
  20. 20. ADA Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG) http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/figures/index.html “ Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines” for Buildings and Facilities issued by the United States
  21. 21. Model Codes <ul><li>2007 Ohio Building, Mechanical & Plumbing Code </li></ul><ul><li>IBC International Building Code & Interpretation Guides </li></ul><ul><li>National Fire Codes (NFPA) including Life Safety Code & National Electric Code (http://www.nfpa.org/) </li></ul><ul><li>Fire Resistance Directory (UL) </li></ul><ul><li>Fair Housing Act Design Guidelines (HUD) </li></ul><ul><li>LEED Certification Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>ANSI/ASTM Standards </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>SFA + pdt architecture planning interior design American Society for Testing and Materials http://www.archive.org/details/gov.oh.building
  22. 22. Design Exercise <ul><li>Thumbnail Code Study w/ SketchUp </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildable “Bubble” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use your Zoning, Site Options & Program to inspire </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire “Planes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Building Code to propose Fire Areas/Walls/Floors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Balancing Building Heights/Areas with Construction Types </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize: Compositions segmented/articulated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>De-emphasize: Dissolve performance within skins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Building Code to propose 0-4 HR Ratings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exterior Walls/Openings per Tables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interior Walls per Functions & Tables </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire “Tubes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical Circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stairs, Areas of Refuge, Elevators, Shafts, Chases, Atriums </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Egress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aisle accessway, aisle, corridor, exit passageway, horizontal exit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel Distance/Common Path </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>