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Developing a Policy and Regulatory Framework to Develop Public Transport Access to Indian Airports

Developing a Policy and Regulatory Framework to Develop Public Transport Access to Indian Airports

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  • 1. Thesis Presentation Developing a policy and regulatory framework to develop public transport access to Indian airports Bhuvaneshwaran Kalimuthu 3rd September 2009
  • 2. Aim of the thesis • Analyse the PT policies applied around the world. • Understanding of the different methods of PT policy implementation. • Understanding the Indian aviation market and • Exploring the possibility of adoption of some of these policies in India.
  • 3. The two main tasks of the thesis Developing a policy and regulatory framework to develop Public transport access to Indian airports Task 1 Task 2 •Factors affecting PT policies (in •Growth in the Indian market General) •Traffic distribution in the country •Comparative analysis of PT •Present public transport provisions policies in other Countries* •Capacity and service of PT •Effect of Regulations • Future Proposals & • recommendations on the method of implementation *UK, USA, Germany, Austria, Switzerland
  • 4. How is it the thesis different? The process of analysing public transport policy- Factors affecting Comparative analysis public transport of policies adopted by Effect of regulation policies different countries* Method of implementation The structure of the policy Base of the policy *UK, USA, Germany, Austria, Switzerland
  • 5. Methodology of analysis Country based analysis & Category based analysis Criteria: Annual Pax Name of the Country Category In 2008 (in million) UK Austria Germany Switzerland USA Total Category 1 1-3 million 5 2 5 1 27 40 Category 2 3-5 million 2 2 12 16 Category 3 5-10 million 8 3 1 24 36 Category 4 10-15 million 1 3 7 11 Category 5 15-20 million 1 1 5 7 Category 6 Above 20 million 4 2 1 24 31 Total Number Of Airport In Each 20 3 16 3 99 141 Country
  • 6. Factors affecting public transport policies 1)Ownership structure of airport and PT service provider 2)Rate of growth of airport 3)Motive of regulation (PT based or environmental) 4)Level of regulation (local , regional & national) 5)Method of regulation (self regulation or regulated by a body) 6)When it is regulated
  • 7. Factors affecting public transport policies 1)Ownership structure of airport and PT service provider The Type Of Ownership Of Airport 100% 90% 80% Public Private Partnership 70% 60% Private Company or Airport 50% Group 40% Public Company or Airport 30% Authority 20% 10% 0% Austria Germany Switzerland UK USA (Source: Author)
  • 8. Factors affecting public transport policies 30 The Country Based And The Category Based Ownership Of The Airport 25 20 Public Private Partnership 15 10 Private Company or Airport Group 5 0 Public Company or Airport USA USA USA USA USA USA Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland UK UK UK UK UK UK Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Germany Authority 1-3 MILLION PAX 3-5 MILLION PAX 5-10 MILLION 10-15 MILLION 15-20 MILLION 20 MILLION PAX PER ANNUM PER ANNUM PAX PER ANNUM PAX PER ANNUM PAX PER ANNUM PER ANNUM and above category 1 category 2 category 3 category 4 category 5 category 6 (Source: Author)
  • 9. Factors affecting public transport policies 1)Ownership structure of airport and PT service provider The Type Of Ownership Of Public Transport Operators 100% Private and Airport Operator(Joint 90% Venture) 80% Public and Airport Operator(Joint Venture) 70% 60% Public and Private Operator(Joint Venture) 50% Airport Operator 40% 30% Private Operator 20% 10% Public Operator 0% Austria Germany Swizerland United Kingdom USA (Source: Author)
  • 10. Factors affecting public transport policies 2)Rate of Growth of Airport 120.00% Country Based Growth of airports (2003-2008) category 1 100.00% category 2 80.00% category 3 60.00% category 4 category 5 40.00% category 6 20.00% 0.00% UK Austria Germany Switzerland USA -20.00% (Source: Author)
  • 11. Factors affecting public transport policies 3)Motive of regulation To improve PT Environmental UK, Austria, Switzerland USA*, Germany** 4) Level of Regulation a)Local body/ Council - UK b)Regional / State government –Germany, USA c)National government-Austria, Switzerland * Local , ** National
  • 12. Factors affecting public transport policies 5)Method of regulation •Government body •Independent body Self regulation Regulated by a body* Non binding targets binding targets 6)When it is regulated Approval Continued Expansion Stage operation stage Continuous process of regulation *ACI Europe Carbon Accreditation Programme
  • 13. Comparative analysis of PT policies in different countries Funding for PT projects – Government Level of Funding Countries Regional Level UK , Germany National Level Austria , Switzerland Both Regional & National USA. (AIP) Level Criteria for measuring PT performance outcome Performance Indicator Countries Body Modal split- pax based UK , Germany Self, Regional body Modal split – quality of Austria , Switzerland National body service based Modal split- capacity of USA. (AIP) Regional body service based
  • 14. Important findings 7 The Typical Number of Bus and Rail Service Providers in Different Categories of Airport 6 5 4 rail 3 bus 2 1 0 category 1 category 2 category 3 category 4 category 5 category 6
  • 15. Effect of regulation 160 Types Of Public Transport Services Provided At The Global Airports 140 120 100 80 Express Rail Services 60 National Rail Services Regional Rail Services 40 Metro Services Coaches 20 Feeder Bus Local Bus 0 USA USA USA USA USA USA Germany United Kingdom Germany Germany United Kingdom Germany United Kingdom United Kingdom Germany United Kingdom Germany United Kingdom Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Austria Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland Switzerland 1-3 mppa 3-5 mppa 5-10 mppa 10 -15 mppa 15-20 mppa 20 mppa and above category 1 category 2 category 3 category 4 category 5 category 6
  • 16. Effect of regulation The analysis of the transition of PT strategy from category 1 – category 6 airports in the UK Category 1: Category 2: • Improving road • Employee and pax based PT service approach • Bus and coach based • Bus and coach based service approach and frequency improvement • Service based subsidy provided by the council and airport ASAS targets have not be achieved, due to fluctuation in pax traffic (LCC) Source: ASAS , UK. CAA Pax survey (2005-2007) The process adopted from Ian Humphreys
  • 17. Effect of regulation The analysis of the transition of PT strategy from category 1 – category 6 airports in the UK Category 3: Category 4: (LUTON) • Branding of PT services by the • Distorted parking charges airport • Short term and long term targets • Cap on parking lot (expansion) • Service level in tandem with pax origin geographies Cap on parking lot expansion and discriminatory pricing leads to the development of unauthorised parking lot in the vicinity Source: ASAS , UK. CAA Pax survey (2005-2007) The process adopted from Ian Humphreys
  • 18. Effect of regulation The analysis of the transition of PT strategy from category 1 – category 6 airports in the UK Category 6: • Share of PT is around 35% of total pax . • Rail – 23% (premium service 10%) • Investment on inter-change connections and spatial based bus service planning • Targets – PT information Source: ASAS , UK. CAA Pax survey (2005-2007) The process adopted from Ian Humphreys
  • 19. The analysis of the Indian market The Rate of Growth of Passengers at Indian Airports 140000 100% Thousands total number of passengers at 8 important airports 90% 120000 80% total number of passengers 100000 70% 60% 80000 rate of growth of total number 50% of passengers 60000 40% 30% rate of growth of total number 40000 of passengers in the important airports 20% 20000 10% market share of the important 8 airports of india 0 0% 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: DGCA, India
  • 20. Case study based Delhi International Airport approach- Indian airports Comparison of Curb Side Hourly Departing Passenger Demand to Public Transport Capacity at IGI 700 4000 Public Transport Passenger Capacity -----> 600 3500 3000 Passenger Number ----> 500 2500 400 2000 300 1500 200 1000 100 500 0 0 1100-1200 1600-1700 0000-0100 0100-0200 0200-0300 0300-0400 0400-0500 0500-0600 0600-0700 0700-0800 0800-0900 0900-1000 1000-1100 1200-1300 1300-1400 1400-1500 1500-1600 1700-1800 1800-1900 1900-2000 2000-2100 2100-2200 2200-2300 2300-0000 Time of the Day-----> international pax (departing) domestic pax (departing) bus capacity (all routes)* total metro capacity* Total Public Transport Capacity Source: OAG, DGCA, Delhi Metro , DMRTC
  • 21. Case study based Delhi International Airport approach- Indian airports Comparison of Curb Side Hourly Arriving Passenger Demand to Public Transport Capacity at IGI 900 4000 Public Transport Passenger Capacity -----> 800 3500 700 3000 Passenger Number ----> 600 2500 500 2000 400 1500 300 1000 200 100 500 0 0 0500-0600 2200-2300 0000-0100 0100-0200 0200-0300 0300-0400 0400-0500 0600-0700 0700-0800 0800-0900 0900-1000 1000-1100 1100-1200 1200-1300 1300-1400 1400-1500 1500-1600 1600-1700 1700-1800 1800-1900 1900-2000 2000-2100 2100-2200 2300-0000 Time of the Day-----> international pax (arriving) domestic pax (arriving) bus capacity (total)* total metro capacity* Total Public Transport Capacity Source: OAG, DGCA, Delhi Metro , DMRTC
  • 22. Problems in the Indian market • Information on various segments of passengers (not available) • Airport not allowed to provide PT services* • State Govt. – (does not agree to) PT service quality agreement • PT not part of airport service level assessment • No incentive to airport • No forum to share information among the airport and PT service provider
  • 23. Recommendations (factors affecting PT policy in India) •Ownership structure – airport (private), PT (public , concession operated) •Motive of regulation- improvement in PT •Level of regulation – national progressively towards regional •Method of regulation – regulated by an independent body •Targets – binding targets & non –binding targets (incentives) •Continuous regulation is to be followed monitored by independent body
  • 24. Recommendation (method of implementation) Method of implementation Category based implementation Category 6- information & PT service level targets Category 5- (no airport in this category) Category 4- PT service level agreement with MTC The structure Category 3 & 2 – modest targets of the policy Base of the policy System of monitoring – modal share and capacity based progressively moving to service based
  • 25. Comments and questions Any questions?