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Airport terminal design (lecture note)

  1. Week 6: Airport Terminal Design ZEIT 3805: Airport Operations and Systems By Sarah Shuchi, PhD
  2. • Introduction to airport terminal design • Configuration of terminal buildings • Overall design of a passenger terminal - Passenger building: specific facilities - Terminal design principles • Traditional vs modern design concept 2 Lecture outline
  4. 4 Introduction Main functions of airport terminals • To provide a convenient facility from ground transport to air transport, and vice-versa. • Airport terminal is a complex system Domestic airport Regional airport International airport Airports Arriving Departing Transit Passengers Need to handle 6-7% per annum growth. How to handle this rapid growth?
  5. 5 • Three primary components of an airport complex - Landside, terminal building and airside facilities Introduction Components of an Airport terminal Air side facilities Land side facilities Terminal Building • Runway • Apron • Taxiway • Gate • Control tower • Curb front pedestrian facilities • Public transportation (including bus and rail) • Parking facilities • Entry exit roadways Passenger movement Baggage handling • Passengers embark and disembark from the aircrafts.
  6. Schiphol Airport, Amsterdam In 1920 In 1967
  7. 7 Introduction Development of Heathrow Airport Heathrow (now)
  9. History of Terminal Configuration Unit Terminal Concept Unit Terminal Combined Unit Terminal Multiple-unit terminal
  10. Terminal Configurations Five basic types of configurations 10 Terminal configuration Finger pier Satellite (with or without pier), Midfield (linear or X-shaped) Linear Transporter
  11. Pier/Finger Pier 11 Terminal configuration • Widely adopted, introduced in 1950s. • High aircraft capacity and simplicity in design. • maximize the number of A/C parking spaces with fewer infrastructures. • Preferable when the level of transfer traffic is low. New York/LaGuardia Airport Brisbane International Airport
  12. Finger pier (disadvantages) 12 Terminal configuration • Long walking distances. • Add constraints with the mobility of aircraft movement in the apron Osaka, Kansai Airport Washington Reagan Techniques to tackle these issues • Short finger piers • Incorporating people movers
  13. Satellite 13 Terminal configuration • Extension of T-shaped finger piers. • A single terminal to process passengers. • Connected to this are numerous concourses that lead to one or more satellite structures. Satellite layout Tampa Terminal 1, Paris/de Gaulle Disadvantages • Requires high quality transportation system. • High capital, maintenance and operating cost
  14. Linear 14 Terminal configuration • A linear building with relatively thin structure. • Centralized passenger processing. • Also can be curvilinear. Dallas forth- Worth International Airport Linear configuration at Darwin International Airport Disadvantages • Longer walking distances for transfer passengers. • Primarily applicable for low-activity • Requires duplication of terminal facilities/amenities
  15. Transporter 15 Terminal configuration • Passengers are transported to and from the building to the parked airplane. • Specially designed buses carry passengers between the terminal and the aircraft. • Minimizes walking distances. • Airplane taxiing time to and from the runway is decreased Disadvantages • This is an expensive option for airport operators. • Inconvenient delays for short haul passengers. Washington/Dulles Airport
  16. Midfield concourse 16 Terminal configuration Pittsburgh Airport • Independent passenger buildings. • Typically between two parallel runways and separated from the other passenger buildings by major taxiways. • Two basic shapes: linear and x-shaped. Denver International Airport
  17. 17 O’Hare International Airport, Chicago Terminal configuration Hybrid Configurations Melbourne International Airport, Australia • Combination of different configuration types. • Meet variety of existing needs • Adapt easily to future needs • Maximize quality of service
  18. 18 Terminal configuration • Design requirements are normally defined in terms of : Importance of selection Number of aircrafts Passenger numbers Major Operational problems Financial loss Variety of traffic Need of several stakeholders Commercial services • High cost of restoration • Limited options for alteration • The building eventually closed in 2001 when American Airlines bought TWA • Radical and compact plan
  19. 19 Terminal configuration Importance of selection • And also causes operational difficulties for example, Kansas City Airport. Kansas City Airport • Particularly not suitable for transfer passengers. • Major airline moved to St. Louis after economic deregulation.
  20. 20 Terminal configuration • Passenger building widely separated • Massive economical losses • Cost of underground ‘people mover’ is high. Stansted Airport, UK Importance of selection
  21. • There is no single solution, there are many factors involved. • Depends on the specific circumstances, the site, the types of traffic and the needs of several stakeholders. 21 Terminal configuration Evaluation of Configuration • Which configuration is the best? Key considerations Walking distances Aircraft taxiing around the buildings FlexibilityTraffic pattern Priorities of stakeholders
  22. 22 Overall Design of Passenger Terminal
  23. • Efficient design requires careful consideration of the followings: Terminal design Sharing of facilities Multifunctional and common used facilities - Reduces overall design load Provides flexibility Performance objectives Economic objectives Quality of service or economic efficiency? Management of operations Role of hub airport Shifting loads among various functions Design of Passenger building Design standards for any particular part of a passenger building are not universal.
  24. 24 Queues Terminal design • Rule of thumb: 0.6 m per person • Snake queue: more efficient • Wise use of space Straight queue or snake queue?
  25. 25 Check-in facilities Terminal design • Airport Check-in are service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. Typical check-in counters Self check-in kiosks at Canberra Airport Standards are changing. • Electronic ticketing and self check-in reduces processing time. Halifax Stanfield International Airport, Canada
  26. 26 Security and border checkpoints Terminal design • The most important aspect of airport operations. • Dramatic changes after 9/11. • Led to many changes in design and operation of terminals.
  27. 27 Heathrow hassle, Terminal 5 • Passengers were unable to check-in baggage and 68 flights had to be cancelled. • Inadequate car parking space. • Shortage of BAA security staff. • Inadequate training. Baggage handling system Terminal design A type of conveyor system installed in airports that transports checked luggage
  28. v3Q IATA Check-point of the Future
  29. 29 A more or less standard process has evolved over the years for designing passenger terminals at airports. It consists of four steps: 1) Forecasting traffic levels for peak hours; Passenger Terminal Design principles Terminal design 2) Specification of level-of-service (LOS) standards; 3) Flow Analysis and determination of space requirements 4) Configuration of server and space.
  30. 30 Forecasting Terminal design • Basic concept: Estimate past trends and project forward. • To produce peak-hour demand scenarios for the design day. Design day = Average week day of the peak month 15 to 20 percent variation with real data Forecast is unreliable/uncertain Constantly changing situation Technological Deregulation Political Economic Industrial
  31. 31 • These standards provide the basis for translating the forecasts into an architectural program. • LOS is higher when passengers have more space. Specification of LOS Terminal design Adapted from IATA, 1995 LoS F LoS C
  32. 32 • When planning terminal processing facilities and corresponding passenger queuing areas, TWO important variables jointly dictate the new LoS. New LoS new concept Terminal design • The new LoS framework is reflected in a space-time concept to be used for defining the LoS at processing facilities and corresponding waiting areas. Minimum Space Maximum waiting time
  33. 33 The passenger flow in the terminal can be subdivided in three sub- processes: Passenger flow Terminal design Departure Arrival Transfer Disembark Customs Baggage claim Customs and quarantine Depart airport Arrival Passenger activities Passenger entry Check- in Security Check Liquids Aerosol & Gels Screening Customs & Immigration Boarding Departure passenger activities
  34. 34 Flow Analysis Terminal design Simulation CAST Terminal - Passenger Terminal Simulation • Multi-agent simulator to analyze various terminal layouts and strategies. • Determine the number of facilities required. • Optimization of capabilities in the early planning stages. Queuing theory Computer simulations Graphical analyses
  35. 35 Configuration of Space requirements Terminal design • Formulas for translating number of traffic into space requirement is arithmetically simple. Design load for an activity Level of Service (LoS) Dwell time - Depend on design peak hour/ design hour - Airport facilities are designed to accommodate the loads • LoS standard ‘C’ is generally used. • LoS ‘C’ for design year is LoS ‘A’ at the opening time. • Typical length of time passengers stay in a waiting for service. • It indicates how fast a space can be reused by another passenger.
  36. 36 Major design considerations Terminal design Passenger Flow Walking distance Level of Service Way-finding Ambience Processing time Amenities Retail experience Efficient public transportation Security What are the key factors to build efficient and attractive terminal building?
  37. Traditional vs new design concept 37
  38. Traditional vs New conceptWhy new design concept? 38 LOS Standards Standard design: Traffic forecast Flow analysis Service space Rigid structure Long term point forecast Established clients Flexible structure Forecast uncertainty Variable clients
  39. Low-cost carrier terminals 39 Designed with the needs of low cost airlines in mind. Terminal building: • Simple boxy warehouse-like design. • Low-height ceilings. • Baggage handling is much simplified Amenities: • Fewer choice in terms of restaurants, duty-free. • Decoration being mostly airline ads.
  40. 40 Modular airport • Simple geometry • Modular approach • Allow room for extension Southampton Airport Flexible design concept Madrid Barajas Airport • Open plan design • Easy removable partitions Vancouver Airport
  41. 41 Design development Business Process Model analysis Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Activity analysis Design evaluation Identify design factors Areas of uncertainty Step 1 Spatial layout Physical structure Operational Strategic TacticalLayers of change Alternate layouts Evaluate alternative layouts Automation of layout generation Identify passenger processing activity Spatial adjacency obtained Grouping passenger activity Determine spatial allocation Develop preliminary layout Custom plug-in to create input model Floor plan generator Parametric spatial layout Flexibility level Flowgraph model Flexible design parameters Grasshopper model Research outcome
  42. 42 Shuchi, S; Drogemuller, R and Buys, L (2016), A conceptual design framework to incorporate flexibility in airport terminals, Journal of Airport Management (Accepted) Shuchi, S (2015), A novel concept for airport terminal design integrating flexibility, PhD thesis, Creative Industries Faculty, Queensland University of Technology, QLD 4000, Australia. Shuchi, S; Drogemuller, R & Kleinschmidt, T (2012), Flexible airport terminal design: towards a framework, Proceedings of the IIE Asian Conference 2012, Tang, Loon Ching & Watson, Gregory H. (Eds.), Department of Industrial & Systems Engineering, NUS, Singapore, pp. 348-356. Shuchi, S & Drogemuller, R (2012), Using process models to support design of airport terminals, Proceedings of ECPPM 2012: eWork and eBusiness in Architecture, Engineering and Construction, Gudnason, Gudni & Scherer, Raimar (Eds.), CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Reykjavik, Iceland, pp. 213-220. Shuchi, S & Drogemuller, R (2012), Process based synthesis to evaluate design flexibility in airport terminal layout, Proceedings of ANZAScA Conference, Skates, Henry (Ed.), Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, pp. 1-8. Shuchi, S and Drogemuller, R (2012); Airport information modelling, presentation at the Airports of the Future Grand Showcase, 30-31 May, Brisbane Airport Corporation (BAC), Australia. Shuchi, S and Drogemuller, R (2011); Flexible design framework for airport design, presentation at the Airports of the Future Project Grand Showcase as part of the ‘The Second International Colloquium on Airports and Spatial Development’, 9 - 11 February, Queensland University of Technology, QLD 4000, Australia. Publications
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Editor's Notes

  1. The unique architectural design of terminals at JFK opened in 1962, was highly praised at the time for its innovative beauty and creative design. As a work of architecture, the TWA Terminal (called “Bird in Flight’’) was an unparalleled success but as a passenger terminal building, it proved over time, to be functionally deficient TWA Flight Centre was initially challenged by three important factors: The high cost of restoration for the Very unique/unusual interior Limited options for alteration because of the compact plan layout
  2. The regional airport at Southampton, UK (MPD, 2009) is an elegant example of modular airport terminal concept. Modular techniques offered more rapid construction time
  3. The unique architectural design of terminals at JFK opened in 1962, was highly praised at the time for its innovative beauty and creative design. As a work of architecture, the TWA Terminal (called “Bird in Flight’’) was an unparalleled success but as a passenger terminal building, it proved over time, to be functionally deficient TWA Flight Centre was initially challenged by three important factors: The high cost of restoration for the Very unique/unusual interior Limited options for alteration because of the compact plan layout