presentation on the literature and case study of cricket stadium
LITERATURE REVIEW AND
CASE STUDY OF CRICKET
STADIUM AND ACADEMY.
ANISH AWALE 68032
DWARIKA BHATTARAI 68011
LAXMAN ADHIKARI 68017
PRATIK LOHANI 68032
SANJAY NEUPANE 68043
SUNNY SAJNAY SHRESTHA 68053
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF STADIUM
There are three primary sets of requirements which stadium or arena designer
should clearly define and then keep in proper focus during the design/planning
1. General planning requirement
2. Players, Officials, and Spectators requirement
3. Operation/management requirement
1. General planning requirement:
Primary stadium should be capable of future conversion to seated areas without
destroying good sight-lines and without requiring major reconstruction work.
It should be capable of adding new seating tribunes and premium seat
In the unroofed stadium, exterior walls and adjacent areas should be capable to of
fitting the roof.
Stadium with the roof covering in the spectator areas should be capable of having a
retractable roof to cover the whole arena.
Should be capable of technical improvements, including the introduction of air
conditioning in enclosed areas
Seating capacity :
The limitations of normal visual acuity make any seating falling outside a
radius of 200ft. from the center of field increasingly marginal.
For major international matches a stadium should seat at least 30,000
Must fit well with local topography.
Should be designed with the good transport link and supply facilities like
bus, train, tram stations, large parking etc.in other hand it should be
easily accessible by motorways.
It shouldn’t be in core city area.
It shouldn’t be sited close to the industrial area where smoke, odors, and
noise might create unpleasant conditions.
The area should have sufficient provision for the future expansion
Building codes :
Codes requirement relating to stadium planning will be primarily
concerned with exiting and seating circulation
It will be found that where they exist, regulations will vary widely from
one locality to another.
Playing field is oriented north-south to protect from the direct glare to
The access gate is mostly situated to the east.
The angle of the playing field should be done in relation to the sum and
the prevailing weather condition.
The match participants, spectators and media representatives must be
protected as much as possible form the glare of the sun.
Now a day’s main axis is usually north-east to south west.
Other Aspects of Stadium Design are:
Safety requirements :
Safety should be considered as the prime task.
All parts of the stadium, including entrance, exits, stairways, doors,
escape routes, roofs and all public and private areas and rooms must
conform safety standards.
Exit doors and gates in the stadium and all gates leading from the
spectator areas into -the playing are must open outwards, away from the
Well-planning good zoning, good structural
The zoning should be done considering the four safety zones. Activity area
(Temporary safety zone), Viewing zone (Spectator zone), Circulation area
(Temporary safety zone) and
Outside Stadium (Final safety zone).
Types of Parking:
Free standing Parking
For a stadium with a capacity of 60,000, parking places should be provided
for 10,000 Cars and approximately 500 buses.
Where sufficient on-site public parking is not possible, parking should be
provided no further than 1,500 meters from the stadium.
There should be sufficient parking space for the buses and cars of VIP’S.
Preferably, these vehicles should be parked inside the stadium.
Parking space for at least 2 buses and 8 cars should be available for
teams, match officials and stadium staff.
At least 10 parking spots including large vehicles should be provided to the
Straight Parking :
Suitable two ways traffic and large no of vehicles.
Parking bays are perpendicular to circulation road.
Suitable for one way traffic which has separate entrance/exit.
It reduces the width of the parking lots as the vehicles are placed in
The parking bays are inclined in 300, 450, 600, 900.
Suitable for two way traffic and separate entrance/exit
Design of circulation routes and areas
Maintaining safe conditions
Circulation routes should be minimum of 1.2m wide.
d. Headroom :
Minimum headroom of 2.0m
Should be raised to 2.4m, especially in circulation routes and viewing areas
(particularly the rear of covered seated stands).
Entrance and Entry Routes
The design and management of entrances and entry routes should take into
consideration the following:
Entrances to each part of the ground should, wherever practicable, be
designed and located so as to allow for the even distribution of spectators
and to prevent local pressure building up outside the ground.
Walls, fences and gates should not provide the opportunity for hand or foot-
holds which might assist climbing. They should be regularly inspected.
The design of the turnstile and its housing should allow for the operator to
see and communicate clearly with entrants.
Turnstiles are not suitable for use by wheelchair users, visually impaired
spectators and people with assistance dogs. The most practical design
solution is to provide level access via a gate or door, with an appropriate
vision panel, which is staffed by a steward. Arrangements must be in place to
ensure that all those entering by such routes are counted among the
spectators attending the event.
• A concourse is defined as a circulation area that provides direct access to and
from viewing accommodation to which it may be linked by vormitories,
passageways, stairs or ramps.
• It is recommended that all new sports ground concourses should be designed to
allow at least 0.5m2 per person (a density of 20 persons/10 m2) expected to
occupy the concourse at peak times.
A vormitory is an access route built into the gradient of a stand which
directly links spectator accommodation to concourses, and/or routes for
ingress, egress and emergency evacuation. Passage through a vomitory can
be either level, or via stairways, and can flow either parallel or transverse
to the rows of terraces or seats.
If passage through the vomitory is by steps, the design, dimensions,
barriers and handrails should meet the requirement for stairways
These barriers should be protected (by infill or screening), to prevent
spectators climbing through and approaching from behind.
STAIRWAYS AND GANGWAYS :
b. Radial gangway
c. Lateral gangway
Design of stairways (Basic Specifications and dimensions)
The stairway width should be uniform.
All goings and risers on each stairway should be uniform between floors.
Open risers should not be used.
Winders (that is, tapered treads) should not be used.
Stair treads should be slip-resistant, have durable edgings, and, where
appropriate, have adequate drainage.
All nosing should be clearly marked.
Individual flights should consist of no more than 12 risers.
Recommended minimum width of stairs : 1.2m Maximum width: 1.8m
Minimum riser height: 150mm and Maximum height:170mm or 180mm
No fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between
450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m).
A cricket pitch is 22 yards long.
Parts of a Field:
The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).Lines drawn or painted
on the pitch are known as creases.
Pitches are generally classified as:
Green Pitch: They contain fair amount of grass and are conducive to
bounce and swing.
Dry Pitch: They contain no grass and are conducive to spin.
Concrete Pitch: These are made of concrete and generally used for
Mats: These are used for practice facilities as well and laid over the pitch.
Playing field quality
The playing field must be absolutely smooth and level.
It can have natural grass or artificial turf according to the need condition.
With natural grass, it should have an efficient watering system for use in dry
Playing field should be equipped with an underground heating system for cold
Good playing field should include proper underground and surface drainage to
allow play during rain.
Advertising Boards around Playing Area
Advertising boards normally have a height of 90-100cm
The minimum distances between the boundary lines of the playing field and
the advertising boards should be: 4-5m
Access to Playing Area :
Vehicles of the emergency services, including ambulance and fire
engines, must be able to gain access to the playing area.
All types of ground maintenance vehicles and various other kinds of
vehicles should also be able to gain access to the playing area.
Exclusion of Spectators form Playing Area :
It is essential to protect against attract form the spectators. This could be
accomplished in a number of ways, including one or more of the following.
Screens and fences
For the drainage of stadium there are two methods:
TYPES OF ROOF:
King post truss
Queen post truss
Post and beam structures
Goal post structures
Concrete shell structures
Compression/ tension ring
Tension structures- catenary cable and cable net structures.
LONG SPAN STRUCTURE:
• Structure with span larger than 20m can be regarded as long span
structure for this span is usually unable to be achieved by ordinary RC
• Long-span buildings create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than
30 meters (100 feet) for a variety of functions.
Common Structural Forms for Long Span Building Structures:
Insitu RC, tensioned
Precast concrete, tensioned
Structural steel – erected on spot
Structural steel – prefabricated
Portal frame – insitu RC
Portal frame – precast
Portal frame – prefabricated steel
MAJOR TYPES OF LONG SPAN STRUCTURE:
Pneumatic structure is a membrane which carries load developed from the
Pneumatic structures have a wide range of possible materials.
There are three main types of shell roof:
The single barrel shell
Multi barrel shell
The continuous barrel
DOMESTIC USE AND FIRE PROTECTION can be separate and combined.
Underground water piping
All piping in the ground from 80 mm dia and above is to be of class C
asbestos cemen tpressure pipe and where of less than 80 mm dia is to be
of class 16 high density polyethyleneor thin wall hard drawn copper pipe.
Above ground cold water piping
Cold water pipework above ground level, but concealed in roofs and ducts
etc. may be of galvanized iron, thin wall hard drawn copper or stainless
steel, for all diameters.
In 4 cardinal direction (each lamp of 1000-2000W)
It shouldn’t affect the other nearby building because of its glare.
Non-televised match ─ 500 to 700 lux
Televised match ─ 1400 lux
The mounting height geometry sideline head frames and poles in 25
degree not exceed 45 degree.
In other rooms like changing room it should be of 100 to 150 lux.
Players, Officials and Spectators Requirement
Access to Dressing Rooms
There should be two principal dressing rooms in a stadium of equal size,
style and comfort
At least two there should be separate team areas, but preferably four.
Minimum size is 150m2.
It’s minimum size should be 24m2.
It should have clothes hanging facilities or lockers for 4 people.
It should be adjacent to the teams’ dressing rooms.
There should be 2 rooms of minimum 24m2.
Access from Team Areas to Playing Field :
The tunnel should be 4m-6m wide and a minimum of 2.3m high.
First Aid and Treatment Room
This room is used by players, match officials, the media, VIPs and security
Minimum sized 50m2.
Doping Control Area
Minimum size is 36m2
Capacity depends upon the use and population.
The area should be divided into sectors for easy access and all the
required services like entrances, exits, stairways, doors, passages, toilets
etc. should be located at each sector.
Blocks or groups of 2500 places should be provided to avoid overcrowding.
To give spectator clear view and ensure good acoustics, Vitruvius
recommended a fired gradient of 1:2 for the both seating and standing
areas. Space required for spectator is 0.5 x 0.4-0.45m per seat (including
adjacent circulation area).
The necessary space for seating area is calculated as follows:
Width of seat 0.5m
Overall depth 0.8m
Seat depth 0.35m
Depending on the arrangement of entrances and exits,each
row can comprise
On each side of a passage:
In shallow rising rows 48 places
In steeply rising rows 36 places.
Seating and standing areas must be separated by fences.
For every 750 seats an escape route (stairway, ramp, flat
surface) with a minimum width of 1.00 must be provided
The formula giving the staircase width necessary to allow a certain
numbers of spectators to leave the stadium in a given time is:
Number of spectator
Staircase width (m) =
Emptying time(s) X 1.25
The necessary space for standing space is calculated as follows:
Width of standing space 0.5m
Depth of standing space 0.4m
For every 750 spaces an escape route (stairway,ramp,flat surface) with a
minimum width of 1.00 m must be provided.
Each block should have its own entry/exit points and should be separated
from the others by fences.
Barrier of 1.10m,between every ten rows of the standing spaces.
Spectators with Disabilities
For individual wheelchair:
Min. width of the stand 900 mm
Min depth of the stand 1400 mm
Sets of men’s and women’s rest room should be provided at one or more
locations on each public level.
The required number of toilets per visitor is 0.01 of which,
40% toilets for women.
20% toilets for men.
10% WC and 5% washbasins for every 500 women’s.
2% WC and 4% washbasins for every 1000 men
First Aid Rooms for the Public
Stadium should be equipped with a first aid room for spectators.
Large sign are appreciate provides direction in the location of sections
Provision of emergency exit gates unlocked for all time.
Stairway themselves should act as emergency exit.
Staircase width(m)=number of spectator
Emptying time(s)X 1.25
In order to achieve this, management should ensure that:
There are sufficient numbers of exits in suitable locations.
All parts of exit routes are of adequate width and height.
People do not have to travel excessive distances in order to exit from the
Fire Safety :
Adopt measures designed to minimize the fire risk
Ensure that measures are taken to restrict the rate of early fire growth
and fire spread
Provide and protect sufficient emergency evacuation
Provide appropriate fire detection and warning systems
a. Safety signs
b. Information signs
c. Commercial signs and hoardings
Other Facilities :
Gift and souvenir shops:
Design Considerations for Cricket Academy:
Warm-up Areas/practice areas:
Outdoor practice nets
These areas should have a grass surface (artificial turf is acceptable) and
be surrounded by plain walls with no protrusions. Outdoor areas should be
sufficiently lit to enable their use at night.
Turf practice wickets
20.12mX2.5m per wicket
Synthetic practice wicket
20.12mX3 per wicket
The length of the overall practice net area is to be a minimum of 50m and
the height is generally 5m.
Indoor practice nets and facilities:
Key design features:
• Clearly identified entrance
• Well-articulated structure
• Prominent signage
• Crisp detailing
• High quality roof and wallcladding.
Some of the features of the indoor practice facilities are:
For five (5) indoor nets (wickets) each with a minimum width of 3m and
allowing 2m wide walkway on one side of the centre
Overall the indoor centre to have an internal width of 20m and a length
The indoor centre to be a column free minimum height of 5m
Fixing of cameras and video recording systems as well as extensive lighting
and sound equipment
INDOOR ARENA DESIGN AND PAVILIONS:
Careful planning of the Arena’s accommodation is essential to ensure its
success and integral to this is consideration of the Arena’s use and operation.
How the building is to be used by visitors and staff must be thought about
during the design phase.
The building should be easy to understand for existing and new users, with
simple circulation and straightforward access to the sports courts.
The Arena is not a sterile environment but should generate a sense of
atmosphere and excitement on approach to the sports courts.
Visitor facilities should be sized to suit occupancy levels and patterns of use
and, along with staffed areas, can be located to assist the management and
running of the Arena, minimizing staff levels.
Although no two facilities are the same, in addition to the actual playing
environment, there are requirements common to all Arenas whether newly
built or a conversion of an existing building.
Layouts will vary considerably depending on the Arena size, the sports and
other activities on offer
Changing capacity should be calculated to cope with normal, maximum
occupancy when all courts and other activities are operating
There must be changing accessible to disabled players.
At least one individual unisex accessible changing room with shower and
-It should have an access to the external pitches.
Changing rooms should be designed with high ceilings
-Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this
should be provided in suitably located stores.
-Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this
should be provided in suitably located stores.
Lockers, bag drop and buggy store:
-Lockers are best located behind the courts where they restrict space less
than in changing rooms, are convenient for use by all patrons and are less
susceptible to vandalism
-Allowance needs to be made for the storage of personal cricket
ACADEMIC AND OTHER FACILITIES:
Room size: 26' X 30’ for 35.
Separate tablet armchairs for 35 students
The seven seats spacing of 3' 6” laterally and 4' 6" between the end seat
and side walls
This arrangement requires about 22 square feet of space per student
It is the residence where students stay for studying, training and some
It is facilitated with facilities like, study room, bedroom, dining/lounge
area, recreational area, laundry, entertainment area, and many other
Size of Bed/Bedrooms:
Minimum recommended area - 90 sqft
Optimum recommended area - 110 sqft
Generous recommended area - 120 sq. Ft
Double rooms with bunked beds
Minimum recommended area - 140 sqft
Optimum recommended area - 160 sqft
Generous recommended area - 180 sqft
Double rooms without bunked beds
Minimum recommended area - 180 sqft
Optimum recommended area - 220 sqft
Generous recommended area - 240 sqft
Space for dining areas is usually based
on the number of square feet per
person seated times the number of
persons seated at one time.
Dining room: 60% of total area
Kitchen (cooking, storage,
preparation): 40-50% of total area
Small children: 8s q ft
Adult seating: 12 sqft
Banquet seating: 10 sqft
Deluxe seating: 30 sqft
Place seating for adults: 24 inch
Place seating for child: 20 inch
Area required for seating
Table 2.4-1: space required for different seating
No of users – 40-50
Room size – at least 200m²
Height – 3m
Width of room for double row arrangement of machine – at least 6m
The length of room to allow clear supervision of all trainers – 15m or less
For 12 users minimum room size is – 40m²
The sauna is more than a method of bathing in hot and cold water. It is a
type of physical cleansing, almost a ritual, and it is now an essential part
of all modern sports facilities.
The bathing room should be as small as possible: - A = <16m²
H = <2.5m
Wall & ceiling should be lined with dark colored timber to reduce heat
radiation. Walls are solid softwood timber, with an exception of the oven.
Changing room- at least 30 lockers and no less than 7.50m length of
The ratio of changing rooms spaces to lockers ranges up to 1:8.
Minimum clear height of 2.50m
Dimension of the room should be 1m wide, 1.25m deep and 2m high
Changing rooms for wheel chairs users need overall measurements of 2m
wide, 1m deep, 2m deep and a clear door width of 0.8m.
Lockers are 0.25m or 0.33m wide and 1.80m or 0.90m high and with a
clear depth of 0.50m.
Usually a bath tub is placed in the dressing room or the physiotherapy
room and filled with ice so that the players can recover from the injuries.
They are an important part of modern day players fitness.
SUSTAINABILITY AND MANAGEMENT PLAN:
Reduce general energy consumption.
Reduce waste and carbon emissions.
introduce the means to generate energy locally
Promote the rational use and recycling of natural resources, primarily
Natural lighting with use of transparent or translucent roofing materials
Natural heating and cooling
Grey water re-use
Solar panels and wind energy.
CASE STUDY 1 (NATIONAL):
Dasrath Stadium Complex
Located at the Tripureswor constructed in area
of 110 ropanis with capacity of 20,000
The stadium complex also houses other games
like Swimming, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate,
Boxing, Wrestling, Wushu, Kickboxing and other
physical fitness games.
Access to the stand:
There are ten entry gates to the stadium among
which seven lead to the general parapet
dividing the entire stand into nine blocks.
Staircases provided are of 8 ft with the center
to center distance of the entrance gates is 30m.
The general stand has the capacity of 16,400.
In the ground floor:
Nepal Shatokan Karate Association
Two rooms for weightlifting
Nepal Bharlkta line Sangh
Residence of staff
In the first floor
Public rest rooms
Nepal Germany Athletics Development
In total the provided rest rooms are:
The rest room has been provided on the ground floor. The
provided toilets are not sufficient.
WC - 20 in nos.
Urinal - 60 in nos.
Thus, 1 WC serves 550 spectators
And, 1 urinal serves 182 spectators
WC - 6 in nos.
Thus, 1 WC serves 911 spectators
Evacuation in case of General Stand:
Staircase width (m) =Number of
spectators/( Emptying time(s) X 1.25)
Thus, required width of stadium is 2m to
empty in 5 minutes and provided width
is 2.4m which is sufficient.
Total capacity of the stand = 3600
Total no. of steps =25
The width of the staircase = 2.5m
The grand stand has the capacity of 3600
the color of the seat separate the
category of people using it.
The red colored seat is for VIP’s and Blue
one is for press. Separate beautiful
enclosure is there for the VVIP seat.
This is located adjacent to the player’s entry.
Each Unit measures 11.5m x 4.35m. Each unit consists of
Changing Room: 7.18m X 4.35m
Bathroom: 4.32m X 4.35m
2 basins, 2 WCs, 3 showers and 3 urinals
No. of Exits: 10
No. of Stair ways: 7
Width of Stairways: 3m
Distance between two exits: 30m
Using above formula, we get an escape time of about 6min.
So, we can say that requirement of escape time is met.
Maximum travel distance to exit: about 30m in exit is in
one directional only
Maximum travel distance to exit: about 42 m in alternative
So, we can say that exits are not located at right locations
and no. of exits is not sufficient.
The Stadium is surrounded by two peripheral roads- one
the main street along west side and another along
Southern side of the stadium.
There is no clear segregation of public and non-public
traffic approaching the stadium.
The stadium enters from the north, south and southeast
gate while players enter from east gate.
There is no separate entry for the players. They enter
from the same gate as spectators do.
CASE STUDY 2(NATIONAL)
TU International Cricket Ground
Main Cricket Ground:
Total area of the ground is 16277.76m2 i.e. of 75
yards radius but boundary at 65 yards.
Match officials Room
Total Area of Score boards = 4. 10 m X 2.95 m (
Main Score board = 3m length X 2.6m height
Good drainage facilities observed but the ground
condition itself is poor in drainage.
Grass not maintained and wind makes it worse.
Main pitch square raised 20 cm
Foundations laid for the parapets but not built.
Security was lacking as the boundary wall was not
5 entries provided to the main ground, 1 main and
Indoor Practice Academy (Under construction):
2 practice wickets
12 post, bowstring truss
Bamboo bases for the nets to be prepared
2 bowling machines
Total 20m length for the pitch other length for
Nets material = mesh wire plastic nets
Roof Form: Curved
Bilateral from S-N
No artificial lighting
Services: Guttering, Water supply, Drainage
Building lined by 85cm of brick masonry rest,
plastic nets to be installed later.
Floor height at its highest point ( 7m )
Batting difficulty at southern most pitch after
4pm as setting sun meets the eye (glare
Outdoor Practice wickets:
1 bay of 3.67m
For concrete pitch, length = 10.67m
Total no of playable pitches
2 concrete wickets
2 dry wickets
4 grass wickets
Practice net height was placed at about 3.5m
length of the run-up for bowlers:
30 m for fast bowlers
5 m for spin bowlers
15 – 20 m for medium bowlers
Area for the outdoor wickets = 8 X 3.67 X 30 = 880.8 m2
Ramps provided at the entrance foyer space
Foyers leading through the ramp provide with circulation
to the gymnasium and the office
2 gymnasiums provided and an equipment room with
Gym size = 6.39 m X 5.9 m
Facility provided restrooms with 2 showers, 2 urinals, 2
w/c and 3 basins
EQUIPMENT / STORAGE
CASE STUDY 3 (National):
National Sport Council, Covered Hall
The building coverage is about 5 ropanies.
The main entrance of the building is also use for the purpose of VIP’s entry for the
The administration building contains double height lobby, electrical room, and
rooms for the offices and rest rooms for staffs.
Designed by the architect Gangadhar Bhatta
Access to the covered hall:
The access for the players and spectators has been clearly separated.
Players enter directly from the ground floor, whereas the main access to the parapet
for VVIP/VIP and other spectator is from the first floor.
Player’s room :
The total capacity of the hall is 1000 and the number of steps in parapet is eleven
on left and eleven on right with length of 101’9”.
for the VVIP/VIP four steps with the provision of chair and its length are 59’.
The capacity of VVIP/VIP parapet is 100. And the width provided is 2ft.
Main columns of the structure are 18”x 18”
Exterior columns are of 9”x 25”
Beam size is mainly of 18”x24”
Two heavy trusses of 7’x3’ support the roof covering.
Required is 41ft and actually is 48 ft.
Door width for the entrance for spectators= 4’6”
Door width for the entrance for VVIP/VIP= 8’
Each gent’s toilet has:
WC= 4 nos.
Urinals= 10 nos.
Each ladies toilet has:
WC= 10 nos.
Case study 4(National):
All Nepal Football Association (ANFA)
Area of 142000sq. ft.
3 wings : ANFA House, Playground, Hostel building
Central office of ANFA
Architecture- contemporary style
Ground floor contains- lobby, reception, pantry,
stores, electrical room, separate toilets, meeting
room (36ft.X27ft. for 21 people) and women’s
First floor contains offices
Second floor contains auditorium (645ft. X 31ft.)
with a stage of 13.5ft.X 31ft. And audience area of
31 ft. X 31 ft. For about 300 persons.
The hostel building is located at the western side of the
The building has 27 rooms for players, 4 rooms for coaches.
The buildings now accommodate about 63 numbers of
In Ground Floor:
Gym Hall, Study Room, Kitchen, Dining Hall, Store ,Rest
In First Floor:
Bed Room Coach Room, Rest Room with Shower, Shower – 8
nos., WC – 12 nos.
In Second Floor:
Bed Room, Coach Room, Rest Room with Shower, Shower – 8
nos., WC – 12 nos.
CASE STUDY 5 (NATIOANL) :
Located at Golfutar, 200 m south
The total area of the site is 3 ropanies.
It is constructed within a residential unit and with slum areas to the
3 Practice wickets.
Indoor cricket of 6 A sides.
Dressing room towards the south with facilities like a shower, 1 w/c, 1
changing room, 1 basin for each male and female and 1 urinals for
males only with an access to the playing area.
Specific Wickets with springs.
Charged in terms of games which is of 12 overs of 2 innings.
Viewing area provided on the north and the south.
Bowling run up provided of 5.5 m.
Net provided 20ft above so as to provide a safe net for the balls.
Training facilities for all cricket professionals as well as amateurs.
Constructed of Bowstring steel frame truss
Height of the structure is 28ft.
Masonry wall used until 20ft and then steel frames
Interior wall of the playing area bright to provide
Use of metal mesh wires for entry.
Rain water collected and drained through the
Coarse rubber mat used for pitch
Use of tiles in the dressing area
Use of rubber and plastic used in the playing area
CGI sheets used for covering
Transparent CGI sheets used in places providing
OFFICE / CAFE
Ventilation and Lighting:
Ventilation done through north and west
Diffused lighting used through transparent plastic sheets
Indirect light also obtained from the viewing area
Use of halogen lamps done for artificial lighting
CASE STUDY 6 (NATIONAL):
KUNDALINI, Suite Hotel & Health
Resort (P) Ltd
Located at Chappalkarkhana, Kathmandu and established
Swimming pool , Multipurpose hall, Sauna ,Japanese bath,
Steam shower, Beauty parlor, Gym hall, Restaurant
Outdoor playing areas
Tennis court , Badminton court
facilities like sauna, steam bathing and Japanese
bathing are also accessed through the swimming pool
separate swimming pool for kids
adults have the depth from 3’6” to 5’6” And for the
children depth of the pool is 2’6”
The rest room of gents consists of:
multipurpose hall is itself a mezzanine
floor to the restaurant’s floor
accessed through the restroom of
consist of a cooling area outside the
provided is of 7.6m× 4.56m and setting
is done in the morning at Max of 110
small room of 10’×6’ in which 6’×6’ is
the bath pool and depth of 1’6”.
Steam Shower Room is just similar to the Sauna with
stepped sitting area
Case Study 7 Grassroots
Two futsal pitches, Gym, Cafeteria, Swimming pool,
Restrooms, Guard house
Two pitches of area : 26m X 32m
Roof covered with CGI sheets
Use of steel structures ( I- section)
Metal mesh wire
Raised chords truss
Flooring : Astro turf + rubber granules for grips
Additional foam cover used inside for safety
Pitches separated by advertising boarding at the middle
8 vehicles (Cars/Jeeps) and 50 bikes
Area: 26m x 12m
4 shower, 2 urinals, 1w/c, 2 basins
4 shower, 1 w/c, 2 basins
A single working table and seating for two.
Separated into 2 sections (Muscles and Cardio )
Case Study 8 Hardic Fitness
Located at Sanepa
Parking leads to either the swimming area or
Swimming pool open provided with sitting
spaces for café
The other area is provided with a reception
which acts on giving information to both
Through the reception the gymnasium is
a sitting area is provided in the middle which
acts as a room for lockers, a sitting room and
also a space to provide natural lighting and
which also air circulation
The gymnasium is provided with 2 facilities
i.e. a cardio and a gym
The gymnasium is provided with 2
restrooms with showers cum changing
but the fact that the two room for two
genders are opposite to one another
and doesn’t provide with privacy as
visual link between them is seen
6 people can exercise at the cardio at
the same time
Area of cardio is about 120 – 150 sq. ft.
At the same time about 10 – 15 people
can exercise at the gym at the same
Area of the gym is about 600 sq. ft.
Case Study 9 Sumeru City
Types of injuries to players:
Ligament, Knee joint, Stress injuries,
Muscles strain, Rotary Cup Tear, Impact
On Field /Off field Management
PRICE = Protection, Rest, Ice,
Treatment Table, Equipment, Electro –
therapy, Tens, IFT, Ultra Sound, Moist
Heat, Wax, BWD
Assessment table of dimension 6' X2' X2.5'
Treatment table of dimension 6'X 3' X 2.5'
Case Study 10 Blue Cross hospital
Located at Tripureswor
Provided with an assessment bed and 2 treatment table
A working table is also provided
2 people can be assessed at a time
facility provided to professional players playing on the
CASE STUDY –(Melbourne Cricket Ground, Australia )
The Melbourne Cricket Ground is one of Australia’s
It is the busy venue accommodating international
cricket, Australian Rules football, concerts, dinners and
other major functions on its natural turf arena.
More than three million people visit the ground annually.
Melbourne Cricket Club manages the stadium and has
progressively expanded the MCG’s role as both an
entertainment centre and a world-class tourist
The total capacity of the MCG is 100,018.
This includes 95,000 seats and approximately 5000
standing room spaces.
This marvelous structure, accommodating 44,500 people and
covering 45 per cent of the stadium’s perimeter, brought
state-of-the-art comfort, convenience and hospitality
facilities to all levels of Melbourne’s sporting society.
Facilities and finishes are superior throughout. The
male/female toilet ratio has been significantly improved
and, for comfort and ease of access, individual plastic
bucket seats are fixed on broader plats.
Sightlines from all seats are uninterrupted and, because the
new structure is much closer to the arena than the stands it
replaced, spectators are also closer to the action.
Seats are approximately 30% bigger than the previous
northern stand and about 80% of seats are under roof cover.
Large, deep rooms enable tenant sports and clubs to
accommodate up to 500 guests.
. Extensive landscaping and a new access road enhance the
sense of arrival for visitors.
Capping the new stand is a hybrid roof, part metal and part
glass. This considerably increases the brightness of the
MELBOURNE CRICKET CLUB:
It is a private club, incorporated under the Melbourne Cricket Club
Act 1974, boasting by far the biggest membership of any sporting
club in Australia.
The MCC also has the public responsibility of managing one of the
largest and the most successful stadiums in Australia and the world
– the MCG.
The MCC has 100,280 members (comprising 60,286 Full members
and 39,994 Restricted members) as at August 2009. At this time,
there were 194,097 people on the waiting list. Between 10,000
and 15,000 people are nominated for membership each year.
A NATURAL TURF ARENA:
After the Olymic Games much of the arena was reconstructed and
red mountain soil laid to a depth of about 60cm.
Compaction over the years gave this soil the consistency of clay
and major drainage problems began to surface in the late 1980s.
In the spring of 1992 the arena was completely reconstructed with
a sand-based profile, giving the ground remarkable drainage
characteristics and superior load-bearing ability.
The MCG arena has a total of approximately
20,000 square metres in area and measures 171 x
146 metres in length, from fence to fence.
The boundary line measures five metres from the
The volume of the MCG is 1,700,000 cubic
metres, or 1.7 million cubic metres.
The goal posts for AFL matches are 15 metres in
height (point posts are 10 metres high) and the
length of the cricket pitch is 22 yards, which in
metric terms is 20.12 metres.
Arena Grow Lights:
As a result, the MCC procured a product called
Stadium Grow Lighting, a mobile supplementary
The shipment, comprising 11 lighting rigs each
measuring 12m x 2.5m x 2.5m and two smaller
The lighting rigs are placed above the grass to
provide light and heat, which stimulates turf
This will enable to achieve year-round quality
turf in all weather conditions.
Portable Cricket Pitches:
The volume and variety of events played at the MCG
requires a versatile surface that enables the stadium to
switch from one sport to another in a short period of time.
It has led the field in a range of turf management
techniques designed to develop a playing surface which can
be used efficiently and meets competition demands.
The 1992 reconstruction of the oval utilising a revolutionary
sand-based profile boosted drainage capacity and
introduced a more durable turf cover so that more events
could be scheduled at the MCG.
The absence of cricket pitches from the centre in the
winter months provides a safer playing surface for AFL
players and allows events such as international soccer and
Bledisloe Cup rugby to be played on a world-class surface.
The light tower system comprises of six light towers which
stand approximately 75 metres high (equivalent to a 24-
story building) with the head frame a further 10 metres
higher (85 metres overall).
The foundations for the towers consist of four reinforced
concrete piers which are set down in depth from seven to 12
metres depending on the sub surface structure.
Each of the hollow tubular steel towers contains about 130
tonnes of steel.
The diameter reduces from 4.2 metres at the base to two
metres at the top.
There are between 12 and 14 landings connecting ladders
inside each tower. The head frames of the towers are angled
in at 15 Degrees in order to provide optimum levels of light.
The main press box at the MCG is located on Level 3 of the Olympic
Stand, with unimpeded views of the playing arena and a capacity
for 48 people.
To cater for larger requirements, the Great Southern Stand has
provision for another 20-30 spaces on the ground level.
Wireless internet access and power outlets are available at each
seat, while catering facilities are available at the rear of the room.
Press conference room:
The press conference room is located in between the team
changerooms on Level B1 of the Ponsford Stand.
The area has a capacity for 50 people and wireless internet is
The procedures in this room are at the discretion of the media
liaison officer representing the event promoter.
There are eight radio commentary booths on Level 3 of the Olympic
Stand, located adjacent to thepress box in the Ron Casey Media
Centre. Wireless internet is available in each booth.
The MCG is equipped with state-of-the-art media facilities
to accommodate a variety of media personnel.
MCG AND THE ENVIRONMENT:
The MCC is extremely conscious of its social and community
responsibility with regards to the way itoperates the MCG and its
Water conservation and waste management, in particular, are issues
that the MCC is working hard with stakeholders and experts to ensure
the club remains a socially responsible stadium manager.
Environmental initiatives include the installation of timer controlled
taps in the public toilets of the Great Southern Stand and the
introduction of hand dryers to reduce paper towel waste
The club is also an active participant in the Closed Loop recycling
Lighting and air conditioning are controlled via a building
management system at the ground and therefore can be controlled to
be only on when required.
The MCC adheres to five key guiding principles to continually improve
its performance in waste
• Reduce unrecyclable waste
• Reuse materials where possible
• Promote recycling by providing appropriate infrastructure
• Educate employees, patrons and contractors
• Use landfill as a last resort.
The club, responsible for the maintenance of 20,000 square
metres of MCG turf, has operated under a water conservation
plan for some time.
The sand profile on the ground has helped reduce water usage
by more than one million litresannually without reducing turf
The Commercial Operations Department handles leasing of
corporate suites, selling MCC suites and dining rooms on an
event by event basis, marketing strategies.
Heritage and Tourism:
The Heritage and Tourism Department has several
• Operating the National Sports Museum.
• Operating the MCC Museum and Library.
• Operating the MCG Tours.
• Managing the collections of both museums and the Library.
• Stadium dressing and public art management.
A Major Tourist Attraction:
It is a major tourist attraction, with much of Australia’s
sporting and social history residing within the walls of the
National Sports Museum, which opened in March 2008.
Tours of this magnificent stadium are undertaken on all non-
event days, taking visitors behind the scenes to get a
glimpse of some of the magic and history within the walls of
the mighty MCG.
Social and Cultural Aspects:
A City’s Heart and Soul
The MCG always has been a focal point of activity for
Melburnians. If there was an important event in the city the
odds were that the cricket ground would play host.
There have been several royal pageants and religious
gatherings held at the ground.
The country’s first major cycling event, the Austral Wheel
Race, was held there and experimental aeroplane flights
used the arena as a runway, not always successfully.
School sports were staged at the MCG and the entire
stadium was transformed to host the 1956 Olympic Games.
The Finest Amenities:
The MCG is a very popular venue for local and interstate
visitors and a prime destination for international
Its many attractions include a wide range of well-
appointed function rooms, most of which offer splendid,
restful views of the arena below.
At other times the rooms may host a variety of functions
such as business meetings, wedding receptions and
cocktail parties, all handled by the functions team at
With exceptional new facilities, wireless internet by
Internode throughout most parts of the MCG, luxurious
internal design, and breath-taking views, the MCG offers
a superb range of possibilities for corporate and private
events unrivalled in a premium function venue
CASE STUDY:(Lord’s Indoor
With the 8-lane indoor practice facility and changing rooms,
the building accommodates office space for regional, youth
and disabled cricket boards, a shop, a bar with views into
the practice area and a top floor outdoor terrace.
The barrel-vaulted roof profile was developed to allow in
diffused north light enabling the space to be naturally lit
throughout daylight hours.
Fabric blinds direct light when necessary. At night special
light fittings are used which were designed with an egg crate
louvre and an upward component lighting the ceiling and
fabric louvres to minimise glare.
With the 2,740m2 building area accommodated on a
footprint of 57.5m x 36m, the concentration of ancillary
facilities in the front block leaves most of the ground floor
and the building volume clear for the practice nets.
Within this 41m x 32m hall, the nets can be retracted to
form either two areas for 6-a-side or one large hall to
English Cricket Board standards.
Case study:(Lord's Shop)
Lords shop is the retail facility for the Marylebone cricket
The site for the shop was very restricted limiting.
construction method options.Lords shop is the equipment
shop for the cricket fans or professional.
It is naturally lit through an inflated foil roof.
Having a predominantly naturally lit shop goes against
recommendations for retail environments.
However is has been highly successful and massively reduced
the energy consumption for this type of outlet.
LED lights are used for the direct light to the shop .
LED light consumes much less energy than the other types of
light. LED light also enhance the indoor equipment’s.
Universal I section for the column and beam for the height
of 12’.and at the span of 10’. (Beam: 4”, column 3”)
Glass in the 3 bays of the front façade and at the back side
as a ventilation.
Inflated foil roof are used in the roof the daylighting which
does not give s glare to the interior.
Flexible fabric roofing materials is used for the porch or
Tubular steel rods are used to hold the roofing sheets.
Cricket Academy, UK
National cricket academy is also called national cricket
performance centre which is the part of the loughborough
sports of Loughborough University in UK.
National Cricket Performance Centre is the base and training
facility for Loughborough MCCU.
It has the facilities of:
Indoor Practice Centre
The Centre is also utilised for the ECB’s coaching courses, and
squad training camps.
INDOOR PRACTICE HALL:
It has the largest bespoke cricket training centre in the
Measuring 70m x 25m, there are six lanes and the hall is long
enough to accommodate a fast bowler run-up bowling to a
wicket keeper standing back.
The Hawkeye tracking system has been installed as a
coaching aid in each lane.
At one end of the hall is a three storey pavilion with
balconies, galleries and terraces having views to both indoor
and outdoor cricket.
The pavilion accommodates a fitness and conditioning centre
and changing rooms with a recovery area including hot and
cold spa baths.
The facility also offers office accommodation, a
“performance analysis” suite, video library and seminar
The Loughborough campus indoor cricket centre has
an artificial supergrasse surface, high specification lighting
and natural light in day time, hawk-eye cameras and a range
of advanced technical analysis and sports science support
2 high standard cricket grounds on campus.
High standard grass and artificial net provision for
Loughborough. Students is found on the two cricket grounds.
Loughborough MCCU players make extensive use of the two
main fitness centres on campus.
LUFS’ is a more standard aerobic fitness gym, fitted with the
latest equipment for both recreative and more serious
Physiotherapy, Sports Medicine and Sports Science support
services are provided for the MCCU squad and its coaches.
Loughborough’s advanced Sports Science research facilities
are utilised by ECB and other Cricket bodies for the benefit of
Olympic sized Swimming Pool:
Loughborough’s new £7million state-of-the-art Olympic-sized
The 50m pool can be divided into two 25m pools and the
depth of water can be varied.
Loughborough university has a gym centre for the players and
Loughborough gymnastics is constructed with the area of
It has the various facilities with the cardiology.
Near to the gymnastics centre there is a indoor cricket
practice area which are divided with the partial barrier.
It has a capacity of maximum 30- 40 persons at a time with
the approx. floor area of 20-10 m2 with the total circulation
spaces and all others.
Near the gym area there is a rest room and the changing
For the natural lighting inflated foil are used in the roof in
the small parts.
This type of roof provides the sufficient day light with the
minimum glare to the room.
Diffused lights are provided through the wall in the
corridor.Certain amount of artificial light also comes from
the office rooms in the first floor.
CASE STUDY:(Physiotherapy and
Rehabilitation Centre PUR /
Schneider & Lengauer)
Architects: Schneider & Lengauer
Location: Freistadt, Austria
They also offer medical exercise
therapy, massage, and the sale of
training and therapy utensils.
The integration of all these services
made building a new practice essential.
It provides a simple, smooth and
barrier-free organisation of all work
The waiting area in the foyer is complemented with
wardrobes and sanitary facilities to prevent carrying of road
dust and dirt inside the building.
The deliberately simply and functionally designed therapy
rooms are separated by an atrium, as are the cardiac and
sports medicine training area.
For the cardiology sufficient amount of Natural lighting are
provided through the large window through the both side of
the room with the exterior view.
UPVC windows are provided.
-For the artificial lighting provision of the tube light is done
with the covering for the diffused lighting to the interior.
-Use of less amount of artificial lighting in the building.
-sufficient amount of light is provided which means (200-
- Hardwood elastic flooring is done inside the building
- Flooring is smooth, slip resistant and splinter free.
- Ease of cleaning and maintenance.
FUNCTIONAL FLOW :
Ramp leads to the lobby space of the building which is
maintained with the perfect slop for the differently able
regarding the normal people.
-Wit hthe entry we can see the reception and the waiting
space which is provided with the natural lighting .
-There are the 2 corridors which leads to the cardiology and
another one to the clinic and the rest rooms.
-Separate rooms for the office are provided.
-Cardiology area is planned at the end of the building for the
privacy measures which has separate access to the foyer
space for the refreshment and lighting.
-All office has the separate entarnce to the cardiology
through the separate door.
Stadium: Only the major parts were selected for analysis.
Public Flow and Circulations:
Literature: Great care should be taken in the design/planning process to avoid building
institutions which will inhabit the smooth flow of spectators trough the public circulation
spaces and to and from the seating areas. This should be true for normal traffic saturation or
avoiding panic in emergencies. The signage at entrances, security checks, horizontal and
vertical circulation like vormitories etc should be included.
National Case Study: Taking lessons from the accidents that have occurred in the past the
provision for vormitories have been provided at Rangashala. At the TU cricket ground there
are no provisions, Signage, circulation patterns to be followed by the public.
International Case Study: There are proper provision for all the security measures and the
signages security checks ant other parts are in place.
Analysis: The management of flow is a major aspect of the stadium complex. The signages,
circulation paths and emergency management plans must be in place. For this purposes the
inclusion of vormitories, spill out areas, evacuation time and route must be evaluated.
The playing field and the pitch:
Literature: A cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground on which the
game of cricket is played. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually
varies between 450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m).. The cricket ground can vary from being
almost a perfect circle, to being an extremely elongated oval. On most grounds,
a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. A cricket pitch is 22
National Case Study: The TU ground has the boundaries at 65 yards that meet the standards set
by the ICC. The dimensions of the pitches and playing conditions are according to the set
International case Study: The MCG arena has a total of approximately 20,000 square metres in
area and measures 171 x 146 metres in length, from fence to fence. The boundary line measures
five metres from the fence.
Analysis: The playing field is the most important part of the stadium. It must be qualitative and
the meet the standards set by the ICC. To maintain the quality of the playing field ant the
pitches the type of grass to be used in the outfield must be soft type and a sandy layer beneath
that adds to better playing conditions and safety of the players.
Dressing Rooms and Pavilions:
Literature: There should be two principal dressing rooms in a stadium of equal size, style and
comfort. For multi-purpose stadium it is essential to have four changing rooms of equal size and
comfort. It should be in the main stand. They should provide direct, protected access to the
playing area and be inaccessible to the public and the media. At least two there should be
separate team areas, but preferably four. Minimum size is 150m2.
National Case Study: The dressing rooms in the TU cricket ground are very poor. They don’t
meet the minimum requirements of a dressing rooms and considered a temporary facility by
the players and the staff. They don’t have proper dressing rooms for umpires and coaching staffs
International Case Study: The dressing facilities include lockers, storages, showers and all the
required facilities for the players, staffs and coaches alike.
Analysis: The dressing rooms should have an indoor and outdoor area. The outdoor area should
be such that the players can acclimatize to the conditions before going out to play.
The indoor areas should include massage tables, showers etc. so that the players relax and cool
down after the game.
Literature: It is generally recognized that a period of great risk to crowd safety is at the time of
leaving the sports ground. It is important, therefore, to provide exit systems capable of
accommodating safely the passage of people within an acceptable period of time, and to avoid
congestion and psychological stress. Exit systems may comprise gangways, stairways,
passageways, ramps and other means of passage. Management should ensure that exit routes
are planned and managed safely, to provide for spectators a smooth, unimpeded passage
through an exit system until they reach the boundary of the ground, or, in an emergency, a place
National Case Study: The provisions for emergency exits were poor in Rangashala and not
available in the TU ground. Such ignorance led to a major accidents few decades ago at the
International Case Study: Proper cautions and emergency evacuations protocols are in place
along with the signage.
Analysis: The emergency exits are an important part of a stadium complex. The emergency
evacuation time must be evaluated properly and safety alarms, firefighting equipment if located
in the stadium are preferable.
Warm Up / Practice Area
Literature: These areas should have a grass surface (artificial turf is acceptable) and be
surrounded by plain walls with no protrusions. Outdoor areas should be sufficiently lit to
enable their use at night.
• Turf practice wickets
20.12mX2.5m per wickets
National Cricket Academy: The facility is provided with 8 practice wickets, 2 of concrete, w
of grass and 2 dry wickets. The length of the run-up for bowlers was provided to be:
30 m for fast bowlers
5 m for spin bowlers
15 – 20 m for medium bowlers
Also the area of wickets = 8 X 3.67 X 30 = 880.8 m2
International: The facility in Melbourne Cricket Ground is provided with the practice wickets
which meet the requirement of the literature reviewed.
Analysis: The net height should be about 15 m and the run up should be kept up to 30m.
Literature: Synthetic practice wicket should be of 20.12mX3 per wicket.
* The length of the overall practice net area is to be a minimum of 50m and the height
is generally 5m.
Royal Cricket Academy: The royal cricket academy is provided with 3 practice wicket
which meets the requirement of the pitch but the run up length for bowlers have not
National Cricket Academy, UK: Area measuring 70m x 25m, there are six lanes and the
hall is long enough to accommodate a fast bowler run-up bowling to a wicket keeper
Analysis: In terms of national level, the run up areas have to be maintained to provide
proper training in terms of realist approach.
Changing capacity should be calculated to cope with normal, maximum occupancy
when all courts and other activities are operating
There must be changing accessible to disabled players.
At least one individual unisex accessible changing room with shower and toilet.
-It should have an access to the external pitches.
Changing rooms should be designed with high ceilings
Royal Cricket: Changing room was provided with a changing room with a shower, a w/c
and a basin for each gender with addition to a urinal for gents. It has access to the playing
area through the back.
National Cricket Academy: Was not provided with a changing room.
National Cricket Academy, UK: changing rooms with a recovery area including hot and
cold spa baths were provided.
Analysis: Changing rooms should be provided with showers and such facility and also it
should be constructed in such a way that
Lockers / Storage:
Literature: -Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this
should be provided in suitably located stores.
-Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this should be
provided in suitably located stores.
-Lockers are best located behind the courts where they restrict space less than in
changing rooms, are convenient for use by all patrons and are less susceptible to
-Allowance needs to be made for the storage of personal cricket equipment.
National: Lockers were not provided in Neither the Royal Cricket nor the National
International: Lockers are provided in the international facilities.
Analysis: Facility for lockers and storage has to be provided so that players and
coaches can store their possessions during training or matches.
Literature: Lecture hall
Room size: 26' X 30’ for 35.
Separate tablet armchairs for 35 students
The seven seats spacing of 3' 6” laterally and 4' 6" between the end seat and side
This arrangement requires about 22 square feet of space per student
National: Not Provided.
Loughborough campus: This educational institution provides players with academic
facilities as well as facilities to help them excel in cricket.
Analysis: In terms of promotion of cricket in the country, the academy should help to
provide players with sufficient education such that they also mature not only in terms of
play but also in terms of decision making and basic level skills that might help in their
personal cum professional life.
It is the residence where students stay for studying, training and some other
It is facilitated with facilities like, study room, bedroom, dining/lounge area,
recreational area, laundry, entertainment area, and many other facilities
The rooms may be categorised as single rooms, double rooms, and double rooms
with bunked beds.
National: The hostel at Anfa complex is a fine example of a dorm for players.It has
all the facilities like gym,dining hall etc required in a sports academy.
International: The dorm facilities include all the necessary facilities for the players.
Analysis: Dorms should be created in such a way that the players feel at home in
the facility. The facilities like gym etc if present in the dorm is preferred as players
can enjoy the indoor facilities in the same roof.
Literature: Location is closely related to function. The area selected for physical therapy should
be centrally located to minimize problems of transporting patients and to facilitate giving
bedside treatment when necessary.
The amount of space needed depends on the number of patients treated, the kinds of
disabilities and the treatments required. Also to be considered is the fact that some space
Whatever the eventual size of a physical therapy department, from the very beginning plans
must be made to provide certain kinds of workspace.
For the physiotherapy room at least 68-75m2 productive area/treatment place.
National: None were to be found.
Loughborough campus: Sports Medicine and Sports Science support services are provided for
the MCCU squad and its coaches. The Chief Physiotherapist and her team work closely with the
squad, who are physiologically screened for injury prevention purposes, assisted with
individualized strength and fitness development programs, and treated for injuries when
necessary, through the easy to access on-site clinic close to the cricket facilities.
Analysis: A physiotherapy session is required for professional in all sports such that injuries can
be identified at a premature stage and sorted out quickly before it gets out of hand.
Literature: Room size should be at least 200m².
Height of the room must be 3m with proper ventilation. The width of room for double row
arrangement of machine – at least 6m and the length of room to allow clear supervision of all
trainers – 15m or less. For 12 users minimum room size must be 40m².
National: NCA was the only institute provided with a gymnasium. The gym was crammed
when used to full potential.
Loughborough campus: MCCU players make extensive use of the two main fitness centers on
campus. ‘Powerbase’ is a strength and conditioning centre dedicated to use by performance
squads like the MCCU. There, you will rub shoulders with international athletes and sports
professionals, as well as the elite Loughborough Students squads. ‘LUFS’ is a more standard
aerobic fitness gym, fitted with the latest equipment for both recreative and more serious
training. MCCU members are provided with heavily subsidized membership of both of these
Analysis: Gym has to be provided for about 40. This helps to achieve fitness and also help to
increase power by developing lean muscles as per requirement. It should include circulation
spaces and lockers as well.
Location: Mulpani – 8 Kha , Kathmandu, Nepal
Site Area: 95465.51 sq m (187-10-1-2)
The access is through the main road from Chabahil leading to
Other access roads include the bagmati corridor road leading from
Jaya Bageswori Chowk to the site.
A network of public transportation including the buses and micro
buses provide an access to the site.
Demographics and Context:
On the east of this land lies the old runway of Tribhuvan
International Airport, on the west Siphal Dhoka, in the north
Gurumarg Kailash and Gaurighat Khariko Bot, and in the south lies
The ward is spread over 253.8 hectares, and its population in 2001
The great majority (87.5%) are Hindus followed by Buddhists
Road: A total of 5.61 km of the road in and around the site
has been black topped with 4.8 graveled roads in the area.
Sewerage: A total of 9 km of surface drains and sewers.
Solid Waste: A total of 18.54 cu m of solid waste is
generated daily and collected in containers managed by the
Educational Institutions: A total of 6 educational
institutions in and around the area.
Health Institutions: 1 Government hospital and 7 health
centers and clinics available.
Industries and Shops: 3 manufacturing industries and a total
of 565 shops are located within the area.
Security: Ward police office 3 police beats are available in
Fire Brigade: Available in the Pashupati area during
Parking: Located in places like Amarkanteswor,
Bhuwaneswari etc for bikes, taxis, bus etc.
NATURAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES:
Clayey soil with layers on sand located a few feet below.
This type of soil is good for construction but as the site was
used as a landfilling site the soil condition is weak.
A slope of 15-20% considered satisfactory for construction
purposes.A steep slope in the northern portion of the site.
The site is currently used as the site for the development of
International Cricket Stadium.
An Army Infantry is located within the site.
Some parts of the site is still used as the site for waste
Temporary huts have been constructed as shops within the
School named Trikon School located in the south with residential
units for the workers of the garment factories nearby.
The Gokarna Golf Club resort also lies in the close vicinity.
The Green Hill City housing development with plans for 8oo units
are being constructed toward the west.
SOCIO CULTURAL ASPECT:
The inhabitants belong to different ethnic groups, but Newars
form the majority. Brahmins come second in terms of population.
The great majority (87.5%) are Hindus followed by Buddhists
(9.7%). Muslims and Christians make up the rest.
The major festivals observed in the ward are Shivaratri, Teej
Parva, Bajreswari Peeth Jatra, Batsaleswari Jatra, Trishul Jatra,
Gai Jatra and Ropain Jatra.
Most of the people in the area are dependent upon agriculture
and service for the income sources.
34 temples, 5 chaityas and other building of cultural importance
lie in the area.
Lack of infrastructures, lack of preservation of heritages are some
major problems in the site area.
The temperature varies from 0 C min to a max of 35 C.
The prevailing NW winds and E-S-W sun path direction.
Annual Rainfall with high percentage during July and August.A high of
8cm of rain in July.
The site has already been selected by the concerned authorities for the
construction of the Cricket Stadium
The parts of the ground have been leveled and a few infrastructures have
The site is located at the outskirts of the valley.
The proximity of The Hyatt Hotel and The Gokarna Golf Club Resort.
The Access to the site the main and access roads.
The public transport facilities leading the public to the site.
The favorable climatic conditions of the Kathmandu Valley.
The development of the Green Hill City development.
The Northern part of the site consists of a steep slope of 70 ft approx.
The soil condition of the site may not be suitable for heavy construction.
The lack of development of basic infrastructures.
The 13 KV transmission line through the site.
The squat settlements in the northern part of the site.
The Access road passing through the site.
The infantry located within the site.
The temporary huts within the site being used for economical purposes.
The waste being disposed in the site.
The proximity of the school nearby.
The prospect of designing an international cricket stadium and academy with the
site being backed by the government already.
Reduction is cost for the leveling of the ground.
The proximity of star hotels can provide accommodation to national and
international players during training and international events
The green hill city housing units can be used for the accomodations
of players, coaches, staffs etc.
The climatic condition of the valley can lure National and
International players and coaches to use the facilities once built.
The local transport facilities can meet the needs of the public for
transportation during the matches and for players.
The steep northern slope may create structural problems during
The soil condition may not be suitable for heavy construction.
The lack of development of basic facilities may create difficulties
during the construction process.
The transmission line possesses threat to the safety of the players
The squat settlements provide undesired views in the north.
The infantry of the army may oppose the construction of a stadium in
The temporary huts occupy the valuable land needed for
The proximity of school means hindrance to the school during the
The context and socio cultural aspects of the site must be taken into
account before starting the design process.
The concerned authorities must be consulted with before starting the
Reinforced concrete shear walls may be required in the north steep
The weak soil conditions mean that deep foundation like piles may
have to be used.
The transmission line has to be moved with consultation with
The Army has to be consulted with to replace the infantry.
The temporary huts have to be removed from the site.
Strict measures have to be taken to stop the disposal of the waste in
The school has to be relocated so that they don’t incur the noise
Shuttle services may come into use during the international matches.
For Urban Expansion Zone:
Maximum Ground Covearge = 40%
FAR = 2
Minimum 1m setback roadside.
Parking for Various types of building = 15 – 20%
The necessary authorities must be consulted with for special
constructions like stadiums etc.
Designing a cricket stadium and academy is really a challenge,
fulfilling the endless technicalities is the first priority in the
however technical requirements and placements of the spaces
have been designed in such a way that it fulfils the requirements
as well as help to create a well planned out of box design.
Whether its entrance, seating bowl, parking, circulation spaces
or concession areas all the spaces in the academy have been
designed considering human comfort so that experience that they
get visiting the stadium is phenomenon.