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presentation on the literature and case study of cricket stadium


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it is the slide for the design of the cricket stadium.It consists of the literature and case studies of the various national and international stadium.It will obviously help you.

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presentation on the literature and case study of cricket stadium

  2. 2. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF STADIUM  There are three primary sets of requirements which stadium or arena designer should clearly define and then keep in proper focus during the design/planning process. 1. General planning requirement 2. Players, Officials, and Spectators requirement 3. Operation/management requirement 1. General planning requirement:  Primary stadium should be capable of future conversion to seated areas without destroying good sight-lines and without requiring major reconstruction work.  It should be capable of adding new seating tribunes and premium seat  In the unroofed stadium, exterior walls and adjacent areas should be capable to of fitting the roof.  Stadium with the roof covering in the spectator areas should be capable of having a retractable roof to cover the whole arena.  Should be capable of technical improvements, including the introduction of air conditioning in enclosed areas
  3. 3.  Seating capacity :  The limitations of normal visual acuity make any seating falling outside a radius of 200ft. from the center of field increasingly marginal.  For major international matches a stadium should seat at least 30,000 people.  Location:  Must fit well with local topography.  Should be designed with the good transport link and supply facilities like bus, train, tram stations, large parking other hand it should be easily accessible by motorways.  It shouldn’t be in core city area.  It shouldn’t be sited close to the industrial area where smoke, odors, and noise might create unpleasant conditions.  The area should have sufficient provision for the future expansion
  4. 4. Building codes :  Codes requirement relating to stadium planning will be primarily concerned with exiting and seating circulation  It will be found that where they exist, regulations will vary widely from one locality to another. Orientation:  Playing field is oriented north-south to protect from the direct glare to the players.  The access gate is mostly situated to the east.  The angle of the playing field should be done in relation to the sum and the prevailing weather condition.  The match participants, spectators and media representatives must be protected as much as possible form the glare of the sun.
  5. 5.  Now a day’s main axis is usually north-east to south west.  Other Aspects of Stadium Design are:  Water  Waste  Transport  Energy
  6. 6. Safety requirements :  Safety should be considered as the prime task.  All parts of the stadium, including entrance, exits, stairways, doors, escape routes, roofs and all public and private areas and rooms must conform safety standards.  Exit doors and gates in the stadium and all gates leading from the spectator areas into -the playing are must open outwards, away from the spectators.  Well-planning good zoning, good structural  The zoning should be done considering the four safety zones. Activity area (Temporary safety zone), Viewing zone (Spectator zone), Circulation area (Temporary safety zone) and  Outside Stadium (Final safety zone).
  7. 7. PARKING:  Types of Parking:  Surface Parking  Free standing Parking  Basement parking  For a stadium with a capacity of 60,000, parking places should be provided for 10,000 Cars and approximately 500 buses.  Where sufficient on-site public parking is not possible, parking should be provided no further than 1,500 meters from the stadium.  There should be sufficient parking space for the buses and cars of VIP’S. Preferably, these vehicles should be parked inside the stadium.  Parking space for at least 2 buses and 8 cars should be available for teams, match officials and stadium staff.  At least 10 parking spots including large vehicles should be provided to the media.
  8. 8. Straight Parking :  Suitable two ways traffic and large no of vehicles.  Parking bays are perpendicular to circulation road. Angled Parking:  Suitable for one way traffic which has separate entrance/exit.  It reduces the width of the parking lots as the vehicles are placed in angle.  The parking bays are inclined in 300, 450, 600, 900.
  9. 9. Oblique Parking  Suitable for two way traffic and separate entrance/exit
  10. 10. Design of circulation routes and areas Maintaining safe conditions Design: Width : Circulation routes should be minimum of 1.2m wide. d. Headroom : Minimum headroom of 2.0m Should be raised to 2.4m, especially in circulation routes and viewing areas (particularly the rear of covered seated stands). e. Signs f. Lighting
  11. 11. Entrance and Entry Routes The design and management of entrances and entry routes should take into consideration the following:  Entrances to each part of the ground should, wherever practicable, be designed and located so as to allow for the even distribution of spectators and to prevent local pressure building up outside the ground.  Walls, fences and gates should not provide the opportunity for hand or foot- holds which might assist climbing. They should be regularly inspected.  The design of the turnstile and its housing should allow for the operator to see and communicate clearly with entrants.  Turnstiles are not suitable for use by wheelchair users, visually impaired spectators and people with assistance dogs. The most practical design solution is to provide level access via a gate or door, with an appropriate vision panel, which is staffed by a steward. Arrangements must be in place to ensure that all those entering by such routes are counted among the spectators attending the event.
  12. 12.  Horizontal circulation  Concourse : • A concourse is defined as a circulation area that provides direct access to and from viewing accommodation to which it may be linked by vormitories, passageways, stairs or ramps. • It is recommended that all new sports ground concourses should be designed to allow at least 0.5m2 per person (a density of 20 persons/10 m2) expected to occupy the concourse at peak times.
  13. 13.  Vormitories  A vormitory is an access route built into the gradient of a stand which directly links spectator accommodation to concourses, and/or routes for ingress, egress and emergency evacuation. Passage through a vomitory can be either level, or via stairways, and can flow either parallel or transverse to the rows of terraces or seats.  If passage through the vomitory is by steps, the design, dimensions, barriers and handrails should meet the requirement for stairways  These barriers should be protected (by infill or screening), to prevent spectators climbing through and approaching from behind.
  14. 14. Vertical Circulation STAIRWAYS AND GANGWAYS : a. Stairway b. Radial gangway c. Lateral gangway Design of stairways (Basic Specifications and dimensions)  The stairway width should be uniform.  All goings and risers on each stairway should be uniform between floors.  Open risers should not be used.  Winders (that is, tapered treads) should not be used.  Stair treads should be slip-resistant, have durable edgings, and, where appropriate, have adequate drainage.  All nosing should be clearly marked.  Individual flights should consist of no more than 12 risers.  Recommended minimum width of stairs : 1.2m Maximum width: 1.8m  Minimum riser height: 150mm and Maximum height:170mm or 180mm
  16. 16.  Playing field:  No fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m).  A cricket pitch is 22 yards long.
  17. 17.  Parts of a Field:  The pitch:  The pitch measures 10 × 66 feet (3.05 × 20.12 m).Lines drawn or painted on the pitch are known as creases.  Pitches are generally classified as:  Green Pitch: They contain fair amount of grass and are conducive to bounce and swing.  Dry Pitch: They contain no grass and are conducive to spin.  Concrete Pitch: These are made of concrete and generally used for practice facilities.  Mats: These are used for practice facilities as well and laid over the pitch.
  18. 18.  Playing field quality  The playing field must be absolutely smooth and level.  It can have natural grass or artificial turf according to the need condition.  With natural grass, it should have an efficient watering system for use in dry weather.  Playing field should be equipped with an underground heating system for cold climate  Good playing field should include proper underground and surface drainage to allow play during rain.  Advertising Boards around Playing Area  Advertising boards normally have a height of 90-100cm  The minimum distances between the boundary lines of the playing field and the advertising boards should be: 4-5m
  19. 19.  Access to Playing Area :  Vehicles of the emergency services, including ambulance and fire engines, must be able to gain access to the playing area.  All types of ground maintenance vehicles and various other kinds of vehicles should also be able to gain access to the playing area.  Exclusion of Spectators form Playing Area : It is essential to protect against attract form the spectators. This could be accomplished in a number of ways, including one or more of the following.  Security personnel
  20. 20.  Moats : Adapted seating  Screens and fences
  21. 21. Drainage:  For the drainage of stadium there are two methods:  Drain Cell  Drain Core  Drain Cell:
  22. 22.  Drain Core:
  23. 23.  ROOFING STRUCUTRE:  TYPES OF ROOF:  Pitched truss  King post truss  Queen post truss  Post and beam structures  Goal post structures  Cantilever structures  Concrete shell structures  Compression/ tension ring Tension structures- catenary cable and cable net structures.
  24. 24. LONG SPAN STRUCTURE: • Structure with span larger than 20m can be regarded as long span structure for this span is usually unable to be achieved by ordinary RC structure. • Long-span buildings create unobstructed, column-free spaces greater than 30 meters (100 feet) for a variety of functions.  Common Structural Forms for Long Span Building Structures:  Insitu RC, tensioned  Precast concrete, tensioned  Structural steel – erected on spot  Structural steel – prefabricated  Portal frame – insitu RC  Portal frame – precast  Portal frame – prefabricated steel
  25. 25.  MAJOR TYPES OF LONG SPAN STRUCTURE:  Space truss:  Cable Structure:
  26. 26. Pneumatic Structure:  Pneumatic structure is a membrane which carries load developed from the tensile stresses.  Pneumatic structures have a wide range of possible materials. Shell Structure:
  27. 27.  There are three main types of shell roof:  The single barrel shell  Multi barrel shell  The continuous barrel  Umbrella structure:
  28. 28. Water supply:  DOMESTIC USE AND FIRE PROTECTION can be separate and combined. Underground water piping  All piping in the ground from 80 mm dia and above is to be of class C asbestos cemen tpressure pipe and where of less than 80 mm dia is to be of class 16 high density polyethyleneor thin wall hard drawn copper pipe. Above ground cold water piping  Cold water pipework above ground level, but concealed in roofs and ducts etc. may be of galvanized iron, thin wall hard drawn copper or stainless steel, for all diameters.
  29. 29. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING:  Flood Lighting:  In 4 cardinal direction (each lamp of 1000-2000W)  It shouldn’t affect the other nearby building because of its glare.  Non-televised match ─ 500 to 700 lux  Televised match ─ 1400 lux  Mounting height:  The mounting height geometry sideline head frames and poles in 25 degree not exceed 45 degree.  In other rooms like changing room it should be of 100 to 150 lux.
  30. 30.  Players, Officials and Spectators Requirement  Access to Dressing Rooms  Dressing Rooms:  There should be two principal dressing rooms in a stadium of equal size, style and comfort  At least two there should be separate team areas, but preferably four. Minimum size is 150m2.  Umpires’ Area:  It’s minimum size should be 24m2.  It should have clothes hanging facilities or lockers for 4 people.
  31. 31.  Coaches’ Offices  It should be adjacent to the teams’ dressing rooms.  There should be 2 rooms of minimum 24m2.
  32. 32.  Access from Team Areas to Playing Field :  The tunnel should be 4m-6m wide and a minimum of 2.3m high.  First Aid and Treatment Room  This room is used by players, match officials, the media, VIPs and security Personnel  Minimum sized 50m2.  Doping Control Area  Minimum size is 36m2
  33. 33.  Spectator’s requirements:  Spectator area/Seating:  Capacity depends upon the use and population.  The area should be divided into sectors for easy access and all the required services like entrances, exits, stairways, doors, passages, toilets etc. should be located at each sector.  Blocks or groups of 2500 places should be provided to avoid overcrowding.  To give spectator clear view and ensure good acoustics, Vitruvius recommended a fired gradient of 1:2 for the both seating and standing areas. Space required for spectator is 0.5 x 0.4-0.45m per seat (including adjacent circulation area).
  34. 34.  SEATING AREAS:  The necessary space for seating area is calculated as follows:  Width of seat 0.5m  Overall depth 0.8m  Seat depth 0.35m  Circulation 0.45m  Depending on the arrangement of entrances and exits,each row can comprise  On each side of a passage:  In shallow rising rows 48 places  In steeply rising rows 36 places.  Seating and standing areas must be separated by fences.  For every 750 seats an escape route (stairway, ramp, flat surface) with a minimum width of 1.00 must be provided
  35. 35.  The formula giving the staircase width necessary to allow a certain numbers of spectators to leave the stadium in a given time is: Number of spectator  Staircase width (m) = Emptying time(s) X 1.25  STANDING AREAS:  The necessary space for standing space is calculated as follows:  Width of standing space 0.5m  Depth of standing space 0.4m  For every 750 spaces an escape route (stairway,ramp,flat surface) with a minimum width of 1.00 m must be provided.  Each block should have its own entry/exit points and should be separated from the others by fences.  Barrier of 1.10m,between every ten rows of the standing spaces.
  36. 36.  Spectators with Disabilities  For individual wheelchair:  Min. width of the stand 900 mm  Min depth of the stand 1400 mm
  37. 37.  Toilet Facilities:  Sets of men’s and women’s rest room should be provided at one or more locations on each public level.  The required number of toilets per visitor is 0.01 of which,  40% toilets for women.  20% toilets for men.  40% urinals.  10% WC and 5% washbasins for every 500 women’s.  2% WC and 4% washbasins for every 1000 men  First Aid Rooms for the Public  Stadium should be equipped with a first aid room for spectators.
  38. 38.  Public flow:  Large sign are appreciate provides direction in the location of sections entrances.  Provision of emergency exit gates unlocked for all time.  Stairway themselves should act as emergency exit.  Staircase width(m)=number of spectator  Emptying time(s)X 1.25  Emergency Exit  In order to achieve this, management should ensure that:  There are sufficient numbers of exits in suitable locations.  All parts of exit routes are of adequate width and height.  People do not have to travel excessive distances in order to exit from the spectator.
  39. 39.  Fire Safety :  Adopt measures designed to minimize the fire risk  Ensure that measures are taken to restrict the rate of early fire growth and fire spread  Provide and protect sufficient emergency evacuation  Provide appropriate fire detection and warning systems  Signage:  a. Safety signs  b. Information signs  c. Commercial signs and hoardings
  40. 40.  Other Facilities :  Gift and souvenir shops:  Ticketing Facility  Gallery  Museum  Gardens
  41. 41. Design Considerations for Cricket Academy:  Warm-up Areas/practice areas:  Outdoor practice nets  These areas should have a grass surface (artificial turf is acceptable) and be surrounded by plain walls with no protrusions. Outdoor areas should be sufficiently lit to enable their use at night.  Turf practice wickets  20.12mX2.5m per wicket  Synthetic practice wicket  20.12mX3 per wicket  The length of the overall practice net area is to be a minimum of 50m and the height is generally 5m.
  42. 42.  Indoor practice nets and facilities:  Key design features:  • Clearly identified entrance  • Well-articulated structure  • Prominent signage  • Crisp detailing  • High quality roof and wallcladding.
  43. 43.  Some of the features of the indoor practice facilities are:  For five (5) indoor nets (wickets) each with a minimum width of 3m and allowing 2m wide walkway on one side of the centre  Overall the indoor centre to have an internal width of 20m and a length of 50m  The indoor centre to be a column free minimum height of 5m  Fixing of cameras and video recording systems as well as extensive lighting and sound equipment
  44. 44.  INDOOR ARENA DESIGN AND PAVILIONS:  Careful planning of the Arena’s accommodation is essential to ensure its success and integral to this is consideration of the Arena’s use and operation.  How the building is to be used by visitors and staff must be thought about during the design phase.  The building should be easy to understand for existing and new users, with simple circulation and straightforward access to the sports courts.  The Arena is not a sterile environment but should generate a sense of atmosphere and excitement on approach to the sports courts.  Visitor facilities should be sized to suit occupancy levels and patterns of use and, along with staffed areas, can be located to assist the management and running of the Arena, minimizing staff levels.  Although no two facilities are the same, in addition to the actual playing environment, there are requirements common to all Arenas whether newly built or a conversion of an existing building.  Layouts will vary considerably depending on the Arena size, the sports and other activities on offer
  45. 45.  Changing rooms:  Changing capacity should be calculated to cope with normal, maximum occupancy when all courts and other activities are operating  There must be changing accessible to disabled players.  At least one individual unisex accessible changing room with shower and toilet.  -It should have an access to the external pitches.  Changing rooms should be designed with high ceilings
  46. 46.  STORAGES:  -Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this should be provided in suitably located stores.  -Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this should be provided in suitably located stores.  Lockers, bag drop and buggy store:  -Lockers are best located behind the courts where they restrict space less than in changing rooms, are convenient for use by all patrons and are less susceptible to vandalism  -Allowance needs to be made for the storage of personal cricket equipment.
  47. 47.  ACADEMIC AND OTHER FACILITIES:  Lecture hall  Room size: 26' X 30’ for 35.  Separate tablet armchairs for 35 students  The seven seats spacing of 3' 6” laterally and 4' 6" between the end seat and side walls  This arrangement requires about 22 square feet of space per student
  48. 48. Hostel/dormitory  It is the residence where students stay for studying, training and some other proposes.  It is facilitated with facilities like, study room, bedroom, dining/lounge area, recreational area, laundry, entertainment area, and many other facilities  Size of Bed/Bedrooms:  Single Rooms  Minimum recommended area - 90 sqft  Optimum recommended area - 110 sqft  Generous recommended area - 120 sq. Ft 
  49. 49.  Double rooms with bunked beds  Minimum recommended area - 140 sqft  Optimum recommended area - 160 sqft  Generous recommended area - 180 sqft  Double rooms without bunked beds  Minimum recommended area - 180 sqft  Optimum recommended area - 220 sqft  Generous recommended area - 240 sqft
  50. 50.  Kitchen/dining  Space for dining areas is usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time.  Dining room: 60% of total area  Kitchen (cooking, storage, preparation): 40-50% of total area  Seating requirements  Small children: 8s q ft  Adult seating: 12 sqft  Banquet seating: 10 sqft  Deluxe seating: 30 sqft  Place seating for adults: 24 inch  Place seating for child: 20 inch
  51. 51.  Area required for seating Table 2.4-1: space required for different seating
  52. 52.  PHYSICAL THERAPY DEPARTMENT:  They include:  reception area,5m2  staff space,  examining room,  Treatment areas,  Toilet facilities,  Storage.
  53. 53.  Gym hall  No of users – 40-50  Room size – at least 200m²  Height – 3m  Width of room for double row arrangement of machine – at least 6m  The length of room to allow clear supervision of all trainers – 15m or less  For 12 users minimum room size is – 40m²  Sauna  The sauna is more than a method of bathing in hot and cold water. It is a type of physical cleansing, almost a ritual, and it is now an essential part of all modern sports facilities.  Construction  The bathing room should be as small as possible: - A = <16m²  H = <2.5m  Wall & ceiling should be lined with dark colored timber to reduce heat radiation. Walls are solid softwood timber, with an exception of the oven.
  54. 54.  Swimming pool  Changing room- at least 30 lockers and no less than 7.50m length of bench.  The ratio of changing rooms spaces to lockers ranges up to 1:8.  Minimum clear height of 2.50m  Dimension of the room should be 1m wide, 1.25m deep and 2m high  Changing rooms for wheel chairs users need overall measurements of 2m wide, 1m deep, 2m deep and a clear door width of 0.8m.  Lockers are 0.25m or 0.33m wide and 1.80m or 0.90m high and with a clear depth of 0.50m.
  55. 55.  Ice Baths:  Usually a bath tub is placed in the dressing room or the physiotherapy room and filled with ice so that the players can recover from the injuries. They are an important part of modern day players fitness. SUSTAINABILITY AND MANAGEMENT PLAN:  Reduce general energy consumption.  Reduce waste and carbon emissions.  introduce the means to generate energy locally  Promote the rational use and recycling of natural resources, primarily water.  Natural lighting with use of transparent or translucent roofing materials  Natural heating and cooling  Rainwater harvesting  Grey water re-use  Solar panels and wind energy.
  56. 56. CASE STUDY 1 (NATIONAL): Dasrath Stadium Complex INTRODUCTION:  Located at the Tripureswor constructed in area of 110 ropanis with capacity of 20,000 spectators.  The stadium complex also houses other games like Swimming, Judo, Taekwondo, Karate, Boxing, Wrestling, Wushu, Kickboxing and other physical fitness games. Access to the stand:  There are ten entry gates to the stadium among which seven lead to the general parapet dividing the entire stand into nine blocks.  Staircases provided are of 8 ft with the center to center distance of the entrance gates is 30m. Components:  Football ground  General stand:  The general stand has the capacity of 16,400.
  57. 57. In the ground floor:  Stores  Nepal Shatokan Karate Association  Two rooms for weightlifting  Nepal Bharlkta line Sangh  Sports library  Residence of staff In the first floor  Public rest rooms  Administration offices  Nepal Germany Athletics Development In total the provided rest rooms are:  The rest room has been provided on the ground floor. The provided toilets are not sufficient. For gents  WC - 20 in nos.  Urinal - 60 in nos.  Thus, 1 WC serves 550 spectators  And, 1 urinal serves 182 spectators
  58. 58.  For ladies WC - 6 in nos. Thus, 1 WC serves 911 spectators Evacuation in case of General Stand:  Staircase width (m) =Number of spectators/( Emptying time(s) X 1.25)  Thus, required width of stadium is 2m to empty in 5 minutes and provided width is 2.4m which is sufficient.  Total capacity of the stand = 3600  Total no. of steps =25  The width of the staircase = 2.5m VVIP/VIP stand:  The grand stand has the capacity of 3600 the color of the seat separate the category of people using it.  The red colored seat is for VIP’s and Blue one is for press. Separate beautiful enclosure is there for the VVIP seat.
  59. 59. Player’s Facilities Change Room:  This is located adjacent to the player’s entry.  Each Unit measures 11.5m x 4.35m. Each unit consists of  Changing Room: 7.18m X 4.35m  Bathroom: 4.32m X 4.35m  2 basins, 2 WCs, 3 showers and 3 urinals Circulation:  No. of Exits: 10  No. of Stair ways: 7  Width of Stairways: 3m  Distance between two exits: 30m  Using above formula, we get an escape time of about 6min. So, we can say that requirement of escape time is met.  Maximum travel distance to exit: about 30m in exit is in one directional only  Maximum travel distance to exit: about 42 m in alternative ways  So, we can say that exits are not located at right locations and no. of exits is not sufficient.
  60. 60. Outside Circulation:  The Stadium is surrounded by two peripheral roads- one the main street along west side and another along Southern side of the stadium.  There is no clear segregation of public and non-public traffic approaching the stadium.  The stadium enters from the north, south and southeast gate while players enter from east gate.  There is no separate entry for the players. They enter from the same gate as spectators do.
  61. 61. CASE STUDY 2(NATIONAL) TU International Cricket Ground Main Cricket Ground:  Total area of the ground is 16277.76m2 i.e. of 75 yards radius but boundary at 65 yards.  Facilitated with:  Media Centre  Dressing Room  Match officials Room  Total Area of Score boards = 4. 10 m X 2.95 m ( Manual Scoreboard)  Main Score board = 3m length X 2.6m height (Digital Scoreboard)  Good drainage facilities observed but the ground condition itself is poor in drainage.  Grass not maintained and wind makes it worse.  Main pitch square raised 20 cm  Foundations laid for the parapets but not built.  Security was lacking as the boundary wall was not made secure  5 entries provided to the main ground, 1 main and 4 accessory PITCH OUT FIELD 10 cm 20 cm
  63. 63. Indoor Practice Academy (Under construction):  2 practice wickets  12 post, bowstring truss  Bamboo bases for the nets to be prepared  2 bowling machines  Total 20m length for the pitch other length for delivery run-up.  Nets material = mesh wire plastic nets  Roof Form: Curved  Light :  Bilateral from S-N  No artificial lighting  Services: Guttering, Water supply, Drainage  Building lined by 85cm of brick masonry rest, plastic nets to be installed later.  Floor height at its highest point ( 7m )  Batting difficulty at southern most pitch after 4pm as setting sun meets the eye (glare
  64. 64. Outdoor Practice wickets:  1 bay of 3.67m  For concrete pitch, length = 10.67m  Total no of playable pitches  2 concrete wickets  2 dry wickets  4 grass wickets  Practice net height was placed at about 3.5m  length of the run-up for bowlers:  30 m for fast bowlers  5 m for spin bowlers  15 – 20 m for medium bowlers  Area for the outdoor wickets = 8 X 3.67 X 30 = 880.8 m2
  65. 65. Indoor facilities:  Ramps provided at the entrance foyer space  Foyers leading through the ramp provide with circulation to the gymnasium and the office  2 gymnasiums provided and an equipment room with locker  Gym size = 6.39 m X 5.9 m  Facility provided restrooms with 2 showers, 2 urinals, 2 w/c and 3 basins EQUIPMENT / STORAGE GYM GYM OFFICE RAMP CIRCULATION
  66. 66. CASE STUDY 3 (National): National Sport Council, Covered Hall INTRODUCTION:  The building coverage is about 5 ropanies.  The main entrance of the building is also use for the purpose of VIP’s entry for the covered hall.  The administration building contains double height lobby, electrical room, and rooms for the offices and rest rooms for staffs.  Designed by the architect Gangadhar Bhatta Access to the covered hall:  The access for the players and spectators has been clearly separated.  Players enter directly from the ground floor, whereas the main access to the parapet for VVIP/VIP and other spectator is from the first floor. Player’s room : Parapet :  The total capacity of the hall is 1000 and the number of steps in parapet is eleven on left and eleven on right with length of 101’9”.  for the VVIP/VIP four steps with the provision of chair and its length are 59’.  The capacity of VVIP/VIP parapet is 100. And the width provided is 2ft.
  67. 67. Construction:  Main columns of the structure are 18”x 18”  Exterior columns are of 9”x 25”  Beam size is mainly of 18”x24”  Two heavy trusses of 7’x3’ support the roof covering. Clearance :  Required is 41ft and actually is 48 ft. Evacuation :  Door width for the entrance for spectators= 4’6”  Door width for the entrance for VVIP/VIP= 8’ Rest rooms:  Each gent’s toilet has: WC= 4 nos. Urinals= 10 nos.  Each ladies toilet has: WC= 10 nos.
  68. 68. Case study 4(National): All Nepal Football Association (ANFA) Sports Complex INTRODUCTION:  Area of 142000sq. ft.  3 wings : ANFA House, Playground, Hostel building ANFA House:  Central office of ANFA  Architecture- contemporary style  Ground floor contains- lobby, reception, pantry, stores, electrical room, separate toilets, meeting room (36ft.X27ft. for 21 people) and women’s football committee  First floor contains offices  Second floor contains auditorium (645ft. X 31ft.) with a stage of 13.5ft.X 31ft. And audience area of 31 ft. X 31 ft. For about 300 persons.
  69. 69. Hostel Building:  The hostel building is located at the western side of the complex.  The building has 27 rooms for players, 4 rooms for coaches. The buildings now accommodate about 63 numbers of players. In Ground Floor:  Gym Hall, Study Room, Kitchen, Dining Hall, Store ,Rest Room In First Floor:  Bed Room Coach Room, Rest Room with Shower, Shower – 8 nos., WC – 12 nos. In Second Floor:  Bed Room, Coach Room, Rest Room with Shower, Shower – 8 nos., WC – 12 nos.
  70. 70. CASE STUDY 5 (NATIOANL) : Royal Cricket INTRODUCTION:  Located at Golfutar, 200 m south  The total area of the site is 3 ropanies.  It is constructed within a residential unit and with slum areas to the south Facilities  3 Practice wickets.  Indoor cricket of 6 A sides.  Dressing room towards the south with facilities like a shower, 1 w/c, 1 changing room, 1 basin for each male and female and 1 urinals for males only with an access to the playing area.  Specific Wickets with springs.  Charged in terms of games which is of 12 overs of 2 innings.  Viewing area provided on the north and the south.  Bowling run up provided of 5.5 m.  Net provided 20ft above so as to provide a safe net for the balls.  Training facilities for all cricket professionals as well as amateurs.
  71. 71. Construction:  Constructed of Bowstring steel frame truss  Height of the structure is 28ft.  Masonry wall used until 20ft and then steel frames risen  Interior wall of the playing area bright to provide enough lighting.  Use of metal mesh wires for entry.  Rain water collected and drained through the drainage. Materials used:  Coarse rubber mat used for pitch  Use of tiles in the dressing area  Use of rubber and plastic used in the playing area  CGI sheets used for covering  Transparent CGI sheets used in places providing diffused light FACILITY DRESSING OFFICE / CAFE RESIDENCE PARKING
  72. 72. Ventilation and Lighting:  Ventilation done through north and west  Diffused lighting used through transparent plastic sheets  Indirect light also obtained from the viewing area  Use of halogen lamps done for artificial lighting
  73. 73. CASE STUDY 6 (NATIONAL): KUNDALINI, Suite Hotel & Health Resort (P) Ltd INTRODUCTION:  Located at Chappalkarkhana, Kathmandu and established in 1996. Facilities:  Parking:  Main building Swimming pool , Multipurpose hall, Sauna ,Japanese bath, Steam shower, Beauty parlor, Gym hall, Restaurant  Outdoor playing areas Tennis court , Badminton court
  74. 74.  Swimming Pool  facilities like sauna, steam bathing and Japanese bathing are also accessed through the swimming pool  separate swimming pool for kids  adults have the depth from 3’6” to 5’6” And for the children depth of the pool is 2’6”  The rest room of gents consists of:  3- urinals  2-w/c  3 showers
  75. 75.  Multipurpose hall  multipurpose hall is itself a mezzanine floor to the restaurant’s floor  Sauna  accessed through the restroom of swimming pool  consist of a cooling area outside the sauna  provided is of 7.6m× 4.56m and setting is done in the morning at Max of 110 degree  Japanese Bath  small room of 10’×6’ in which 6’×6’ is the bath pool and depth of 1’6”.
  76. 76.  Steam Shower  Steam Shower Room is just similar to the Sauna with stepped sitting area
  77. 77. Case Study 7 Grassroots Recreational Center  Services  Two futsal pitches, Gym, Cafeteria, Swimming pool, Restrooms, Guard house  Futsal Area:  Two pitches of area : 26m X 32m  Roof covered with CGI sheets  Use of steel structures ( I- section)  Metal mesh wire  Raised chords truss  Flooring : Astro turf + rubber granules for grips  Additional foam cover used inside for safety  Pitches separated by advertising boarding at the middle
  78. 78.  Parking:  8 vehicles (Cars/Jeeps) and 50 bikes  Area: 26m x 12m  Rest Rooms:  Male:  4 shower, 2 urinals, 1w/c, 2 basins  Female:  4 shower, 1 w/c, 2 basins  Office:  A single working table and seating for two.  Gymnasium:  Separated into 2 sections (Muscles and Cardio )
  79. 79. Case Study 8 Hardic Fitness Centre  Located at Sanepa  Parking leads to either the swimming area or the gymnasium  Swimming pool open provided with sitting spaces for café  The other area is provided with a reception which acts on giving information to both facilitated areas  Through the reception the gymnasium is sorted out  a sitting area is provided in the middle which acts as a room for lockers, a sitting room and also a space to provide natural lighting and which also air circulation  The gymnasium is provided with 2 facilities i.e. a cardio and a gym RECEPTION GYM CARDIO SWIMMING CAFE PARKING FUTSAL SITTING
  80. 80.  The gymnasium is provided with 2 restrooms with showers cum changing but the fact that the two room for two genders are opposite to one another and doesn’t provide with privacy as visual link between them is seen  6 people can exercise at the cardio at the same time  Area of cardio is about 120 – 150 sq. ft.  At the same time about 10 – 15 people can exercise at the gym at the same time  Area of the gym is about 600 sq. ft.
  81. 81. Case Study 9 Sumeru City Hospital  Types of injuries to players:  Ligament, Knee joint, Stress injuries, Muscles strain, Rotary Cup Tear, Impact Injuries  On Field /Off field Management  PRICE = Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation  Facilities  Treatment Table, Equipment, Electro – therapy, Tens, IFT, Ultra Sound, Moist Heat, Wax, BWD  Assessment table of dimension 6' X2' X2.5' used  Treatment table of dimension 6'X 3' X 2.5' used
  82. 82. Case Study 10 Blue Cross hospital  Located at Tripureswor  Provided with an assessment bed and 2 treatment table  A working table is also provided  2 people can be assessed at a time  facility provided to professional players playing on the Dasarath Rangashala. BED BED BED
  83. 83. CASE STUDY –(Melbourne Cricket Ground, Australia ) INTRODUCTION :  The Melbourne Cricket Ground is one of Australia’s greatest assets.  It is the busy venue accommodating international cricket, Australian Rules football, concerts, dinners and other major functions on its natural turf arena.  More than three million people visit the ground annually.  Melbourne Cricket Club manages the stadium and has progressively expanded the MCG’s role as both an entertainment centre and a world-class tourist destination. Ground Capacity:  The total capacity of the MCG is 100,018.  This includes 95,000 seats and approximately 5000 standing room spaces.
  84. 84. Spectator Facilities:  This marvelous structure, accommodating 44,500 people and covering 45 per cent of the stadium’s perimeter, brought state-of-the-art comfort, convenience and hospitality facilities to all levels of Melbourne’s sporting society.  Facilities and finishes are superior throughout. The male/female toilet ratio has been significantly improved and, for comfort and ease of access, individual plastic bucket seats are fixed on broader plats.  Sightlines from all seats are uninterrupted and, because the new structure is much closer to the arena than the stands it replaced, spectators are also closer to the action.  Seats are approximately 30% bigger than the previous northern stand and about 80% of seats are under roof cover.  Large, deep rooms enable tenant sports and clubs to accommodate up to 500 guests.  . Extensive landscaping and a new access road enhance the sense of arrival for visitors.  Capping the new stand is a hybrid roof, part metal and part glass. This considerably increases the brightness of the seating areas.
  85. 85. MELBOURNE CRICKET CLUB:  It is a private club, incorporated under the Melbourne Cricket Club Act 1974, boasting by far the biggest membership of any sporting club in Australia.  The MCC also has the public responsibility of managing one of the largest and the most successful stadiums in Australia and the world – the MCG.  The MCC has 100,280 members (comprising 60,286 Full members and 39,994 Restricted members) as at August 2009. At this time, there were 194,097 people on the waiting list. Between 10,000 and 15,000 people are nominated for membership each year. A NATURAL TURF ARENA:  After the Olymic Games much of the arena was reconstructed and red mountain soil laid to a depth of about 60cm.  Compaction over the years gave this soil the consistency of clay and major drainage problems began to surface in the late 1980s.  In the spring of 1992 the arena was completely reconstructed with a sand-based profile, giving the ground remarkable drainage characteristics and superior load-bearing ability.
  86. 86. Dimensions:  The MCG arena has a total of approximately 20,000 square metres in area and measures 171 x 146 metres in length, from fence to fence.  The boundary line measures five metres from the fence.  The volume of the MCG is 1,700,000 cubic metres, or 1.7 million cubic metres.  The goal posts for AFL matches are 15 metres in height (point posts are 10 metres high) and the  length of the cricket pitch is 22 yards, which in metric terms is 20.12 metres. Arena Grow Lights:  As a result, the MCC procured a product called Stadium Grow Lighting, a mobile supplementary lighting unit  The shipment, comprising 11 lighting rigs each measuring 12m x 2.5m x 2.5m and two smaller rigs.  The lighting rigs are placed above the grass to provide light and heat, which stimulates turf growth.  This will enable to achieve year-round quality turf in all weather conditions.
  87. 87. Portable Cricket Pitches:  The volume and variety of events played at the MCG requires a versatile surface that enables the stadium to switch from one sport to another in a short period of time.  It has led the field in a range of turf management techniques designed to develop a playing surface which can be used efficiently and meets competition demands.  The 1992 reconstruction of the oval utilising a revolutionary sand-based profile boosted drainage capacity and introduced a more durable turf cover so that more events could be scheduled at the MCG.  The absence of cricket pitches from the centre in the winter months provides a safer playing surface for AFL players and allows events such as international soccer and Bledisloe Cup rugby to be played on a world-class surface.
  88. 88. LIGHT TOWERS:  The light tower system comprises of six light towers which stand approximately 75 metres high (equivalent to a 24- story building) with the head frame a further 10 metres higher (85 metres overall).  The foundations for the towers consist of four reinforced concrete piers which are set down in depth from seven to 12 metres depending on the sub surface structure.  Each of the hollow tubular steel towers contains about 130 tonnes of steel.  The diameter reduces from 4.2 metres at the base to two metres at the top.  There are between 12 and 14 landings connecting ladders inside each tower. The head frames of the towers are angled in at 15 Degrees in order to provide optimum levels of light.
  89. 89. Written press:  The main press box at the MCG is located on Level 3 of the Olympic Stand, with unimpeded views of the playing arena and a capacity for 48 people.  To cater for larger requirements, the Great Southern Stand has provision for another 20-30 spaces on the ground level.  Wireless internet access and power outlets are available at each seat, while catering facilities are available at the rear of the room. Press conference room:  The press conference room is located in between the team changerooms on Level B1 of the Ponsford Stand.  The area has a capacity for 50 people and wireless internet is available.  The procedures in this room are at the discretion of the media liaison officer representing the event promoter. Radio:  There are eight radio commentary booths on Level 3 of the Olympic Stand, located adjacent to thepress box in the Ron Casey Media Centre. Wireless internet is available in each booth. Media facilities: The MCG is equipped with state-of-the-art media facilities to accommodate a variety of media personnel.
  90. 90. MCG AND THE ENVIRONMENT:  The MCC is extremely conscious of its social and community responsibility with regards to the way itoperates the MCG and its other venues.  Water conservation and waste management, in particular, are issues that the MCC is working hard with stakeholders and experts to ensure the club remains a socially responsible stadium manager.  Environmental initiatives include the installation of timer controlled taps in the public toilets of the Great Southern Stand and the introduction of hand dryers to reduce paper towel waste  The club is also an active participant in the Closed Loop recycling program.  Lighting and air conditioning are controlled via a building management system at the ground and therefore can be controlled to be only on when required. Waste Management:  The MCC adheres to five key guiding principles to continually improve its performance in waste  management:  • Reduce unrecyclable waste  • Reuse materials where possible  • Promote recycling by providing appropriate infrastructure  • Educate employees, patrons and contractors  • Use landfill as a last resort.
  91. 91. Water Conservation:  The club, responsible for the maintenance of 20,000 square metres of MCG turf, has operated under a water conservation plan for some time.  The sand profile on the ground has helped reduce water usage by more than one million litresannually without reducing turf quality. Commercial Operations:  The Commercial Operations Department handles leasing of corporate suites, selling MCC suites and dining rooms on an event by event basis, marketing strategies. Heritage and Tourism:  The Heritage and Tourism Department has several responsibilities: • Operating the National Sports Museum. • Operating the MCC Museum and Library. • Operating the MCG Tours. • Managing the collections of both museums and the Library. • Stadium dressing and public art management.
  92. 92. A Major Tourist Attraction:  It is a major tourist attraction, with much of Australia’s sporting and social history residing within the walls of the National Sports Museum, which opened in March 2008.  Tours of this magnificent stadium are undertaken on all non- event days, taking visitors behind the scenes to get a glimpse of some of the magic and history within the walls of the mighty MCG. Social and Cultural Aspects: A City’s Heart and Soul  The MCG always has been a focal point of activity for Melburnians. If there was an important event in the city the odds were that the cricket ground would play host.  There have been several royal pageants and religious gatherings held at the ground.  The country’s first major cycling event, the Austral Wheel Race, was held there and experimental aeroplane flights used the arena as a runway, not always successfully.  School sports were staged at the MCG and the entire stadium was transformed to host the 1956 Olympic Games.
  93. 93. The Finest Amenities:  The MCG is a very popular venue for local and interstate visitors and a prime destination for international tourists.  Its many attractions include a wide range of well- appointed function rooms, most of which offer splendid, restful views of the arena below.  At other times the rooms may host a variety of functions such as business meetings, wedding receptions and cocktail parties, all handled by the functions team at Epicure Catering.  With exceptional new facilities, wireless internet by Internode throughout most parts of the MCG, luxurious internal design, and breath-taking views, the MCG offers a superb range of possibilities for corporate and private events unrivalled in a premium function venue
  94. 94. CASE STUDY:(Lord’s Indoor Cricket School)  With the 8-lane indoor practice facility and changing rooms, the building accommodates office space for regional, youth and disabled cricket boards, a shop, a bar with views into the practice area and a top floor outdoor terrace.  The barrel-vaulted roof profile was developed to allow in diffused north light enabling the space to be naturally lit throughout daylight hours.  Fabric blinds direct light when necessary. At night special light fittings are used which were designed with an egg crate louvre and an upward component lighting the ceiling and fabric louvres to minimise glare.  With the 2,740m2 building area accommodated on a footprint of 57.5m x 36m, the concentration of ancillary facilities in the front block leaves most of the ground floor and the building volume clear for the practice nets.  Within this 41m x 32m hall, the nets can be retracted to form either two areas for 6-a-side or one large hall to English Cricket Board standards.
  95. 95. Case study:(Lord's Shop) Introduction:  Lords shop is the retail facility for the Marylebone cricket club.  The site for the shop was very restricted limiting.  construction method options.Lords shop is the equipment shop for the cricket fans or professional. Lighting Natural lighting:  It is naturally lit through an inflated foil roof.  Having a predominantly naturally lit shop goes against recommendations for retail environments.  However is has been highly successful and massively reduced the energy consumption for this type of outlet.
  96. 96. Artificial lighting:  LED lights are used for the direct light to the shop .  LED light consumes much less energy than the other types of light. LED light also enhance the indoor equipment’s. Materials: Structure:  Universal I section for the column and beam for the height of 12’.and at the span of 10’. (Beam: 4”, column 3”) Glass:  Glass in the 3 bays of the front façade and at the back side as a ventilation.  Inflated foil roof are used in the roof the daylighting which does not give s glare to the interior.  Flexible fabric roofing materials is used for the porch or foyer space.  Tubular steel rods are used to hold the roofing sheets.
  97. 97. CASE STUDY:(National Cricket Academy, UK INTRODUCTION:  National cricket academy is also called national cricket performance centre which is the part of the loughborough sports of Loughborough University in UK.  National Cricket Performance Centre is the base and training facility for Loughborough MCCU.  It has the facilities of:  Gymnasium  Swimming pool  Physiotherapy  Indoor Practice Centre  The Centre is also utilised for the ECB’s coaching courses, and squad training camps.
  98. 98. INDOOR PRACTICE HALL:  It has the largest bespoke cricket training centre in the world.  Measuring 70m x 25m, there are six lanes and the hall is long enough to accommodate a fast bowler run-up bowling to a wicket keeper standing back.  The Hawkeye tracking system has been installed as a coaching aid in each lane.  At one end of the hall is a three storey pavilion with balconies, galleries and terraces having views to both indoor and outdoor cricket.  The pavilion accommodates a fitness and conditioning centre and changing rooms with a recovery area including hot and cold spa baths.  The facility also offers office accommodation, a “performance analysis” suite, video library and seminar rooms.  The Loughborough campus indoor cricket centre has an artificial supergrasse surface, high specification lighting and natural light in day time, hawk-eye cameras and a range of advanced technical analysis and sports science support facilities.
  99. 99. FACILITIES:  2 high standard cricket grounds on campus.  High standard grass and artificial net provision for Loughborough. Students is found on the two cricket grounds.  Loughborough MCCU players make extensive use of the two main fitness centres on campus.  LUFS’ is a more standard aerobic fitness gym, fitted with the latest equipment for both recreative and more serious training.  Physiotherapy, Sports Medicine and Sports Science support services are provided for the MCCU squad and its coaches.  Loughborough’s advanced Sports Science research facilities are utilised by ECB and other Cricket bodies for the benefit of Cricket generally. Olympic sized Swimming Pool:  Loughborough’s new £7million state-of-the-art Olympic-sized swimming pool.  The 50m pool can be divided into two 25m pools and the depth of water can be varied.
  100. 100. Loughborough Gym:  Loughborough university has a gym centre for the players and students.  Loughborough gymnastics is constructed with the area of 20x30=600m2.  It has the various facilities with the cardiology.  Near to the gymnastics centre there is a indoor cricket practice area which are divided with the partial barrier.  It has a capacity of maximum 30- 40 persons at a time with the approx. floor area of 20-10 m2 with the total circulation spaces and all others.  Near the gym area there is a rest room and the changing room. Lighting: Natural lighting:  For the natural lighting inflated foil are used in the roof in the small parts.  This type of roof provides the sufficient day light with the minimum glare to the room.
  101. 101. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING:  Diffused lights are provided through the wall in the corridor.Certain amount of artificial light also comes from the office rooms in the first floor.
  102. 102. CASE STUDY:(Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Centre PUR / Schneider & Lengauer) INTRODUCTION:  Architects: Schneider & Lengauer Location: Freistadt, Austria  They also offer medical exercise therapy, massage, and the sale of training and therapy utensils.  The integration of all these services made building a new practice essential.  It provides a simple, smooth and barrier-free organisation of all work areas.
  103. 103. INTERIOR:  The waiting area in the foyer is complemented with wardrobes and sanitary facilities to prevent carrying of road dust and dirt inside the building.  The deliberately simply and functionally designed therapy rooms are separated by an atrium, as are the cardiac and sports medicine training area. LIGHTING: NATURAL LIGHTING:  For the cardiology sufficient amount of Natural lighting are provided through the large window through the both side of the room with the exterior view.  UPVC windows are provided. Artificial lighting:  -For the artificial lighting provision of the tube light is done with the covering for the diffused lighting to the interior.  -Use of less amount of artificial lighting in the building.  -sufficient amount of light is provided which means (200- 300)lux.
  104. 104. FLOORING:  - Hardwood elastic flooring is done inside the building  - Flooring is smooth, slip resistant and splinter free.  - Ease of cleaning and maintenance. FUNCTIONAL FLOW :  Ramp leads to the lobby space of the building which is maintained with the perfect slop for the differently able regarding the normal people.  -Wit hthe entry we can see the reception and the waiting space which is provided with the natural lighting .  -There are the 2 corridors which leads to the cardiology and another one to the clinic and the rest rooms.  -Separate rooms for the office are provided.  -Cardiology area is planned at the end of the building for the privacy measures which has separate access to the foyer space for the refreshment and lighting.  -All office has the separate entarnce to the cardiology through the separate door.
  105. 105. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS Stadium: Only the major parts were selected for analysis.  Public Flow and Circulations: Literature: Great care should be taken in the design/planning process to avoid building institutions which will inhabit the smooth flow of spectators trough the public circulation spaces and to and from the seating areas. This should be true for normal traffic saturation or avoiding panic in emergencies. The signage at entrances, security checks, horizontal and vertical circulation like vormitories etc should be included. National Case Study: Taking lessons from the accidents that have occurred in the past the provision for vormitories have been provided at Rangashala. At the TU cricket ground there are no provisions, Signage, circulation patterns to be followed by the public. International Case Study: There are proper provision for all the security measures and the signages security checks ant other parts are in place. Analysis: The management of flow is a major aspect of the stadium complex. The signages, circulation paths and emergency management plans must be in place. For this purposes the inclusion of vormitories, spill out areas, evacuation time and route must be evaluated.
  106. 106.  The playing field and the pitch: Literature: A cricket field consists of a large circular or oval-shaped grassy ground on which the game of cricket is played. There are no fixed dimensions for the field but its diameter usually varies between 450 feet (137 m) and 500 feet (150 m).. The cricket ground can vary from being almost a perfect circle, to being an extremely elongated oval. On most grounds, a rope demarcates the perimeter of the field and is known as the boundary. A cricket pitch is 22 yards long. National Case Study: The TU ground has the boundaries at 65 yards that meet the standards set by the ICC. The dimensions of the pitches and playing conditions are according to the set standards. International case Study: The MCG arena has a total of approximately 20,000 square metres in area and measures 171 x 146 metres in length, from fence to fence. The boundary line measures five metres from the fence. Analysis: The playing field is the most important part of the stadium. It must be qualitative and the meet the standards set by the ICC. To maintain the quality of the playing field ant the pitches the type of grass to be used in the outfield must be soft type and a sandy layer beneath that adds to better playing conditions and safety of the players.
  107. 107.  Dressing Rooms and Pavilions: Literature: There should be two principal dressing rooms in a stadium of equal size, style and comfort. For multi-purpose stadium it is essential to have four changing rooms of equal size and comfort. It should be in the main stand. They should provide direct, protected access to the playing area and be inaccessible to the public and the media. At least two there should be separate team areas, but preferably four. Minimum size is 150m2. National Case Study: The dressing rooms in the TU cricket ground are very poor. They don’t meet the minimum requirements of a dressing rooms and considered a temporary facility by the players and the staff. They don’t have proper dressing rooms for umpires and coaching staffs alike. International Case Study: The dressing facilities include lockers, storages, showers and all the required facilities for the players, staffs and coaches alike. Analysis: The dressing rooms should have an indoor and outdoor area. The outdoor area should be such that the players can acclimatize to the conditions before going out to play. The indoor areas should include massage tables, showers etc. so that the players relax and cool down after the game.
  108. 108.  Emergency Exits: Literature: It is generally recognized that a period of great risk to crowd safety is at the time of leaving the sports ground. It is important, therefore, to provide exit systems capable of accommodating safely the passage of people within an acceptable period of time, and to avoid congestion and psychological stress. Exit systems may comprise gangways, stairways, passageways, ramps and other means of passage. Management should ensure that exit routes are planned and managed safely, to provide for spectators a smooth, unimpeded passage through an exit system until they reach the boundary of the ground, or, in an emergency, a place of safety. National Case Study: The provisions for emergency exits were poor in Rangashala and not available in the TU ground. Such ignorance led to a major accidents few decades ago at the Rangashala. International Case Study: Proper cautions and emergency evacuations protocols are in place along with the signage. Analysis: The emergency exits are an important part of a stadium complex. The emergency evacuation time must be evaluated properly and safety alarms, firefighting equipment if located in the stadium are preferable.
  109. 109. Academy Warm Up / Practice Area Outdoors Literature: These areas should have a grass surface (artificial turf is acceptable) and be surrounded by plain walls with no protrusions. Outdoor areas should be sufficiently lit to enable their use at night. • Turf practice wickets 20.12mX2.5m per wickets National: National Cricket Academy: The facility is provided with 8 practice wickets, 2 of concrete, w of grass and 2 dry wickets. The length of the run-up for bowlers was provided to be:  30 m for fast bowlers  5 m for spin bowlers  15 – 20 m for medium bowlers Also the area of wickets = 8 X 3.67 X 30 = 880.8 m2 International: The facility in Melbourne Cricket Ground is provided with the practice wickets which meet the requirement of the literature reviewed. Analysis: The net height should be about 15 m and the run up should be kept up to 30m.
  110. 110. Indoors: Literature: Synthetic practice wicket should be of 20.12mX3 per wicket. * The length of the overall practice net area is to be a minimum of 50m and the height is generally 5m. National: Royal Cricket Academy: The royal cricket academy is provided with 3 practice wicket which meets the requirement of the pitch but the run up length for bowlers have not been met. International: National Cricket Academy, UK: Area measuring 70m x 25m, there are six lanes and the hall is long enough to accommodate a fast bowler run-up bowling to a wicket keeper standing back Analysis: In terms of national level, the run up areas have to be maintained to provide proper training in terms of realist approach.
  111. 111. Changing Rooms: Literature:  Changing capacity should be calculated to cope with normal, maximum occupancy when all courts and other activities are operating  There must be changing accessible to disabled players.  At least one individual unisex accessible changing room with shower and toilet.  -It should have an access to the external pitches.  Changing rooms should be designed with high ceilings National: Royal Cricket: Changing room was provided with a changing room with a shower, a w/c and a basin for each gender with addition to a urinal for gents. It has access to the playing area through the back. National Cricket Academy: Was not provided with a changing room. International: National Cricket Academy, UK: changing rooms with a recovery area including hot and cold spa baths were provided. Analysis: Changing rooms should be provided with showers and such facility and also it should be constructed in such a way that
  112. 112. Lockers / Storage: Literature: -Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this should be provided in suitably located stores. -Sufficient storage capacity for sports equipment is essential, and this should be provided in suitably located stores. -Lockers are best located behind the courts where they restrict space less than in changing rooms, are convenient for use by all patrons and are less susceptible to vandalism -Allowance needs to be made for the storage of personal cricket equipment. National: Lockers were not provided in Neither the Royal Cricket nor the National Cricket Academy. International: Lockers are provided in the international facilities. Analysis: Facility for lockers and storage has to be provided so that players and coaches can store their possessions during training or matches.
  113. 113. Academic: Literature: Lecture hall  Room size: 26' X 30’ for 35.  Separate tablet armchairs for 35 students  The seven seats spacing of 3' 6” laterally and 4' 6" between the end seat and side walls  This arrangement requires about 22 square feet of space per student National: Not Provided. International: Loughborough campus: This educational institution provides players with academic facilities as well as facilities to help them excel in cricket. Analysis: In terms of promotion of cricket in the country, the academy should help to provide players with sufficient education such that they also mature not only in terms of play but also in terms of decision making and basic level skills that might help in their personal cum professional life.
  114. 114. Hostel/Dorm: Literature: It is the residence where students stay for studying, training and some other proposes. It is facilitated with facilities like, study room, bedroom, dining/lounge area, recreational area, laundry, entertainment area, and many other facilities The rooms may be categorised as single rooms, double rooms, and double rooms with bunked beds. National: The hostel at Anfa complex is a fine example of a dorm for players.It has all the facilities like gym,dining hall etc required in a sports academy. International: The dorm facilities include all the necessary facilities for the players. Analysis: Dorms should be created in such a way that the players feel at home in the facility. The facilities like gym etc if present in the dorm is preferred as players can enjoy the indoor facilities in the same roof.
  115. 115. Physiotherapy: Literature: Location is closely related to function. The area selected for physical therapy should be centrally located to minimize problems of transporting patients and to facilitate giving bedside treatment when necessary. The amount of space needed depends on the number of patients treated, the kinds of disabilities and the treatments required. Also to be considered is the fact that some space consuming equipment. Whatever the eventual size of a physical therapy department, from the very beginning plans must be made to provide certain kinds of workspace. For the physiotherapy room at least 68-75m2 productive area/treatment place. National: None were to be found. International: Loughborough campus: Sports Medicine and Sports Science support services are provided for the MCCU squad and its coaches. The Chief Physiotherapist and her team work closely with the squad, who are physiologically screened for injury prevention purposes, assisted with individualized strength and fitness development programs, and treated for injuries when necessary, through the easy to access on-site clinic close to the cricket facilities. Analysis: A physiotherapy session is required for professional in all sports such that injuries can be identified at a premature stage and sorted out quickly before it gets out of hand.
  116. 116. Gym: Literature: Room size should be at least 200m². Height of the room must be 3m with proper ventilation. The width of room for double row arrangement of machine – at least 6m and the length of room to allow clear supervision of all trainers – 15m or less. For 12 users minimum room size must be 40m². National: NCA was the only institute provided with a gymnasium. The gym was crammed when used to full potential. International: Loughborough campus: MCCU players make extensive use of the two main fitness centers on campus. ‘Powerbase’ is a strength and conditioning centre dedicated to use by performance squads like the MCCU. There, you will rub shoulders with international athletes and sports professionals, as well as the elite Loughborough Students squads. ‘LUFS’ is a more standard aerobic fitness gym, fitted with the latest equipment for both recreative and more serious training. MCCU members are provided with heavily subsidized membership of both of these facilities Analysis: Gym has to be provided for about 40. This helps to achieve fitness and also help to increase power by developing lean muscles as per requirement. It should include circulation spaces and lockers as well.
  117. 117. SITE ANALYSIS: Site Introduction:  Location: Mulpani – 8 Kha , Kathmandu, Nepal  Site Area: 95465.51 sq m (187-10-1-2) Access:  The access is through the main road from Chabahil leading to Sakhu.  Other access roads include the bagmati corridor road leading from Jaya Bageswori Chowk to the site.  A network of public transportation including the buses and micro buses provide an access to the site. Demographics and Context:  On the east of this land lies the old runway of Tribhuvan International Airport, on the west Siphal Dhoka, in the north Gurumarg Kailash and Gaurighat Khariko Bot, and in the south lies Ward No.9.  The ward is spread over 253.8 hectares, and its population in 2001 was 9,434.  The great majority (87.5%) are Hindus followed by Buddhists (9.7%).
  118. 118. SITE CHARACTERISTICS: Infrastructures:  Road: A total of 5.61 km of the road in and around the site has been black topped with 4.8 graveled roads in the area.  Sewerage: A total of 9 km of surface drains and sewers.  Solid Waste: A total of 18.54 cu m of solid waste is generated daily and collected in containers managed by the ward office.  Educational Institutions: A total of 6 educational institutions in and around the area.  Health Institutions: 1 Government hospital and 7 health centers and clinics available.  Industries and Shops: 3 manufacturing industries and a total of 565 shops are located within the area.  Security: Ward police office 3 police beats are available in the locality.  Fire Brigade: Available in the Pashupati area during Shivaratri.  Parking: Located in places like Amarkanteswor, Bhuwaneswari etc for bikes, taxis, bus etc.
  119. 119. NATURAL AND PHYSICAL FEATURES: Soil:  Clayey soil with layers on sand located a few feet below.  This type of soil is good for construction but as the site was used as a landfilling site the soil condition is weak. Slope:  A slope of 15-20% considered satisfactory for construction purposes.A steep slope in the northern portion of the site. Current use:  The site is currently used as the site for the development of International Cricket Stadium.  An Army Infantry is located within the site.  Some parts of the site is still used as the site for waste disposal.  Temporary huts have been constructed as shops within the site.
  120. 120. Built Environment:  School named Trikon School located in the south with residential units for the workers of the garment factories nearby.  The Gokarna Golf Club resort also lies in the close vicinity.  The Green Hill City housing development with plans for 8oo units are being constructed toward the west. SOCIO CULTURAL ASPECT:  The inhabitants belong to different ethnic groups, but Newars form the majority. Brahmins come second in terms of population.  The great majority (87.5%) are Hindus followed by Buddhists (9.7%). Muslims and Christians make up the rest.  The major festivals observed in the ward are Shivaratri, Teej Parva, Bajreswari Peeth Jatra, Batsaleswari Jatra, Trishul Jatra, Gai Jatra and Ropain Jatra.  Most of the people in the area are dependent upon agriculture and service for the income sources.  34 temples, 5 chaityas and other building of cultural importance lie in the area.  Lack of infrastructures, lack of preservation of heritages are some major problems in the site area.
  121. 121. Climatology:  The temperature varies from 0 C min to a max of 35 C.  The prevailing NW winds and E-S-W sun path direction.  Annual Rainfall with high percentage during July and August.A high of 8cm of rain in July. S.W.O.T. ANALYSIS: Strength:  The site has already been selected by the concerned authorities for the construction of the Cricket Stadium  The parts of the ground have been leveled and a few infrastructures have been built.  The site is located at the outskirts of the valley.  The proximity of The Hyatt Hotel and The Gokarna Golf Club Resort.  The Access to the site the main and access roads.  The public transport facilities leading the public to the site.  The favorable climatic conditions of the Kathmandu Valley.  The development of the Green Hill City development.
  122. 122. Weakness:  The Northern part of the site consists of a steep slope of 70 ft approx.  The soil condition of the site may not be suitable for heavy construction.  The lack of development of basic infrastructures.  The 13 KV transmission line through the site.  The squat settlements in the northern part of the site.  The Access road passing through the site.  The infantry located within the site.  The temporary huts within the site being used for economical purposes.  The waste being disposed in the site.  The proximity of the school nearby. Opportunities:  The prospect of designing an international cricket stadium and academy with the site being backed by the government already.  Reduction is cost for the leveling of the ground.  The proximity of star hotels can provide accommodation to national and international players during training and international events
  123. 123. .  The green hill city housing units can be used for the accomodations of players, coaches, staffs etc.  The climatic condition of the valley can lure National and International players and coaches to use the facilities once built.  The local transport facilities can meet the needs of the public for transportation during the matches and for players. Threats:  The steep northern slope may create structural problems during construction.  The soil condition may not be suitable for heavy construction.  The lack of development of basic facilities may create difficulties during the construction process.  The transmission line possesses threat to the safety of the players and spectators.  The squat settlements provide undesired views in the north.  The infantry of the army may oppose the construction of a stadium in the site.  The temporary huts occupy the valuable land needed for development.  The proximity of school means hindrance to the school during the matches.
  124. 124. INFERENCES:  The context and socio cultural aspects of the site must be taken into account before starting the design process.  The concerned authorities must be consulted with before starting the construction.  Reinforced concrete shear walls may be required in the north steep slope.  The weak soil conditions mean that deep foundation like piles may have to be used.  The transmission line has to be moved with consultation with authorities.  The Army has to be consulted with to replace the infantry.  The temporary huts have to be removed from the site.  Strict measures have to be taken to stop the disposal of the waste in the site.  The school has to be relocated so that they don’t incur the noise problems.  Shuttle services may come into use during the international matches.
  125. 125. BYE LAWS: For Urban Expansion Zone:  Maximum Ground Covearge = 40%  FAR = 2  Minimum 1m setback roadside.  Parking for Various types of building = 15 – 20%  The necessary authorities must be consulted with for special constructions like stadiums etc.
  126. 126. CONCLUSION:  Designing a cricket stadium and academy is really a challenge, fulfilling the endless technicalities is the first priority in the design process.  however technical requirements and placements of the spaces have been designed in such a way that it fulfils the requirements as well as help to create a well planned out of box design.  Whether its entrance, seating bowl, parking, circulation spaces or concession areas all the spaces in the academy have been designed considering human comfort so that experience that they get visiting the stadium is phenomenon.