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4.0 seed trade environment in tanzania otunge Presentation Transcript

  • 1. B4FA’s Media Fellowship Programme, NIGERIA (September 24-27, 2012) Seed Trade Environment in Tanzania By Daniel Otunge OFAB Coordinator d.otunge@aatf-africa.org
  • 2. What is AATF? • The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) was incorporated in 2003 to facilitate transfer of proprietary technologies to smallholder farmers in subSaharan Africa.
  • 3. AATF Projects Nitrogen & Water Efficient and salt tolerant Rice (NEWEST) Virus resistant bananas; Striga Control in maize Aflatoxin control (Aflasafe) Cassava WEMA Bt. Cowpea OFAB
  • 4. About Open Forum on Agricultural Biotechnology • Platform for sharing credible, factual and balanced information on modern biotechnology to impact policy making process. • Started by AATF in 2006 in Nairobi.
  • 5. OFAB TZ Launch in May 2009
  • 6. OFAB Chapters OFAB Kenya: ISAAA OFAB Ghana: CSIR OFAB Uganda: UNCST OFAB Burkina: INERA OFAB Tanzania: COSTECH OFAB Nigeria: NABDA
  • 7. Tanzania SEED SYSTEMS
  • 8. Types of seed systems • There are two main types: Informal: Major players are farmers and NGOs Formal: Major players are Companies, NARIs, research institutes, government,development partners, etc.
  • 9. The Role of farmers and NGOs • Informal seed sector dominates the seed system in Tanzania and most other African countries. • Over 85% of seeds and planting materials are from the informal seed system dominated by farmers and NGOs. • Seed market distortion due to state, NGO and farmer involvement.
  • 10. Role of national research institutes Tanzania has several research institutes under the Directorate of Agricultural Research and Development play crucial role in production of certified quality seeds for the formal seed system sector. They include Agricultural Research Institute-Selian Agricultural Research Institute-Naliendele Agricultural Research Institute-Mkuranga Agricultural Research Institute-Mikocheni Cassava Research Institute-Kibaha Sugarcane Research Institute-Kibaha
  • 11. Role of national institutes The national research institutes are responsible for trials of various biotech crops such as: Maize (WEMA, Aflasafe) Rice (NEWEST) Cassava (Mosaic Virus, Brown streak) Tobacco Issues that needs to be highlighted for the benefit of the public include industry readiness to take up to the technologies, capacity, status of biosafety regulations, public education efforts to address concerns and create awareness.
  • 12. Tanzania Seed classes Tanzania has adopted UN-FAO seed scheme that recognizes four seed classes: ASA, NARIs, Varsities, companies Foundation Seed ASA Certified Seed •Companies •Individuals State agencies: research, certification and release Standard Seed Farmers Production/Market linkages FARMERS Breeder’s Seed
  • 13. Role of research institutes Key challenges include: •Inadequate funding: low funding for research •Brain drain: Poor pay •Poor infrastructure: Human and institutional •Poor project planning: Deployment often left out •Donor dependency: Incomplete projects •Bad governance: Graft
  • 14. Role of Universities & Colleges In Tanzania the following institutions play key role crops production and academic training Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro Ukiriguru Institute of Agriculture, Mwanza Nyegezi Institute of Agriculture, Mwanza Tengeru Institute of Agriculture, Arusha Uyole Institute of Agriculture, Mbeya Tumbi Institute of Agriculture, Tabora Ilonga Institute of Agriculture, Morogoro Mlingano Institute of Agriculture, Tanga Kilosa Agricultural College,
  • 15. Role of Seed Companies • Tanzania has about 30? registered seed companies that play a significant role in supply of quality seeds to farmers • About 20? of these are members of Tanzania Seed Trade Association (TASTA) • Even so about 50%? of quality seeds are imported • Seed production is an expensive undertaking
  • 16. Why Biotech R & D Increasing Global Demand for Cereals Sustainable production Declining arable land Insect pest attacks Viral and bacterial disease attacks Weed control Reduction in pesticide use
  • 17. Why Biotech R & D… Recurrent drought Climate change Nutrient Efficiency (Protein, starch, oil, fiber, vitamin A etc.): Nutri-ceuticals
  • 18. Role of CGIAR • The CG centers also play important roles in seed production process. • Most relevant ones include: International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA): rice, cassava, World Vegetable Center (AVRDC), International Maize and Wheat Research Center (CIMMYT): Maize, wheat Africa Rice Center (WARDA): NERICA International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) International Potato Center (CIP): Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato
  • 19. Role of regional organizations These organizations provide funding for agricultural research, technology transfer and also facilitate better agricultural policy and regulatory environments •SADC (harmonization of seed systems etc) •COMESA •ASARECA •EAC •AATF •AGRA •NEPAD/CAADP (lobbying governments to increase budget allocation for agricultural research, science, technology and innovation)
  • 20. Importance of seeds Seeds are central to: Crop production and yield Agricultural technology delivery Human and animal nutrition Germplasm diversity and conservation Genomics, genetics and breeding Biofuels
  • 21. SEED REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
  • 22. Seed regulation in Tanzania • Tanzania has policies, rules, regulations and laws, which govern plant breeding, seed production, seed variety testing, variety release, seed marketing, quality control, conflict resolution, import and export.
  • 23. Seed systems linkages NSC: National Seeds Committee MAFC DRD Ministries (eg MAFC, Finance, MS&T) Credit /Banks Input supplier s Agro-dealer Association TOSCI, ASA NARIs, Varsities, Multinational companies VRC, NBC SEED COMPANIES Farmers NAES MAFC: Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives DRD: Division of Research and Development NVRC: National Variety Release Committee NAES: National Agricultural Extension Service NARIs: National Agricultural Research Institutes NBC: National Biosafety Committee PGRC: National Plant Genetic Resources Centre TFA: Tanzania Farmers Association TASTA: Tanzania Seed Trade Association NGOs Farmers Consumers TASTA TFA
  • 24. Seed regulation in Tanzania • The Tanzania Official Seed Certification Institute (TOSCI) is the official government agency responsible for seed testing, certification and release. • TOSCI is responsible for NPTs (National Performance Trials) and DUS (Distinctness, Uniformity and Stability of seed varieties). • TOSCI works closely with the National Variety Release Committee which also comprises representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Cooperatives (MAFC).
  • 25. Seed regulation in Uganda The following are the key regulatory documents journalists should review to understand and to inform and educate the public on seed regulatory environment in Tanzania: Seed Act, 2003 Protection of New Plant Varieties (Plant Breeders’ Rights) Act, 2002 Biosafety Bill (review plans underway) National Biotechnology and Biosafety Policy
  • 26. Regulatory environment There is need to guard against tendency to over-regulate or underregulate if seed industry is to flourish Overregulation:
  • 27. Use of other inputs Use of other inputs still low because: •Cost •Availability •Poverty •Low awareness of benefits Interventions : Seed companies, Relief agencies, Governments (ASA, subsidies-maize, fertilizer etc) NGOs/Donors (e.g. AGRA, IFDC, DFID, USAID, JICA, SASAKAWA 2000) UN agencies (FAO, WFP, UNICEF etc)
  • 28. HOW SEEDS REACH FARMERS
  • 29. Role of seed companies • The companies use the following strategies to reach out to farmers: Agro-dealer networks Demonstration plots Sales and marketing agents Promotion (not adequately done) Media (pay less attention to seed value chain) Farmer field days Exhibitions Companies have failed to play above roles effectively, leading to lack of awareness of availability and benefits of certified quality seeds.
  • 30. Role of extension service: •Government extension staff are responsible for agriculture extension •However, generally the extension service is: Ineffective inefficient Underfunded Understaffed
  • 31. Role of information: Sources of information on new seed varieties include: •Seed companies •Use of ICTs •The mass media •Agro-dealers, •NGOs •Agric Extension service •Farmer associations •Exhibitions e.g. (Nane nane in Dodoma, Morogoro etc.)
  • 32. Role of AFSTA: • The African Seed Trade Association is an industry body formed to promote trade in quality seeds and innovative agricultural technologies • 26 National Seed Trade Associations and 70 member seed companies spread across Africa. • In Tanzania AFSTA operates through TASTA. • Main programs include: ASIESA, WASA,COMRAP and Biotech awareness.
  • 33. Role of AFSTA: • The national associations partner with government departments and seed companies to create channels through which farmers can access seeds more easily. • Organizes annual congress where farmers get information at exhibition booths. The 2012 Congress was held in Zanzibar, TZ. Next Congress: 5-8 March 2013 in Mauritius
  • 34. Role of AGRA: • The AGRA’s Program for African’s Seed Systems (PASS) is perhaps the most ambitious and well coordinator effort to improve supply of seeds to farmers in Africa. • PASS aims to increase Africa’s capacity to breed, produce and deploy quality seeds to farmers e.g. NARIs, Farmers and Seed Companies. Dr Joe Dvries, PASS Director
  • 35. THE STATUS OF PLANT INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPRS)
  • 36. What is IPR • IPRs are legal instruments used to protect creations of the mind which have commercial value, such as inventions, e.g. the Bt Cotton, gene gun. • They grant exclusive rights to the breeder against unauthorized access and use • New plant varieties are protected under: TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of IPRs) Agreement UPOV (International Convention for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants ARIPO (African Regional Intellectual Property Organization) .
  • 37. IPRs situation • Tanzania is among few countries in Africa with legislation to protect plant breeders’ rights. It is called the Protection of New Plant Varieties (Plant Breeders’ Rights) Act, 2002. • This Act introduced a new and independent protection system for plant varieties not registered under the Patents Act. This has opened up TZ for seed production and trade investments • The legislation also establishes the Plant Breeders’ Rights Registry (under MAFC) separate from the normal Patents Registry.
  • 38. Challenges facing adoption of improved seeds The following are some of the major challenges facing the seed systems in Uganda: Counterfeiting Low quality seeds Lack of awareness of benefits Weak seed systems Moribund extension service Weak enforcement of regulations Poverty Weak seed companies
  • 39. THANK YOU www.aatf-africa.org www.ofabafrica.org