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B4FA 2013 Ghana: Breeding rice varieties in Ghana - Maxwell Darko Asante

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B4FA 2013 Ghana: Breeding rice varieties in Ghana - Maxwell Darko Asante

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Presentation at the March 2013 dialogue workshop of the Biosciences for Farming in Africa media fellowship programme in Accra, Ghana.

Please see www.sti4d.com/b4fa for more information

Presentation at the March 2013 dialogue workshop of the Biosciences for Farming in Africa media fellowship programme in Accra, Ghana.

Please see www.sti4d.com/b4fa for more information

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B4FA 2013 Ghana: Breeding rice varieties in Ghana - Maxwell Darko Asante

  1. 1. Breeding rice varieties in Ghana Maxwell Darko Asante CSIR-Crops Research Institute mdasante@gmail.com
  2. 2.  Road to becoming a plant breeder  What does plant breeding entail  Rice breeding at CSIR-CRI  My present work  Concluding remarks  Acknowledgement Outline
  3. 3.  “O” level @ Okuapemman school: 1985-1990  Best student in Agriculture  “A” @ Presec-Legon:1990-1992  BSc Agriculture @ UCC: 1993-1998  Work @ CSIR-Crops Research Institute: 1998 to date  MSc Plant breeding @KNUST: 2002-2004  PhD Plant breeding @WACCI, UG: 2008-2012 My background
  4. 4.  Selecting a desired plant from a population  The breeder will usually have to create the desired plant by combining valuable characters from two or more plants  A group of diverse plants (germplasm) showing variation for various characters is therefore the greatest resource of the breeder Plant breeding
  5. 5. Genetic diversity Genetic diversity of sorghum (left) and millet (right)Different kinds of rice grains Without genetic diversity within a species, breeding becomes seriously handicapped
  6. 6. Making crosses  Two parents are crossed to combine the desired characters of both plants into one plant Cutting flower open Removing male portion of flowers Adding pollen from another plant F1 seed
  7. 7. F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 Parents Pedigree Selection vs. Bulk Selection Pedigree Method Bulk Method PhaseIPhaseIIPhaseIII Testing experimental varieties Creating variation Developing, testing & selecting potential cultivars
  8. 8. Rice breeding@ CSIR-Crops Research Institute
  9. 9. Variety Year of Release Ecology CRI-Amankwatia 2010 lowland Wakatsuki 2010 lowland Bodia 2010 lowland Sakai 2010 lowland Emo teaa 2009 Upland Otoo mmo 2009 Upland Sikamo 1997 Lowland/ Upland Rice Varieties Released by CRI
  10. 10. CRI-Amankwatia •Species: Oryza sativa •Varietal type: Indica •Year released: 2010 •Growing ecology: Lowland •Days to 50% flowering: 80 – 85 •Maturity: 115 – 120 days •Potential yield: 8.0 t/ha •Resistance to blast: Tolerant •Resistance to lodging: Good •Grain shape: Long and slender •Caryopsis color: White •Milling yield (% White rice ) : 70.4% •Cooking quality: Good •Aroma: Present
  11. 11. Wakatsuki • Species: Oryza sativa • Varietal type: Indica • Year release: 2010 • Growing ecology: Lowland • Days to 50% following: 93-98 • Maturity: 125 – 130 days • Potential yield: 8.0 t/ha • Resistance to leaf blast: Tolerant • Resistance to lodging: Good • Grain shape: Long and slender • Caryopsis color: White • Milling yield (%White rice ): 66% • Cooking quality: Good • Aroma: Absent
  12. 12. Bodia • Species: Oryza sativa • Varietal type: Indica • Year released: 2010 • Growing ecology: Lowland • Days to 50% flowering: 90 – 95 • Maturity: 120 – 125 days • Potential yield: 8.0 t/ha • Resistance to leaf blast: Tolerant • Resistance to lodging: Good • Grain shape: long and bold • Caryopsis color: White • Milling yield (%White rice ): 66% • Cooking quality: Good • Aroma: Absent
  13. 13. Sakai Species: Oryza sativa Varietal type: Indica Growing ecology: Lowland Year released: 2010 Days to 50% flowering: 95 – 100 Maturity: 135 – 140 days Potential yield: 8 t/ha Resistance to leaf blast: Tolerant Resistance to lodging: Good Grain shape: Long and slender Caryopsis color: White Milling yield (%White rice): 66% Cooking quality: Good Aroma: Absent
  14. 14. Otoo mmo • Species: Oryza sativa • Varietal type: Japonica • Year released: 2009 • Growing ecology: Upland • Days to 50% flowering: 80 – 85 • Maturity: 115 – 120 days • Potential yield: 5.6 t/ha • Resistance to blast: Resistant • Resistance to lodging: Good • Grain shape: Long and slender • Caryopsis color: White • Milling yield (%white rice): 66% • Cooking quality: Good • Aroma: Absent
  15. 15. Emo teaa • Species: Oryza sativa • Varietal type: Japonica • Year released: 2009 • Growing ecology: Upland • Days to 50% flowering: 75-80 • Maturity: 110 – 115 • Potential yield: 4.8 t/ha • Resistance to blast: Resistant • Resistance to lodging: Good • Grain shape: Long and slender • Caryopsis color: White • Milling yield (%white rice): 65.6 % • Cooking quality: Good • Aroma: Absent
  16. 16. Sikamo • Species: Oryza sativa • Varietal type: Indica • Year released: 1997 • Growing ecology: Lowland / Upland • Days to 50% heading: 90 – 95 • Maturity: 120 – 125 days • Potential yield: 6.0 t/ha • Resistance to blast: Tolerant • Response to drought: Tolerant • Nitrogen use: High N use efficiency • Grain shape: Long and slender • Milling yield (white rice%): 68.4% • Cooking quality: Good, high expansion ratio
  17. 17. My work@ CSIR-Crops Research Institute
  18. 18. Interactions with farmers’ on varietal preference
  19. 19. Maintaining and studying different rice types (germplasm) Diversity within rice populations at CRI: Indica (green), tropical japonica (red), aromatics (yellow) and aus (blue) Various rice types (accessions) growing in the field
  20. 20. Research on aroma Allele specific marker(bad2.1) for aroma segregating in an F2 population Aroma in Nerica 1 originates from WAB638-1 and not from its original parents, (WAB56-104 and CG14) which are both non-aromatic N F HF F F FNNN N N N H H The bad2.1 marker efficiently predicts for aroma in my crosses and most of my germplasm Asante et al. (2010). Molecular Breeding, 26, 419-424.
  21. 21. Research on cooking quality  Cooking quality of rice is controlled by starch properties  Starch properties are influenced by the waxy gene  Functional SNPs found in the waxy gene  In 1 G→T  Ex 6 A→C  Ex 10 C→T  Four waxy SNP haplotypes:  TAC- low amylose(AC)  GCC- intermediateAC  GAC-highAC  GAT-highAC & RVA 0 5 10 15 20 25 TAC GCC GAC GAT No.ofaccessions Waxy SNP-haplotype GH US Distribution of waxy SNP haplotypes in my germplasm
  22. 22. Combining stress tolerance of Digang (RYMV, blast) with grain quality of Jasmine(aroma,taste) F1 Digang x Jasmine 85 60 BC1F1 480 BC1F2 used SNPs to select for the background of Digang XDigang Parents and F1 BC1F2 population
  23. 23. Selection of individuals from BC1F2 population  Grain quality loci (aroma & AC) of Jasmine 85 selected using starch properties and marker data  Seven plants selected based on the criteria:  >70% Digang background  presence of aroma (bad 2.1 allele)  amylose content 16-22%  Selected plants will be backcrossed to Digang 2X
  24. 24. Development of varieties thro’ Single Seed Descent and pedigree selection  Crosses  Sikamo/Jasmine85  Digang/ IR70445-146-3-3(5)  IR71137-184-3-2-3-3(7)/ Sikamo  Bouake 189/ IR71137-184-3-2- 3-3(7)  IET 6279 /IR70445-146-3-3(5)  Viowonor short/Jasmine 85
  25. 25.  Rice has become very important in the last two decades and consumption is overtaking more tradition crops  The research at CRI is aimed at releasing high yielding rice varieties that are tolerant to the stresses in our environment and also have the preferred grain quality  Modern molecular tools are being applied to improve the efficiency of breeding Conclusions
  26. 26. Acknowledgements CRI Rice Team Mr. Ralph Bam Mr. Henry Doku Mr. George Acheampong Dr. Kofi Dartey Dr. E. Annan-Afful Collaborators @ Cornell University Dr. Susan McCouch Jennifer Spindel Financial support AGRA/ WACCI
  27. 27. Domo arigato gozaimashita

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