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Akshay modified

  1. 1. <ul><li>A seminar on toxicological study of neuroleptics </li></ul>Presented by Akshay.b Final year B.Pharm Submitted to Rajesh kowti Lecturer Dept. pharmacology
  2. 2. <ul><li>Neuroleptics </li></ul><ul><li>These are the drugs having salutary therapeutic effect in mental illnesess. </li></ul><ul><li>It also used in the therapy of schrizophrenic organic psychosis. </li></ul><ul><li>And other acute idiopathic psychotic illness. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroleptic drugs also called anti-schrizophrenicdrug or major transquilizers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Poisoning of neuroleptics is not much serious. The poisoning is mainly due to overdose & deaths due to overdose are almost unknown. </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroleptics are very safe in use, if they are used in single or infrequent doses. However they possess side effects. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Neuroleptic drugs have beneficial effects on mood & thought , but carry the RBK of producing characteristic side effects, that mimic neurological diseases. </li></ul>GENERAL M.O.A <ul><li>The phenothizenes are anti-cholinergics to varying degree other properties are central& peripheral cholinergic blockade & adrenergic action. Secondary to the inhibition of reuptake of acetacholamines. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Classsification: </li></ul><ul><li>Phenothiazines : chlorpromazin </li></ul><ul><li>triflupromazine </li></ul><ul><li>fluphenazine </li></ul><ul><li>Butyrophenones: haloperidol </li></ul><ul><li>triflyperidol </li></ul><ul><li>droperidol </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Thioxanthenes: thiothixol </li></ul><ul><li>flupenthixol </li></ul><ul><li>Other heterocyclics : pimozide </li></ul><ul><li>loxapine </li></ul><ul><li>Atypical neuroleptics : clozapine </li></ul><ul><li>risperidone </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Symptoms:- </li></ul><ul><li>These are classified as either positive symptoms or negative symptoms, correlating it with the patho physiology and responsiveness to drug therapy </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Positive symptoms:- </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations ( eg:hearing voice , seeing things) </li></ul><ul><li>Delusions ( fixed false beliefs) </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganised speech,thaughts,language </li></ul><ul><li>Dis organized behavior </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Negative symptoms:- </li></ul><ul><li>Alogia </li></ul><ul><li>Avolition </li></ul><ul><li>Anhedonia </li></ul><ul><li>Attention impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidence of emotional expression </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>The positive symptoms mostly lead the patient to hospitalization & family disturbance,while negative symptoms interfere with patient being able to have close friends, maintain employment, there by contributing to the morbidity (disability) & economic cost of schizophrenia. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Once referred to have as major tranquilizers. Antipsychotic have a selective specific effect in minimizing psychotic drugs produce less severe effect-pyramidal side-effects . </li></ul><ul><li>These newer agents like clozapine influence dopamine receptors as well as serotin (5-HT2) receptors </li></ul>Treatment
  12. 12. <ul><li>Typical antipsychotics are potent d2-blockers while atypical have less d2-blockers but grater 5-ht2 blocked. That treat positive symptoms. </li></ul><ul><li>A typical anti psychotics treat positive & negative symptoms with minimal extra pyramidal effect. Local potency drug have potent antihistaminic, antimyscarinic & alpha-adrenergic blockage. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Eg: phenothiazines:-aliphatic piperidine </li></ul><ul><li>Thioxanthenes:-flupenthixol ,clopenthixol </li></ul><ul><li>Butyrophenones:-haloperidol </li></ul><ul><li>The frequent treatment includes </li></ul><ul><li>Emesis:The act of vomiting is produced by a series of coordinated changes in G-I activity and in respiratory movements. Nausea and vomiting may occur in: cancer; cancer chemotherapy; radiation therapy; gastroenteritis. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Gastric lavage: the washing out of the stomach with sterile water or a saline solution. The procedure is performed before and after surgery to remove irritants or toxic substances and possibly before such examinations as endoscopy or gastroscopy. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Activated charchol: That's how powerful activated charcoal is as an emergency decontaminant in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the stomach and intestines. Activated charcoal is considered to be the most effective single agent available. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Cathersis: A catharsis is an emotional release. According to psychodynamic theory, this emotional release is linked to a need to release unconscious conflicts. </li></ul>