Stages of Prostate Cancer


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Austin CyberKnife presents an overview of prostate cancer, its different stages and possible treatment options.

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Stages of Prostate Cancer

  1. 1. STAGES OF PROSTATE CANCER 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701          (512)  324-­‐8060
  2. 2. A  prostate  cancer  diagnosis  can  be  scary.     Learn  more  about  prostate  cancer  and  how  we  can  help.     Please  note:  The  informa1on  presented  here  is  not  all-­‐inclusive.  Rather,  it  represents  a  star1ng   point  to  learn  more  about  medical  condi1ons  and  treatment  op1ons.  There  is  no  subs,tute  for   consul,ng  a  medical  professional.   1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  3. 3. Prostate Cancer Overview Possible Signs of Prostate Cancer: Weak or interrupted flow of urine Frequent urination Trouble urinating Pain or burning during urination Blood in the urine or semen Persistent pain in the back, hips, or pelvis Painful ejaculation ¨  The prostate is a walnut-sized gland located in a man’s lower abdomen that controls the flow of urine and semen. ¨  Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among American men, second only to lung cancer. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  4. 4. Diagnosing Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer can be diagnosed by: ¨  Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – examination of the rectum. ¨  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test – measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSA may be found in an increased amount in the blood of men with prostate cancer. ¨  Transrectal Ultrasound – provides a picture of the prostate for the doctor to analyze. ¨  Gleason Score – determines how likely prostate cancer is to spread. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  5. 5. The TNM Staging System A staging system describes how far a cancer has spread. The most widely used staging system for prostate cancer is the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM system. The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 key pieces of information: ¤  The extent of the primary tumor (T category) ¤  Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N category) ¤  The absence or presence of distant metastasis (M category) ¤  The PSA level at the time of diagnosis ¤  The Gleason Score, based on the prostate biopsy (or surgery) 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  6. 6. Prostate Cancer - Stage I ¨  Cancer is found in the prostate only. ¨  Cancer is microscopic and cannot be felt during the DRE or seen on imaging tests. ¨  Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe of the prostate. ¨  PSA level is lower than 10 ng/mL. ¨  Gleason Score is 6 or lower. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  7. 7. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIA ¨  Cancer is more advanced than Stage I but has not spread outside the prostate. ¨  The cells are usually more abnormal and may tend to grow more quickly. ¨  Cancer is found in more than half of one lobe of the prostate. ¨  PSA level is lower than 20 ng/mL. ¨  Gleason Score is 7 or lower. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  8. 8. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIB ¨  Cancer is found in opposite sides of the prostate. ¨  Cancer cannot be felt during a DRE and is not visible by imaging. ¨  The tumor has not spread outside the prostate. ¨  PSA level is 20 ng/mL or higher. ¨  Gleason Score ranges from 2 to 10. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  9. 9. Prostate Cancer - Stage III ¨  Cancer has spread beyond the outer layer of the prostate. ¨  Cancer may have spread to nearby tissues like the seminal vesicles. ¨  PSA can be any level. ¨  Gleason Score can range from 2 to 10. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  10. 10. Prostate Cancer - Stage IV ¨  Cancer has spread (metastasized) beyond the seminal vesicles to nearby tissues or organs such as the rectum, bladder or pelvic wall. ¨  Cancer has spread to distant parts of the body, which may include other lymph nodes or bones. Prostate cancer often spreads to the bones. ¨  Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes ¨  PSA can be any level. ¨  Gleason score can range from 2 to 10. 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  11. 11. Prostate Cancer Treatment Treatment Options Active Surveillance Surgery External-Beam Radiation Therapy Brachytherapy Proton Therapy Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy ¨  Treatment options depend on: ¤  The stage of the cancer ¤  The patient’s age and health ¤  The patient’s Gleason Score ¤  Whether the cancer is recently diagnosed or recurring ¤  The patient’s prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  12. 12. CyberKnife® Treatment Process ¨  Prior to stereotactic body radiation therapy with CyberKnife, small tissue markers known as fiducials are implanted in the prostate to help pinpoint the tumor location throughout each treatment. ¨  About a week later, patients undergo pretreatment imaging, including CT scans which are used by physicians in the treatments planning process. ¨  This treatment process includes ¤  Consultation appointment ¤  Pretreatment procedures ¤  CyberKnife treatment ¤  Follow-up 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  13. 13. Additional Resources 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060  
  14. 14. Austin CyberKnife was the first in the greater Austin area, as well as the central Texas region, to offer CyberKnife treatment, giving our physicians the most experience treating patients with this technology in our area. Austin CyberKnife is a department of University Medical Center Brackenridge, a member of the Seton Healthcare Family. If you or a loved one is diagnosed with prostate cancer, contact Austin CyberKnife to schedule a consultation with our physicians to determine the best next step for your treatment needs. Medical Director: Dr. Doug Rivera CyberKnife Nurse: Lori Eitelbach, RN Medical Physicist: Jim Hevezi, PhD Our Center 1400  North  IH  35,  Austin,  TX  78701    (512)  324-­‐8060   Connect  With  Us