Stages of Prostate Cancer


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Columbus CyberKnife presents an overview of prostate cancer, its different stages and possible treatment options.

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Stages of Prostate Cancer

  1. 1. STAGES OF PROSTATE CANCER495 Cooper Road Suite 125, Westerville, OH 43081 (614)
  2. 2. A  prostate  cancer  diagnosis  can  be  scary.    Learn  more  about  prostate  cancer  and  how  we  can  help.    Please  note:  The  informa1on  presented  here  is  not  all-­‐inclusive.  Rather,  it  represents  a  star1ng  point  to  learn  more  about  medical  condi1ons  and  treatment  op1ons.  There  is  no  subs,tute  for  consul,ng  a  medical  professional.  495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  3. 3. Prostate Cancer OverviewPossible Signs of Prostate Cancer:Weak or interrupted flow of urineFrequent urinationTrouble urinatingPain or burning during urinationBlood in the urine or semenPersistent pain in the back, hips, or pelvisPainful ejaculation¨  The prostate is awalnut-sized glandlocated in a man’slower abdomen thatcontrols the flow ofurine and semen.¨  Prostate cancer is aleading cause ofcancer death amongAmerican men, secondonly to lung cancer.495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  4. 4. Diagnosing Prostate CancerProstate cancer can be diagnosed by:¨  Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – examination ofthe rectum.¨  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test –measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSAmay be found in an increased amount in theblood of men with prostate cancer.¨  Transrectal Ultrasound – provides a picture ofthe prostate for the doctor to analyze.¨  Gleason Score – determines how likelyprostate cancer is to spread.495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  5. 5. The TNM Staging SystemA staging system describes how far a cancer has spread.The most widely used staging system for prostate cancer isthe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNMsystem.The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 keypieces of information:¤  The extent of the primary tumor (T category)¤  Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (Ncategory)¤  The absence or presence of distant metastasis (M category)¤  The PSA level at the time of diagnosis¤  The Gleason Score, based on the prostate biopsy (or surgery)495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  6. 6. Prostate Cancer - Stage I495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Cancer is found in the prostate only.¨  Cancer is microscopic and cannot be felt during theDRE or seen on imaging tests.¨  Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe ofthe prostate.¨  PSA level is lower than 10 ng/mL.¨  Gleason Score is 6 or lower.
  7. 7. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIA495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Cancer is more advanced thanStage I but has not spread outsidethe prostate.¨  The cells are usually moreabnormal and may tend to growmore quickly.¨  Cancer is found in more than halfof one lobe of the prostate.¨  PSA level is lower than 20 ng/mL.¨  Gleason Score is 7 or lower.
  8. 8. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIB495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Cancer is found in opposite sides of the prostate.¨  Cancer cannot be felt during a DRE and is notvisible by imaging.¨  The tumor has not spread outside the prostate.¨  PSA level is 20 ng/mL or higher.¨  Gleason Score ranges from 2 to 10.
  9. 9. Prostate Cancer - Stage III495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Cancer has spread beyond theouter layer of the prostate.¨  Cancer may have spread tonearby tissues like the seminalvesicles.¨  PSA can be any level.¨  Gleason Score can range from2 to 10.
  10. 10. Prostate Cancer - Stage IV¨  Cancer has spread(metastasized) beyond theseminal vesicles to nearbytissues or organs such asthe rectum, bladder orpelvic wall.¨  Cancer has spread todistant parts of the body,which may include otherlymph nodes or bones.Prostate cancer oftenspreads to the bones.495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Cancer has spread tonearby lymph nodes¨  PSA can be any level.¨  Gleason Score can rangefrom 2 to 10.
  11. 11. Prostate Cancer TreatmentTreatment OptionsActive SurveillanceSurgeryExternal-Beam Radiation TherapyBrachytherapyProton TherapyStereotactic Body Radiation Therapy¨  Treatment options depend on:¤  The stage of the cancer¤  The patient’s age and health¤  The patient’s Gleason Score¤  Whether the cancer is recentlydiagnosed or recurring¤  The patient’s prostate-specificantigen (PSA) levels495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  12. 12. CyberKnife® Treatment Process495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          ¨  Prior to stereotactic body radiation therapy with CyberKnife, smalltissue markers known as fiducials are implanted in the prostate tohelp pinpoint the tumor location throughout each treatment.¨  About a week later, patients are fitted with a custom body mold ofsoft material that they lie on during treatments. The fitting process ispainless.¨  This treatment processincludes¤  Consultation appointment¤  Pretreatment procedures¤  CyberKnife treatment¤  Follow-up
  13. 13. Additional Resources495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          
  14. 14. Our CenterOpened in 2010, Columbus CyberKnife has treated approximately 140prostate cancer patients, about 30% of cases treated at the center. If you or aloved one is diagnosed with prostate cancer, contact Columbus CyberKnife toschedule a consultation with our physicians to determine the best next step foryour treatment needs.Medical Director/Radiation Oncologist: Dr. Douglas WidmanRadiation Oncologist: Dr. Abhay Gokhale495  Cooper  Road  Suite  125,  Westerville,  OH  43081                                              (614)  898-­‐8300                          Connect  With  Us