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Stages of Prostate Cancer


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San Diego Radiosurgery presents an overview of prostate cancer, its different stages and possible treatment options.

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Stages of Prostate Cancer

  1. 1. STAGES OFPROSTATE CANCER555 East Valley Parkway, Escondido, CA 92025 (760)
  2. 2. Prostate Cancer OverviewPossible Signs of Prostate Cancer:Weak or interrupted flow of urineFrequent urinationTrouble urinatingPain or burning during urinationBlood in the urine or semenPersistent pain in the back, hips, or pelvisPainful ejaculation¨  The prostate is awalnut-sized glandlocated in a man’slower abdomen thatcontrols the flow ofurine and semen.¨  Prostate cancer is aleading cause ofcancer death amongAmerican men, secondonly to lung cancer.555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  3. 3. Diagnosing Prostate CancerProstate Cancer can be diagnosed by:¨  Digital Rectal Exam (DRE) – examination ofthe rectum.¨  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test –measures the level of PSA in the blood. PSAmay be found in an increased amount in theblood of men with prostate cancer.¨  Transrectal Ultrasound – provides a picture ofthe prostate for the doctor to analyze.¨  Gleason Score – determines how likelyprostate cancer is to spread.555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  4. 4. The TNM Staging SystemA staging system describes how far a cancer has spread.The most widely used staging system for prostate cancer isthe American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNMsystem.The TNM system for prostate cancer is based on 5 keypieces of information:¤  The extent of the primary tumor (T category)¤  Whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (Ncategory)¤  The absence or presence of distant metastasis (M category)¤  The PSA level at the time of diagnosis¤  The Gleason Score, based on the prostate biopsy (or surgery)555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  5. 5. Prostate Cancer - Stage I555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              ¨  Cancer is found in the prostate only.¨  Cancer is microscopic and cannot be felt during theDRE or seen on imaging tests.¨  Cancer is found in one-half or less of one lobe ofthe prostate.¨  PSA level is lower than 10 ng/mL.¨  Gleason Score is 6 or lower.
  6. 6. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIA555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              ¨  Cancer is more advanced thanStage I but has not spread outsidethe prostate.¨  The cells are usually moreabnormal and may tend to growmore quickly.¨  Cancer is found in more than halfof one lobe of the prostate.¨  PSA level is lower than 20 ng/mL.¨  Gleason Score is 7 or lower.
  7. 7. Prostate Cancer - Stage IIB555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              ¨  Cancer is found in opposite sides of the prostate.¨  Cancer cannot be felt during a DRE and is notvisible by imaging.¨  The tumor has not spread outside the prostate.¨  PSA level is 20 ng/mL or higher.¨  Gleason Score ranges from 2 to 10.
  8. 8. Prostate Cancer - Stage III555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              ¨  Cancer has spread beyond theouter layer of the prostate.¨  Cancer may have spread tonearby tissues like the seminalvesicles.¨  PSA can be any level.¨  Gleason Score can range from2 to 10.
  9. 9. Prostate Cancer - Stage IV¨  Cancer has spread(metastasized) beyond theseminal vesicles to nearbytissues or organs such asthe rectum, bladder orpelvic wall.¨  Cancer has spread todistant parts of the body,which may include otherlymph nodes or bones.Prostate cancer oftenspreads to the bones.¨  Cancer has spread tonearby lymph nodes¨  PSA can be any level.¨  Gleason score can rangefrom 2 to 10.555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  10. 10. Prostate Cancer TreatmentTreatment OptionsActive SurveillanceSurgeryExternal-Beam Radiation TherapyBrachytherapyProton TherapyStereotactic Body Radiation Therapy¨  Treatment options depend on:¤  The stage of the cancer¤  The patient’s age and health¤  The patient’s Gleason Score¤  Whether the cancer is recentlydiagnosed or recurring¤  The patient’s prostate-specificantigen (PSA) levels555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  11. 11. Novalis Tx® Treatment Process¨  Prior to stereotactic body radiation therapy with Novalis Tx, small tissuemarkers known as fiducials are implanted in the prostate to help pinpointthe tumor location throughout each treatment, so the radiation beams canbe locked on the tumor.¨  About a week later, patients are fitted with a custom body mold of softmaterial that they lie on during treatments. The fitting process is painless.¨  This treatment process includes¤  Consultation Appointment¤  Pretreatment procedures¤  Novalis Tx treatment¤  Follow-up555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  12. 12. Additional Resources555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              
  13. 13. Our CenterUnder the leadership of Medical Director Dr. Brian Volpp, San DiegoRadiosurgery has offered advanced cancer treatment from some of theregion’s most experienced radiation oncologists and technicians since openingin 2008. Call us or visit our website to learn more about prostate cancertreatment with Novalis Tx. San Diego Radiosurgery is a service of PalomarHealth Downtown Campus, a member of Palomar Health.Medical Director: Dr. Bryan VolppNurse: Cathy Blazek, RN, BSNMedical Physicist: Mark Young555  East  Valley  Parkway,  Escondido,  CA  92025              (760)  739-­‐3835              Connect  With  Us