Prostate cancer cause defined symptom risk factors
THE PROSTATE IS THE WALNUT –SHAPED GLAND PRODUCING THE SEMINAL FLUID, THEAT NOURISHES AND TRANSPORTS SPERM
PROATATE CANCER IS A VERY PREVELANT FORM OF CANCER
PROSTATE CANCER IS SLOW FORMING
USUALLY REMAINS CONFINED INSIDE THE PROSTATE GLAND
WITH EARLY DISCOVERY-YOUR TREATMENT HAS A BETTER SUCCESS RATE
Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
In the early stages, men may
have no symptoms. Later,
symptoms can include:
especially at night
Difficulty starting or stopping
Weak or interrupted urinary
Painful or burning sensation
during urination or
Blood in urine or semen
Pain in bones
SOME OF THE FACTORS THAT INCREASE YOUR RISK OF
PROSTATE CANCER INCLUDE :
AGE-PROSTATE CANCER’S RISK INCREASES WITH AGE. ITS
MORE COMMON AMONG PEOPLE AGE 65+.
AFRO-AMERICANS-BLACK MEN ARE AT GREATER RISK. THEIR
CANCER IS MORE LIKELY TO BE AGGRESSIVE.
FAMILY HISTORY-WHEN FAMILY MEMBERS HAVE HAD IT YOUR
RISK FACTOR INCREASES
OBESITY-OBESE MEN ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE ADVANCED
DISEASE & ARE MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TO TREAT
Questions to Ask Your Doctor
How aggressive is my cancer? What is the Gleason score of my prostate tumor?
What are the results of my PSA and other tests?
How much time do I have to decide on an option?
Do my other health problems make any one option better for me?
Who else should I talk to about watchful waiting? Prostate surgery? Radiation?
What are my risks with this option?
What is the chance that my cancer will come back after treatment?
Which option will give me the least problems with erections? Leaking urine? Bowel
What is the chance I will be able to have a sex life after treatment?
How many treatments do you do a year?
Is there help for any side effects I might have?
What kind of follow-up care will I get
Enlarged Prostate or Prostate
The prostate can grow larger as men age,
sometimes pressing on the bladder or
urethra and causing symptoms similar to
This is called benign prostatic hyperplasia
It's not cancer and can be treated if
symptoms become bothersome.
A third problem that can cause urinary
symptoms is prostatitis.
This inflammation or infection may also
cause a fever and in many cases is
treated with medicine.
What is screening?
Screening is looking for cancer before a person has any symptoms.
This can help find cancer at an early stage. When abnormal tissue or cancer is found
early, it may be easier to treat.
By the time symptoms appear, cancer may have begun to spread.
Scientists are trying to better understand which people are more likely to get certain
types of cancer.
They also study the things we do and the things around us to see if they cause cancer.
This information helps doctors recommend who should be screened for cancer, which
screening tests should be used, and how often the tests should be done.
It is important to remember that your doctor does not necessarily think you have
cancer if he or she suggests a screening test.
Screening tests are given when you have no cancer symptoms.
Screening tests may be repeated on a regular basis.
If a screening test result is abnormal, you may need to have more tests done to find
out if you have cancer.
These are called diagnostic tests.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended
against PSA screening in healthy men finding that the potential risks outweigh
the potential benefits.
Guidelines from the American Urological Association, and the American
Cancer Society recommend that men be informed of the risks and benefits of
The American Society of Clinical Oncology recommends screening be
discouraged in those who are expected to live less than ten years, while in
those with a life expectancy of greater than ten years a decision should be
made by the person in question based on the potential risks and benefits.
In general, they conclude that based on recent research, "it is uncertain
whether the benefits associated with PSA testing for prostate cancer screening
are worth the harms associated with screening and subsequent unnecessary
There is no standard or routine screening test
for prostate cancer.
What Is Prostate Cancer?
Prostate cancer develops in a man's
prostate, the walnut-sized gland just
below the bladder that produces some of
the fluid in semen.
It's the most common cancer in men after
Prostate cancer often grows very slowly
and may not cause significant harm.
But some types are more aggressive and
can spread quickly without treatment.
STAGES OF PROSTATE CANCER
THE CAUSE OF PROSTATE CANCER ISN’T CLEAR TO
WHEN THE PROCESS HAPPENS IT FORMS IN STAGES
THIS IS WHEN THE CELLS IN THE PROSTATE BECOME
THE ABNORMAL CELLS & MUTATED DNA CAUSE THE
CELL TO GROW RAPIDLY
THE CELL SURVIVE & A TUMOR IS FORMED THAT
INVADE NEARBY TISSUE
WHEN SOME OF THE ABNORMAL CELLS MIGHT
METASTISIZE (MOVE TO OTHER BODY PARTS)
Prostate-specific antigen test
A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a test
that measures the level of PSA in the blood.
PSA is a substance made mostly by the prostate
that may be found in an increased amount in the
blood of men who have prostate cancer.
The level of PSA may also be high in men who
have an infection or inflammation of the prostate
or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH; an
enlarged, but noncancerous, prostate).
If a man has a high PSA level and a biopsy of the
prostate does not show cancer, a prostate
cancer gene 3 (PCA3) test may be done.
This test measures the amount of PCA3 in the
urine. If the PCA3 level is high, another biopsy
may help diagnose prostate cancer.
Scientists are studying the combination of PSA
testing and digital rectal exam as a way to get
more accurate results from the screening tests.
Digital rectal exam
Digital rectal exam (DRE) is
an exam of the rectum. The
doctor or nurse inserts a
lubricated, gloved finger
into the lower part of the
rectum to feel the prostate
for lumps or anything else
that seems unusual.
Digital rectal exam (DRE).
The doctor inserts a gloved,
lubricated finger into the
rectum and feels the
prostate to check for
Types of standard treatment are
Watchful waiting or active surveillance
Watchful waiting is closely monitoring a patient’s condition
without giving any treatment until symptoms appear or
Active surveillance is closely following a patient's
condition without giving any treatment unless there
are changes in test results.
It is used to find early signs that the condition is getting
worse. In active surveillance, patients are given certain
exams and tests, including biopsies, on a regular schedule.
What Are the Advantages of Laparoscopy?
As is the case with other minimally invasive
procedures, laparoscopic prostate removal
has significant advantages over traditional
Laparoscopy can shorten your hospital stay
to one or two days. About 50% of men are
discharged one day after surgery. (The
length of stay depends on how quickly you
recover and the extent of the surgery).
There is much less bleeding during the
You are less likely to need prescription
painkillers after you leave the hospital.
Patients often need nothing more than
At your follow-up appointment one week
after surgery, the tube, or catheter, draining
your bladder will be removed if there are
no signs of other problems. Occasionally,
the catheter remains in place for another
week, as with conventional surgery.
About 90% of patients can return to work or
resume full activity in only two to three
Radiation kills the cancer cells.
The goal is to target the cancer
and avoid hurting normal parts
of the body. Radiation can be
given in two ways—external
beam radiation or brachytherapy.
Sometimes the two kinds of
radiation are used together.
External beam radiation uses
radiation from a machine to target
the prostate gland. This kind of
radiation takes place in a hospital
or clinic. The radiation is given
a few minutes a day for about
6 to 8 weeks.
Brachytherapy (also called
radiation “seeding”) uses a needle
to put small seeds of radiation
into the cancer inside the prostate
gland. This usually requires a trip
to the hospital or clinic. The seeds
inside the prostate gland slowly
release radiation over time.
Testosterone is a hormone made
by the body. It causes prostate
cancer cells to grow. Hormone
treatment lowers or blocks the
body’s testosterone. This helps
to slow or stop the growth of
What do we know about
Hormone treatments come in
shots or pills. Most of the research
about hormone medicines is on
these drugs—leuprolide (Lupron®,
Viadur®, Eligard®), goserelin
(Zoladex®), flutamide (Eulexin®),
and bicalutamide (Casodex®).
Hormone medicines are often
combined with prostate surgery
or radiation. Hormone treatment
can also be used by itself.
Most of the research is
about combining hormone
medicines with other types
of prostate cancer
There is less research about
using hormone medicines
on their own.
Bicalutamide (Casodex®) is
a pill that does not work for
localized prostate cancer.
This is true whether it is used
by itself, with prostate
surgery, or with external
Research can’t tell us if
using other hormone
treatments on their own can
stop localized prostate
cancer from spreading.
LATEST CLINICAL TRIALS
ALTERNATE TREATMENT WITH
CURRENTELY AT THE
CLEVELAND CLINIC IN
CANADA,IT IS SAID TO HAVE
FEWER SIDE EFFECTS.
A CHOLESTEROL DRUG
SLASHES PROSTATE CANCER
DEATHS,ITS CALLED STATINS .
USED AT THE PROSTATE
PROGRAM IN THE FRED
RESEARCH CENTER OF
Side Effects of Treatment
All prostate cancer treatments can cause side effects. The most common side effects are
sexual, urinary, and bowel problems. Some of these problems happen soon after
treatment and others develop over time. Talk to your doctor or nurse if you have any of
these side effects. There may be a way to help.
Erectile dysfunction (ED) means not being able to keep an erection for intercourse. ED is
the most common long-lasting side effect. It can happen with any treatment.
Urinary problems are another long-lasting side effect. This can mean leaking or dribbling
urine. It can also mean sometimes not being able to hold your urine at all. Urinary
problems are more common after surgery than with other treatments.
Bowel problems can also be a long-lasting side effect. This can mean sometimes having
"bowel urgency" (needing to have a bowel movement right away and not being able to
wait). Long-lasting bowel problems are more common after external beam radiation or
hormone treatment than after prostate surgery or with watchful waiting.
Hormone treatments can have other side effects. They can cause hot flashes, breast
swelling, and loss of sex drive. They can also cause tiredness, depression, and memory
problems. Hormone treatments can weaken bones and raise the chance they will break.
57 out of 100 men who take hormone medicines have hot flashes (sudden feeling of
warmth and sweating).
25 out of 100 men who take hormone medicines have breast swelling.
COUNSELING AND THERAPY
TO NAME A FEW METHODS OF
PROSTATE CANCER COUNSELING &
INDIVIDUAL FAMILY COUNSELING
THERE ARE MIND & BODY THERAPIES AVAILABLE AT THE
CANCER TREATMENT CENTERS OF AMERICA (CTCA).THIS
PREPARES A PATIENT OF ALL OPTIONS AVAILABLE TO THEM
& THEIR FAMILIES
LAUGHTER TENDS TO REDUCE STRESS, IMPROVE PAIN, &
THIS SORT OF THERAPY IS A RELAXATION TECHNIQUE. IT
TEACHES PATIENTS TO USE POSITIVE MENTAL IMAGES TO
HELP MANAGE STRESS, PHYSICAL DISCOMFORT, PAIN
NAUSEA, & ANXIETY.
Where can I get more information? Where
can I get a copy of this guide?
For more information about prostate cancer treatment, research,
and support, visit the Medline Plus Web site:
For more information about screening for prostate cancer, visit the
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site:
For more information about prostate cancer treatment and research,
visit the National Cancer Institute Web site:
For an electronic copy of this guide and materials about choosing
treatments and medicines for other medical conditions, visit this Web
For a free print copy call:
The AHRQ Publications Clearinghouse
Ask for AHRQ Publication Number 08-EHC010-2A