What Is OrganizationalBehaviorChapter One
1–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Define organizational behavior (OB).2. Describe what managers do.3...
1–3After studying this chapter,you should be able to:6. Describe why managers require a knowledgeof OB.7. Explain the need...
1–4What Managers DoWhat Managers DoManagerial Activities• Make decisions• Allocate resources• Direct activities of otherst...
1–5Where Managers WorkWhere Managers WorkOrganizationA consciously coordinated social unit,composed of two or more people,...
1–6Management FunctionsManagement FunctionsManagementManagementFunctionsFunctionsManagementManagementFunctionsFunctionsPla...
1–7Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)PlanningA process that includes defining goals,establishing s...
1–8Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)OrganizingDetermining what tasks are to be done,who is to do ...
1–9Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)LeadingA function that includes motivatingemployees, directin...
1–10Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)ControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are beingacc...
1–11Mintzberg’s Managerial RolesMintzberg’s Managerial RolesE X H I B I T 1–1E X H I B I T 1–1Source: Adapted from The Nat...
1–12Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 ...
1–13Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 ...
1–14Management SkillsManagement SkillsTechnical skillsThe ability to apply specializedknowledge or expertise.Human skillsT...
1–15Effective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)Effective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)1....
1–16E X H I B I T 1–2E X H I B I T 1–2Allocation of Activities by TimeAllocation of Activities by TimeSource: Based on F. ...
1–17Enter Organizational BehaviorEnter Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior(OB)A field of study thatinvestigates...
1–18Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic StudySystematic studyLooking at relations...
1–19Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic StudyTheFactsPreconceivedNotions ≠
1–20E X H I B I T 1–4E X H I B I T 1–4Source: Drawing by Handelsman inThe New Yorker, Copyright © 1986by the New Yorker Ma...
1–21There Are Few Absolutes in OBThere Are Few Absolutes in OBContingencyContingencyVariablesVariablesx yContingency varia...
1–22Challenges and Opportunities for OBChallenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Globalization– Increased foreign...
1–23DomesticDomesticPartnersPartnersDomesticDomesticPartnersPartnersMajor Workforce Diversity CategoriesMajor Workforce Di...
1–24Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) Improving Quality and Produc...
1–25What Is Quality Management?What Is Quality Management?1. Intense focus on the customer.2. Concern for continuous impro...
1–26Improving Quality and ProductivityImproving Quality and Productivity Quality management (QM)– The constant attainment...
1–27Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Improving People Skills Empower...
1–28Basic OB Model, Stage IBasic OB Model, Stage IE X H I B I T 1–7E X H I B I T 1–7ModelAn abstraction of reality.A simpl...
1–29The Dependent VariablesThe Dependent VariablesxyDependent variableA response that is affected by an independent variab...
1–30The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)ProductivityA performance measure that includeseffecti...
1–31The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)AbsenteeismThe failure to report to work.TurnoverThe v...
1–32The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB)Discretionary ...
1–33The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Job satisfactionA general attitude toward one’s job, t...
1–34The Independent VariablesThe Independent VariablesIndependentIndependentVariablesVariablesIndependentIndependentVariab...
1–35Basic OBModel,Stage IIBasic OBModel,Stage IIE X H I B I T 1–8E X H I B I T 1–8
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What Is Organizational Behavior

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Define organizational behavior (OB).
Describe what managers do.
Explain the value of the systematic study of OB.
List the major challenges and opportunities for managers to use OB concepts.
Identify the contributions made by major behavioral science disciplines to OB.

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What Is Organizational Behavior

  1. 1. What Is OrganizationalBehaviorChapter One
  2. 2. 1–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Define organizational behavior (OB).2. Describe what managers do.3. Explain the value of the systematic study ofOB.4. List the major challenges and opportunities formanagers to use OB concepts.5. Identify the contributions made by majorbehavioral science disciplines to OB.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  3. 3. 1–3After studying this chapter,you should be able to:6. Describe why managers require a knowledgeof OB.7. Explain the need for a contingency approachto the study of OB.8. Identify the three levels of analysis in thisbook’s OB model.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES(cont’d)
  4. 4. 1–4What Managers DoWhat Managers DoManagerial Activities• Make decisions• Allocate resources• Direct activities of othersto attain goalsManagerial Activities• Make decisions• Allocate resources• Direct activities of othersto attain goalsManagers (or administrators)Individuals who achieve goals through other people.
  5. 5. 1–5Where Managers WorkWhere Managers WorkOrganizationA consciously coordinated social unit,composed of two or more people, thatfunctions on a relatively continuous basisto achieve a common goal or set ofgoals.
  6. 6. 1–6Management FunctionsManagement FunctionsManagementManagementFunctionsFunctionsManagementManagementFunctionsFunctionsPlanningPlanningPlanningPlanning OrganizingOrganizingOrganizingOrganizingLeadingLeadingLeadingLeadingControllingControllingControllingControlling
  7. 7. 1–7Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)PlanningA process that includes defining goals,establishing strategy, and developingplans to coordinate activities.
  8. 8. 1–8Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)OrganizingDetermining what tasks are to be done,who is to do them, how the tasks are to begrouped, who reports to whom, and wheredecisions are to be made.
  9. 9. 1–9Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)LeadingA function that includes motivatingemployees, directing others, selectingthe most effective communicationchannels, and resolving conflicts.
  10. 10. 1–10Management Functions (cont’d)Management Functions (cont’d)ControllingMonitoring activities to ensure they are beingaccomplished as planned and correcting anysignificant deviations.
  11. 11. 1–11Mintzberg’s Managerial RolesMintzberg’s Managerial RolesE X H I B I T 1–1E X H I B I T 1–1Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  12. 12. 1–12Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  13. 13. 1–13Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 1–1 (cont’d)Source: Adapted from The Nature of Managerial Work by H. Mintzberg. Copyright © 1973by H. Mintzberg. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education.
  14. 14. 1–14Management SkillsManagement SkillsTechnical skillsThe ability to apply specializedknowledge or expertise.Human skillsThe ability to work with, understand,and motivate other people, bothindividually and in groups.Conceptual SkillsThe mental ability to analyze anddiagnose complex situations.
  15. 15. 1–15Effective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)Effective Versus Successful ManagerialActivities (Luthans)1. Traditional management• Decision making, planning, and controlling2. Communication• Exchanging routine information and processingpaperwork3. Human resource management• Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing,and training4. Networking• Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others1. Traditional management• Decision making, planning, and controlling2. Communication• Exchanging routine information and processingpaperwork3. Human resource management• Motivating, disciplining, managing conflict, staffing,and training4. Networking• Socializing, politicking, and interacting with others
  16. 16. 1–16E X H I B I T 1–2E X H I B I T 1–2Allocation of Activities by TimeAllocation of Activities by TimeSource: Based on F. Luthans, R.M. Hodgetts, and S.A. Rosenkrantz,Real Managers (Cambridge, MA: Ballinger, 1988).
  17. 17. 1–17Enter Organizational BehaviorEnter Organizational BehaviorOrganizational behavior(OB)A field of study thatinvestigates the impact thatindividuals, groups, andstructure have on behaviorwithin organizations, for thepurpose of applying suchknowledge toward improvingan organization’seffectiveness.
  18. 18. 1–18Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic StudySystematic studyLooking at relationships, attempting to attributecauses and effects, and drawing conclusions basedon scientific evidence.Provides a means to predict behaviors.IntuitionA feeling not necessarily supported by research.
  19. 19. 1–19Replacing Intuition with Systematic StudyReplacing Intuition with Systematic StudyTheFactsPreconceivedNotions ≠
  20. 20. 1–20E X H I B I T 1–4E X H I B I T 1–4Source: Drawing by Handelsman inThe New Yorker, Copyright © 1986by the New Yorker Magazine.Reprinted by permission.
  21. 21. 1–21There Are Few Absolutes in OBThere Are Few Absolutes in OBContingencyContingencyVariablesVariablesx yContingency variablesSituational factors: variables that moderate therelationship between two or more othervariables and improve the correlation.
  22. 22. 1–22Challenges and Opportunities for OBChallenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Globalization– Increased foreign assignments– Working with people from different cultures– Coping with anti-capitalism backlash– Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low-cost labor Managing Workforce Diversity– Embracing diversity– Changing U.S. demographics– Implications for managers• Recognizing and responding to differences
  23. 23. 1–23DomesticDomesticPartnersPartnersDomesticDomesticPartnersPartnersMajor Workforce Diversity CategoriesMajor Workforce Diversity CategoriesRaceRaceRaceRaceNon-ChristianNon-ChristianNon-ChristianNon-ChristianNationalNationalOriginOriginNationalNationalOriginOriginAgeAgeAgeAgeDisabilityDisabilityDisabilityDisabilityE X H I B I T 1–5E X H I B I T 1–5GenderGenderGenderGender
  24. 24. 1–24Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunities for OB (cont’d) Improving Quality and Productivity– Quality management (QM)– Process reengineering Responding to the Labor Shortage– Changing work force demographics– Fewer skilled laborers– Early retirements and older workers Improving Customer Service– Increased expectation of service quality– Customer-responsive cultures
  25. 25. 1–25What Is Quality Management?What Is Quality Management?1. Intense focus on the customer.2. Concern for continuous improvement.3. Improvement in the quality of everythingthe organization does.4. Accurate measurement.5. Empowerment of employees.E X H I B I T 1–6E X H I B I T 1–6
  26. 26. 1–26Improving Quality and ProductivityImproving Quality and Productivity Quality management (QM)– The constant attainment of customer satisfactionthrough the continuous improvement of allorganizational processes.– Requires employees to rethink what they do andbecome more involved in workplace decisions. Process reengineering– Asks managers to reconsider how work would be doneand their organization structured if they were startingover.– Instead of making incremental changes in processes,reengineering involves evaluating every process interms of its contribution.
  27. 27. 1–27Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d)Challenges and Opportunity for OB (cont’d) Improving People Skills Empowering People Stimulating Innovation and Change Coping with “Temporariness” Working in Networked Organizations Helping Employees Balance Work/Life Conflicts Improving Ethical Behavior
  28. 28. 1–28Basic OB Model, Stage IBasic OB Model, Stage IE X H I B I T 1–7E X H I B I T 1–7ModelAn abstraction of reality.A simplified representationof some real-worldphenomenon.
  29. 29. 1–29The Dependent VariablesThe Dependent VariablesxyDependent variableA response that is affected by an independent variable.
  30. 30. 1–30The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)ProductivityA performance measure that includeseffectiveness and efficiency.EffectivenessAchievement of goals.EfficiencyThe ratio of effectiveoutput to the inputrequired to achieve it.
  31. 31. 1–31The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)AbsenteeismThe failure to report to work.TurnoverThe voluntary andinvoluntary permanentwithdrawal from anorganization.
  32. 32. 1–32The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Organizational citizenshipbehavior (OCB)Discretionary behavior that is notpart of an employee’s formal jobrequirements, but that neverthelesspromotes the effective functioning ofthe organization.
  33. 33. 1–33The Dependent Variables (cont’d)The Dependent Variables (cont’d)Job satisfactionA general attitude toward one’s job, the differencebetween the amount of reward workers receive and theamount they believe they should receive.
  34. 34. 1–34The Independent VariablesThe Independent VariablesIndependentIndependentVariablesVariablesIndependentIndependentVariablesVariablesIndividual-LevelIndividual-LevelVariablesVariablesIndividual-LevelIndividual-LevelVariablesVariablesOrganizationOrganizationSystem-LevelSystem-LevelVariablesVariablesOrganizationOrganizationSystem-LevelSystem-LevelVariablesVariablesGroup-LevelGroup-LevelVariablesVariablesGroup-LevelGroup-LevelVariablesVariablesIndependent variableThe presumed cause of some change in the dependentvariable.
  35. 35. 1–35Basic OBModel,Stage IIBasic OBModel,Stage IIE X H I B I T 1–8E X H I B I T 1–8

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