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Water sampling paper

Water sampling paper






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    Water sampling paper Water sampling paper Document Transcript

    • Finding Total Coliforms and Enterococcus in WaterSamples from Cidra in the River ArroyataAlejandra González and Angeline FigueroaRISEAbstractWaters in the world are contaminated by different pathogens. In Puerto Rico,the waters contain coliforms which are a type of bacteria and they are divided intotwo groups, total coliforms and fecal coliforms. Enterococcus is another type ofbacteria that affect our waters and they can be a hazard for the health of people andanimals. For this project we wanted to know if there was presence of total coliformsand enterococcus in the waters of the river Arroyata in Cidra, Puerto Rico. Sincefecal coliforms are endemic in the waters of Puerto Rico they were going to bepresent in the samples taken from the river, unless the samples were treated againstfecal coliforms.IntroductionColiforms are broad class of bacteria found in our environment, including thefeces of man and other warm-blooded animals.The presence of coliform bacteria indrinking water may indicate a possible presence of harmful, disease-causingorganisms. There are two types of Coliforms, fecal and total. Total coliforms arebacteria that are found in the intestines of animals and in the environment, whilefecal coliforms are found only in the intestines of animals and these are endemic inthe waters of Puerto Rico and they are used to know the presence of pathogenicorganisms. Enterococcus is a genus of lactic acid bacteria, which are the ones thatare used for example in yogurt. Two species are common commensal organisms inthe intestines of humans: E. faecalis andE. faecium, some infections caused byEnterococcus include urinary tract infections, bacteremia, bacterial endocarditis,diverticulitis, and meningitis.Our question for this project was if we were going tobe able to find total coliforms and enterococcus in the waters of the river Arroyatain Cidra. The hypothesis to this question would be that yes, we are going to be ableto find coliforms and enterococcus in the mentioned river. Since fecal coliforms areendemic in the waters of Puerto Rico we are sure that they will show in our results.Materials and MethodsThe samples were collected on May 3, 2013 from the River Arroyata in Cidra,Puerto Rico. We collected six samples of one hundred milliliters, two for eachsection of the river. The first four samples were collected near the town and the lasttwo a bit far from the town. Before each collection we measured the temperature
    • and conductivity with a multimeter and the turbidity utilizing a turbidmeter. Inaddition, there was used a GPS to identify the latitude and longitude from were thesample were collected, the sample number to identify each sample with its place ofcollection and to record the time of the collection. The samples were identified asfollow: the first two, from the first section of the river, were numbered 66, the thirdand forth from the second section, were 69 and the last two from the third section,were 70.After the collection we brought the samples to the laboratory to preparethem for the analysis process. The samples were divided into two groups of three.For the first three, we pouredColilert substrate and the Enterolert substrate wasadded to the other group of three samples. The Colilert is to identify fecal and totalcoliforms and the Enterolert to identify enterococcus bacteria. These substrates aredetectors that have nutrients indicator that will be metabolized by the bacteriaresulting in a change in color in the water sample if result positive to the bacteriamentioned before. For instance, if the test resulted positive for total coliforms thewater will change from clear to yellow. And, if the same sample is put underultraviolet light the ones that change from yellow to light violet resulted positive forfecal coliforms. For the enterococcus test, the water will change from green to blue ifresulted positive for that bacteria. The next step was to pour each water sampleswith substrates in six quantity trays(one for each sample) and then seal them withthe quantity tray sealer.After that, the samples were incubated for twenty-fourhours, the one with Colilert at 35-Celsius degrees and the one with Enterolert at 41-Celsius degrees.The next day we took out the quantity trays from the incubator to analyzethem. For the total coliform test, we observed how much water in the quantity trayswere changed to yellow, for the fecal coliforms we put the under ultraviolet lightand see the amount of water that changed to light violet and for the enterococcus weobserve how much water changed to blue.ResultsIt was difficult to have an accurate number of bacteria inone hundredmilliliters of water due to the method utilized, so the results are the most probablenumber (MNP) of bacteria that one hundred milliliters of water could contain.For the test of the total coliforms the three samples (66, 69 and 70) resultedin the same amount of that bacteria 2,419.6MNP. The fecal coliforms test resulted ina different amount: the 66 samples had 307.8MNP, the 69, 172.6 and the 70, 210.5.Finally, for the enterococcus test resulted in diverse number of bacteria too: the 66samples 344.8, the 69 had 579.4 and the 70 had 156.5
    • *-Conductivity is a way to measure ions dissolved in a water body. As low theconductivity is fresher is the water. Conductivity should range from 150 to 500micromhos per centimeter (mhos/cm) to consider the water as pure.*-Turbidity is measured at nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) and we can see turbidityin the color of the water.ConclusionBased on the results we could deducethat the conductivity was slightly higherthan the normal ranges, which are 150 to 500mhos/cm. This indicates that the water is nottoo pure for its use. Considering that there are many factors that altered the conductivity,such as temperature, these results can vary making the water to be in the ranges of freshwater.Also, that the turbidity resulted with an NTU lower than the range, which is10NTU. This quantity of turbidity indicates that the water is plenty pure, because it doesnot have too much organic and inorganic material. We were able to obtain positive resultsin the six samples. In other words, we did find fecal and total coliforms and enterococcusbacteria in the water of the riverArroyata in Cidra, Puerto Rico. Consequently, we were
    • able to measure the water quality of three different section of the river, so we canconclude that as far as we moved to collect the samples from the town was less bacteria.With all the gathered information we will be able to orient people on how to drinkpurified water and the dangers of ingesting water that has not been treated againstpathogens, campaigns can be also an option to tell more people to help keep our waterscleaned.Literature Citedhttp://www.bfhd.wa.gov/info/coliform.php (Public Health of US)http://www.gobierno.pr/NR/rdonlyres/BA0D6158-5A70-449A-B385-D55F654720A8/0/EstandaresCalidadAgua.pdf (Junta de Calidad de Ambiental de PuertoRico)