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051102 Online Community Mapping

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  • 1. Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping The PNC 2005 Annual Conference and Joint Meetings Oct.31 to Nov.3, 2005 University of Hawaii at Manoa Honolulu, Hawai'i Tyng-Ruey Chuang and Andrea Wei-Ching Huang Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan Online Community Mapping Last Year: we try to understand 4 dimensions in Web-based community GIS. Four dimensions o Spatial data sources o Web technologies o People and Community o Sustainability 2 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 2. Online Community Mapping At this point in time: we can say with confidence that people, place, participation are emerging in 3 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Content for Today: What Phenomenon Supporting Theories A Proposed Model Supporting Technologies Geospatial Legal Aspects Conclusion 4 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 3. Online Community Mapping What Phenomenon is sweeping the Internet ? web-based interaction geographical convergence personal participation 5 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping What Phenomenon is sweeping the Internet ? 2003~2004 Online Map Usage has increased 60% world wide ( Nielsen NetRatings, October 2004) 2004/ US Map Searching become top activity online in US. (Pew Internet & American Life Project survey, Dec.2004 ) 2005/ US After Google Map release… a proliferation of online map websites… quot;This is like the 1990's, when everyone was creating everything on the Web.quot; (NYTimes, October 20, 2005 ) 2005/ UK Data supplied by Ordnance Survey (OS) adds an annual value of more than £100bn to the UK economy. (Guardian, April 7, 2005) 6 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 4. Online Community Mapping We trace the emergence of specific features: see appendix I 7 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping 2. Supporting Theories In conceptualizing the making of Online Community Mapping (OCM), we draw on the theoretical perspectives of Naïve Geography Participatory Research Online Community Framework (OCF) 8 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 5. Online Community Mapping a multidisciplinary research which is involved at least geography, sociology, & sociology information/ computer science see appendix II 9 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping In theory, naïve geography stress common-sense geography of the world next-generation GIS theory base allow “errors” & “inconsistent” 10 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 6. Online Community Mapping classify a diverse collection of these phenomena 11 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping In theory, social geography focuses on the relationships between people and place. Among these, participatory research offers a model of community development. 12 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 7. Online Community Mapping issues to understand geo-spatial mapping 13 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping examples to understand geo-spatial mapping OpenStreetMap Blogmapper FreeGIS TSM ProjectOneMap CMAP CHiRP Window to My GeoURL Environment Google UpMyStreet Ordance Survey Yahoo TIGER MSN Community Atlas PPGIS Map Community Mapping PGIS Network CiGIS NSDI 14 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 8. Online Community Mapping 3. A Proposed Model 15 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping A Proposed Model for a common-sense geography of the world functionalize 16 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 9. Online Community Mapping online collaborative communities: communities popularity of online communities is increasing which based around bloggers, wikis,… phenomenalize 17 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping participatory community mapping : providing participants an approach to their self-representation, a systematic process for identifying capacities and barriers, as well as serving as a resource for mobilizing community opportunities theorize 18 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 10. Online Community Mapping A Proposed Model functionalize web technology phenomenalize integrated theorize 19 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Therefore we define *online community mapping* : The process of collaborative mapping of geo-spatial domains where people participate online. 20 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 11. Online Community Mapping 4. Supporting Technologies “Web technologies are beginning to enable users to more beyond the role of passive receivers to become active participants in collaborative information flows.” (Rogers. N.,2003) 22 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 12. Online Community Mapping Geography Information Technology In our experience, Geography Markup Language (GML) and Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) well utilize existing open source resources 23 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Taiwan Population Mapping Taipei City GML-based (http://tsm.iis.sinica.edu.tw/) Interoperable Geo-spatial Systems map rendering in SVG Topographical map rendering in SVG and GML 24 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 13. Online Community Mapping eg.SVG can be used to assist existing web mapping applications UK hacker: Using SVG for paths in Google Maps Google Maps API uses VML SVG shares a lot in common with VML http://jibbering.com/blog/?p=179 25 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Theoretically Speaking, focus on 2 dimensions of usability & OCF sociability in which to understand how technology may or must be used to improve them. the emerging of social software may play a key role in the trend. 26 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 14. Online Community Mapping social software mechanisms enable group participation and collaboration Social Software •for document creation (wiki) wiki •personal publishing and syndication (blog) blog • social bookmark for links sharing (del.icio.us) del.icio.us • photo sharing (fliker) fliker • social tagging (technorati) technorati •resource sharing (BitTorrent) BitTorrent 27 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping a well-mixed bowl of 28 Chuang and Huang, 2005 wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_software
  • 15. Online Community Mapping powerful tools for facilitating social communication, creating and maintaining online communities col lab o ra tive sof twa re open, simple and freely editability 29 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping who are combing social software to geo-place Examples of (geo + blog) / (geo +wiki), see appendix III 30 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 16. Online Community Mapping Why people want to tie social software to geo-place? 31 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping In theory, participatory research Mapping is one of the best participatory techniques. It also offers participants a way to their PR self-representation. Tool for interrelationship Contribute to community projects Capacity building 32 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 17. Online Community Mapping Also because their mechanism design 1. eliminate technical barriers 2. make the Web accessible as a medium for self expression and offer two-way channels to communicate with . Chuang and Huang 2005 Online Community Mapping 1. Permalink: makes cross referencing and discourse easier 2. Trackback: automates cross blog referencing ; converse and keeps correspondence explicit and persistent. 3. RSS and Atom, enables easy syndication and aggregation of blog content. 4. Content: excellent knowledge management tools 34 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 18. Online Community Mapping 5. Geospatial Legal Aspects demand for access to a IT + Web variety of geo data have not kept pace with developments data dissemination and licensing frameworks 37 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping most major mapping agencies copyright their geodata, except for the US,CAN, Brazil, AUS, and NZ 38 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 19. Online Community Mapping Whether Governments Have the Right to Limit and Charge for State-Collected GeoData? security right privacy data economy usability Paradoxes 39 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping We accept the challenge to answer this questions by analysing pro/con issues of arguments in particular See appendix IV 40 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 20. Online Community Mapping Our perspectives • online, open, and collaborative exploration of domain spaces is one of the most successful web paradigms. • we advocate more flexible licensing models : CC, GPL or dual licensing (see Dr. Chuang’s presentation this morning) • geo-spatial dataset release should be in source forms • and should be accompanied by the necessary data models (i.e., schema), metadata and catalog descriptions, data format definitions, and source code of the related software tools. 41 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping 6. Conclusion 42 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 21. Online Community Mapping This is a start toward bringing up many of these issues, and As we widen our examples and perspectives, more and more new issues crop up. At least, 43 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Online Community Mapping Mapping While these are emerging, and can be found…
  • 22. Online Community Mapping Online Community Online Community Mapping Mapping open/ collaborative geo-spatial mapping is boosting the phenomenon… Online Community Mapping Online Community Geography Information Technology + Social Software + Open Access Online Community Mapping Mapping Conceptualization of Online Community Mapping Chuang and Huang (2005)
  • 23. Online Community Mapping Comment? Criticism? Challenge? …. or 47 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping … Cheers! 48 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 24. Online Community Mapping 49 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping APPENDIX 50 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 25. Online Community Mapping This research is the key underpinning for new emerging trends in the domain of Geo- Spatial Information Sciences that link information to users of that information integrated elements embedded “where, when, who, why, and write” to link “people, place, and participation”. For these reasons, we expect this research to be a major innovation –with many unforeseen applications, as well as scientific and social consequences in a potential research manner among a wide range of disciplines. 51 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Appendix I: trace the emergence of specific features online community community mapping online mapping 52 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 26. Online Community Mapping Online Community 53 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping However, Online Community = Online no universally Specific accepted Online Data Users = Groups with definition of their Specific community Online Data Contributors Interests in complex networks! Online Users contribute their data/information they are exploring Shared Data/Information Space Authority-generated Community-generated data/information 54 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 27. Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping In the blog scenario, it means…. Google undertook Blogger.Blogger (a popular create-your- 2003 own-Web-diary software) Coined the term Blog / A “Moblogging” 2002 Common Relationship community Adam Greenfield + + Website as a set of Interest Hyperlinks The 1st posted Moblogging: 2001 blogs Stuart Woodward on LiveJournal Blogging: boost 1999 Coined the term “weblog” 1997 John Barger, Chicago: Robot Wisdom site The 1st weblog 1992 Tim Bernes- Lee: self-made content http://info.cern.ch Authority-generated Community-generated data/information 55 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping In statistics, it means…. 5/26/2005 Google undertook Blogger.Blogger (a •more than the 10-11 million have been indexed popular create-your- 2003 own-Web-diary software) • more than the 31.6 million hosted blogs Coined the term “Moblogging” 2002 Adam Greenfield •BlogHerald's estimate of 60 million. The 1st posted Moblogging: 2001 Stuart Woodward on LiveJournal Blogging: boost 1999 Coined the term “weblog” 1997 John Barger, Chicago: Robot Wisdom site The 1st weblog 1992 Tim Bernes- Lee: http://info.cern.ch Source: http://www.perseus.com/blogsurvey / 56 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 28. Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping In the wiki scenario, it means…. the Los Angeles Times 2005 experimented with using a wiki in the editorial wiki / A section but failed Common Relationship community Jimmy Wales/ 2003 + Website + Wikimedia Interest Hyperlinks as a set of Foundation wikis : Socialtext the 1st commercial 2002 open source wiki Jimbo Wales & 2001 enables documents to be written Larry Sanger build wikipedia collectively (co-authoring) 1995 established by Most wikis are open to the general public, and data Ward Cunningham most produced by the interested communities.. 57 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping In statistics, it means…. the Los Angeles Times 2005 The case of wikipedia experimented with using a wiki in the editorial section but failed Jimmy Wales/ 2003 • 50 million hits per day Wikimedia Foundation • over 793,000 articles : Socialtext the 1st commercial 2002 • English-language articles over half a million open source wiki 2001 • about 40,000 people have contributed Jimbo Wales & Larry Sanger content to Wikipedia build wikipedia established by 1995 • more than 100 language versions Ward Cunningham 58 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 29. Online Community Mapping Community Mapping What is community mapping? “It is a process which identifies the location of social, economic and ecological assets and deficiencies of a community.” US Urban Strategies Council, 2003 59 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping More Specific to the Points: Projects that use maps, geo-information, information technologies to build geo-spatial representations of local knowledge, facilitate public participation, help the public more informed decision-making, improve planning process, open up local project opportunities. A survey of the current GIS literature reveals the following similar terms used to describe community-based GIS Applications (Peter A. Kwaku Kyem, 2004): Public Participation GIS (PPGIS), Participatory GIS (PGIS), PPGIS PGIS Community Integrated GIS (CiGIS), Neighborhood-created GIS, CiGIS Community Mapping 60 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 30. Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping Abundant projects/show cases: PPGIS - Public Participation GIS (see Dr.Tsai’s last presentation) Community Mapping – (New York/, the Community Mapping Assistance Project (CMAP) Whistler's Community PGIS 2005 Conference Habitat Resources Project (CHiRP) (CHiRP) www.nonprofitmaps.org pgis2005.cta.int www.chirpwhistler.info 61 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Mapping Community Mapping, PGIS, PPGIS and P3DM Virtual Library www.iapad.org/bibliography.htm 62 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 31. Online Community Mapping Online Mapping 1993 Xerox ParcMap 1995 MapQuest 2005 Google (Map/Earth), Yahoo, Microsoft, … 63 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping major search engine players initiating street-level web map services for general public applications such as transportation, real estate, and local search 64 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 32. Online Community Mapping “significantly elevated public awareness that maps can be useful and fun.” fun (Reed, C,2005) blog Yahoo Map MSN Virtual Earth 65 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping let the public/non-experts develop maps online with points on top 66 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 33. Online Community Mapping Appendix II: take a look at the supporting theories naïve geography participatory research online community framework 67 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping “The body of knowledge that people have about the surrounding geographic world.” Egenhofer and Mark, 1995 Naïve Geography Egenhofer, M. J., and Mark, D. M., 1995. Naive Geography. In Frank, A. U. and Kuhn, W., editors, Spatial Information Theory: A Theoretical Basis for GIS, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Sciences No. 988, 1-15. 68 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 34. Online Community Mapping Notion of Naïve Geography 1) common-sense geography of the world 2) next-generation GIS theory base 3) core= spatial + temporal reasoning 4) qualitative reasoning method 5) allow “errors” & “inconsistent” 69 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping 70 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 35. Online Community Mapping In theory, social geography focuses on the relationships between people and place. Among place these, participatory research offers a model of community development. Participatory Research Rachel, Pain (2004), Social geography: participatory research, in Progress in Human Geography, vol. 28, no.5, pp.652-663 Pain,R (2003), Social geography: on action-orientated research, Progress in Human Geography 27, 5:649-657 71 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping 72 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 36. Online Community Mapping In the words of Rachel Pain, “(narrative authority) gives traditionally powerless groups the power to shape the way their identities” 73 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Online Community Framework (OCF) de Souzqa, C.S. & Preece, J (2004), A framework for analysing and understanding online communities, Interacting with Computers 16:579-610 74 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 37. Online Community Mapping Components & factors of the OCM framework social interaction in the what happens at the human- online community computer interface Revised from de Souzqa, C.S. & Preece,75(2004), J p580 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Purpose of OCF-based analyses 1. To understand how technology may or must be used to improve usability & sociability. 2. To prevent problems in computer- mediated communication & social interaction. 76 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 38. Online Community Mapping Appendix III: who are combing social software to geo-place 77 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping UK Case: Conversations Coates, Webb & Magdalinski (2003) observed: 1. Geocoded community = Geocoded Message board (learn from metafilter, a weblog-style message-board) metafilter weblog- 2. Every threaded conversation has a specific geographical location. 3. Designed to help you “meet your neighbors and discuss local issues” . 78 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 39. Online Community Mapping My profile: postcode geocoded Conversation Nearby Conversations History 79 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Here comes the fun part : Thread-tracking Coates, Webb & Magdalinski (2003) “Threads are not lost, people can see when things change.” 80 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 40. Online Community Mapping The WorldKit Projects 81 Chuang and Huang, 2005 http://brainoff.com/worldkit/examples.php Online Community Mapping www.blogmapper.com/ 82 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 41. Online Community Mapping Some Other Wiki Mapping Ways http://www.geowiki.co.uk/geowiki/
  • 42. Online Community Mapping Some Other Wiki Mapping Ways Online Community Mapping OpenSDI-the Open Spatial Data Infrastructure Chris Holmes’s Wiki + OpenSDI BENEFITs • Trust mechanism • How good data is eBay like Wiki Like Slashdot Like BENEFIT Decentralized • return searches Google Like based on what Geospatial web others rate as valuable 86 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 43. Online Community Mapping Chris Holmes’s Wiki + OpenSDI Thoughts 1. Wikipedia for base layer data Wiki Like 2. RSS + Spatial annotation eBay like 3. Annotated Tiger dataset : • Lets _anyone_ change the content –more Google Like users keeping things up • allow people to create their own Slashdot Like community-based layers 4. Version Control idea: •A database records every single updates •(Subversion) this last thing is that it allows you to get the list of diffs Subversion) on a zoomed in part of the map, that are the ones actually relevant for the part of the map you are looking at. •“History” section- just the numbers of the revisions by “wiki history History” section- GML application schema”/ special wiki transaction XML 87 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping quot;Because of the advantages in computing power, suddenly cartography has gone from a read-only medium into being a read/write medium.quot; says by Schuyler Erle, co-author of “Mapping Hacks” Guardian April 7, 2005 88 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 44. Online Community Mapping Appendix IV: Whether Governments Have the Right to Limit and Charge for State-Collected GeoData? 89 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping Whether Governments Have the Right to Limit and Charge for State-Collected GeoData? security right privacy data economy usability Paradoxes 90 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 45. Online Community Mapping 3.Paradoxes economy Pro Con 91 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping 3.Paradoxes right Pro Con 92 Chuang and Huang, 2005
  • 46. Online Community Mapping 3.Paradoxes usability Pro Con 93 Chuang and Huang, 2005 Online Community Mapping security 3.Paradoxes privacy Pro Con 94 Chuang and Huang, 2005