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101203 An event ontology for crisis-disaster information


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Information management in the event of a crisis/disaster is a challenging problem as often the information is incomplete or inaccurate, while the public and the government both need to access to critical information in order to plan for crisis prevention and disaster relief. In addition, as communication networks and their bandwidth can be rather limited or overloaded in such events, it can be very difficult in aggregating, summarizing, and disseminating the relevant information in timely and useful ways. An ontology for the representation, processing, and integration of event information would be very useful in the application domain of crisis prevention and disaster relief. We have surveyed several event ontologies, and will propose some guidelines for the design of an event ontology for crisis-disaster information management.

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101203 An event ontology for crisis-disaster information

  1. 1. An Event Ontology An Event Ontologyfor Crisis-Disaster Information Crisis- The PNC 2010 Annual Conference and Joint Meetings December 1-3, 2010, City University of Hong Kong 1- Hong Kong Andrea Wei-Ching Huang and Tyng-Ruey Chuang Wei- Tyng- Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica Taipei, Taiwan T i i T i
  2. 2. An Event Ontology Outline 1. Introduction & Limitation 2. Crisis-Disaster information 3. Semantic Web 4. Event b 4 E t based Ontologies dO t l i 5. General Event Relation (ger) 6. Crisis-Disaster GER 7. 7 Conclusion & Suggestions 2Huang & Chuang, 2010
  3. 3. An Event Ontology DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-A DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-B 3Huang & Chuang, 2010
  4. 4. An Event Ontology 1. 1 Introduction & Limitation Meaning M i Relation R l ti Simplicity Si li it 4Huang & Chuang, 2010
  5. 5. An Event Ontology “The world looks at a disaster The disaster, often willing to help, but needing an accurate picture … picture. Humanity’s effectiveness will be much increased if relevant data streams are made available.” t d il bl ” 5Huang & Chuang, 2010
  6. 6. An Event Ontology Why do we need an event ontology for the disaster information management ? Disaster Information Event Ontology Disaster information has the Event or Event concept is Ontology clarifies thecharacterizations of rapid about dynamic change. It relationship between objectschangeability, ambiguity, vast provides an effective way to stored in machines and providesquantity and diverse domains filter, share, communicate, meanings both to human andon the Web. organize, and integrate machines work in coordination. diverse and distributed Disaster management information. information Existing event based ontologiessystems should not be isolated. are well equipped with spatial- Event descriptions usually temporal representations. Traditional GIS system can focus on temporal and causal pnot answer why question. relationships. W3C EIIF XG has worked on the Who-What-Where, but no The international Disaster Database (EM-DAT) has added When-Why effort yet.the ‘Event” on the top level for its data entry methodology. Event 6 Huang & Chuang, 2010
  7. 7. An Event Ontology Limitations Li it ti We have no formal d fi i i , li W h f l definition linguistic analysis or i i l i philosophical exploration on “Event”; on “ontology” terms such as “data model”, “schemas” “classification”, “taxonomy”, or “thesaurus”; or on difference between “crisis”, “disaster”, “risk” or “emergency”. We do not create a new event ontology for disaster management, instead we generalize a common Relation based on the Event Concept as 5 General Event Relations. Concept, Relations We have not implement or practice on this five GERs yet, and have not set logical axioms for their semantics However semantics. our team is on the process of utilizing event concept to manage narrative accounts. 7Huang & Chuang, 2010
  8. 8. An Event Ontology Goal R G l & Result lt 8Huang & Chuang, 2010
  9. 9. An Event Ontology EVENT Meaning g Relation Simplicity p y 9Huang & Chuang, 2010
  10. 10. An Event Ontology 2. Crisis-disaster Information Mitigation Miti ti Preparedness P d Response R Recovery R 10Huang & Chuang, 2010
  11. 11. An Event Ontology People need information as much as water, food, medicine, or shelter. di i h lt Information can save lives, livelihoods, and resources. It may be the only form of disaster preparedness that the most vulnerable can afford. The right kind of information leads to a deeper understanding of needs and ways to respond. The wrong information can lead to inappropriate, even dangerous interventions International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, World Disasters Report 2005 p 11Huang & Chuang, 2006
  12. 12. An Event Ontology The Ph Th Phased Framework Model dF kM d l 12Huang & Chuang, 2010
  13. 13. An Event Ontology Crisis-Disaster Information : Problems ex: Situation awareness demands short term thinking & action. Information Quality - ambiguity, updating, interoperability - security, level of trust Information Overload - unstructured information - duplicated efforts - emergency bandwidths Disseminating - data linking , data portability - efficient distribution of time-critical alerts Accessibility - allow information to be filtered or extracted by what, when, where, who, and why. 13Huang & Chuang, 2010 Information Gathering / Processing/ Integration/ Sharing
  14. 14. An Event Ontology In H i tidi t l I Hristidis et al. ( 2010) ‘ survey on ‘s data management & analysis in disaster situations, they suggest that: employing ontology and semantic web technologies p y g gy g can be used to identify and associate semantically corresponding concepts ti ll di t in the disaster-related information, so that the heterogeneous data can be integrated and ingested ingested. 14Huang & Chuang, 2010
  15. 15. An Event Ontology W3C Emergency Information Interoperability Frameworks WHO WHAT WHERE 15Huang & Chuang, 2010 DOLCE Lite based
  16. 16. An Event Ontology W3C Emergency Information Interoperability Frameworks 16Huang & Chuang, 2010 DOLCE Lite based
  17. 17. An Event Ontology 3. Semantic Web 17Huang & Chuang, 2010
  18. 18. An Event Ontology Computers used to be linked by telephone wires, by Internet, by Web of Documents, and then by Web of Data. Data. The existence of links themselves do not carry meaning meaning. 18Huang & Chuang, 2010 Revised from Tim Berners-Lee , 2007/2010:
  19. 19. An Event Ontology Semantic Web: meaning not just spelling Web “The Semantic Web is an extension of the current web in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation ” cooperation. Ontology: Ontology machine-readable knowledge representation gy g p “a machine-understandable theory of (human) meaning. (C.Legg, (C Legg 2007) ONTOLOGY concept class relation instances sub concept class 19Huang & Chuang, 2010
  20. 20. An Event Ontology Glossary of terms for nodes & arcs node arc/ arrow‐Semantics.html 20Huang & Chuang, 2010
  21. 21. An Event Ontology A light-weight ontology example: RDF and RDF Schema Graph with Semantics 1. Represent information. 2. Express general knowledge. 3. Implicit knowledge can be deduced or inferred. 21Huang & Chuang, 2010
  22. 22. An Event Ontology Graph with Semantics Draw conclusions from the Given Information. Information Sebastian eats vegetable Thai g Curry, … therefore h is th f he i pitiable… from Hitzler, Krotzsch and Rudolph (2009) 22Huang & Chuang, 2010
  23. 23. An Event Ontology 3. Implicit knowledge is deduced or inferred. d d d i f d 2. express more generic knowledge 1. Represent Information from Hitzler, Krotzsch and Rudolph (2009) Fig 2.13: Graph representation of a simple RDFS ontology 23Huang & Chuang, 2010
  24. 24. An Event Ontology 4. Event based Ontologies g Relation R l ti Event E t 24Huang & Chuang, 2010
  25. 25. An Event Ontology What event based ontology can do? for example, some of the general kinds of queries supported by Geospatial Event Model (GEM) include: • What are all the events related to object X? • What are the objects that are related to event Y? Wh t th bj t th t l t dt t Y? • Can event Y happen without object X? • What are all the events that are related to event Y? • What are all the events that are related to event Y? • What events serve as initiator events for event Y? • How many objects serve as event‐initiating or facilitating objects? • How many objects serve as event‐initiating or facilitating objects? • What is the spatio‐temporal setting for event Y? Worboys and Hornsby ( 2004) 25Huang & Chuang, 2010
  26. 26. An Event OntologyEvent definitions inStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy y p p y 26
  27. 27. An Event Ontology Different Classes with different hierarchy 4 core classes 3 classes 27 class 3 classes 5 classes 5 classes DUL classes 1 class 1 other class17 properties 6 perspectives 1 function 6 functions 20 properties 6 DnS patterns 6 properties 5 types 13 relations 1 other class 3 property constrains 27 Huang & Chuang, 2010
  28. 28. An Event Ontology Event definitions among different ontologies SUMO: something that happens at a given place and time. DUL: Any physical, social, or mental process, event or state physical social process event, state. BFO: similar to the " Temporal boundary of process" concept, which has been defined as "a processual entity that is the fiat or bona fide instantaneous temporal boundary of a process. 1. EO: An arbitrary classification of a space/time region, by a cognitive agent. An event may have actively p y y participating agents, p p g g passive factors, p products, and a location in space/time. 2. E: consider a Web in which each node is an event. 3. GEM: event as process. 4. 4 UEO: entities in formal ontology as occurrence of actions & changes in the real world world. 5. EM: event as actor and action in a situation ontology. 6. F: " …perduring entities ( or perdurants or occurants ) that unfold over time, i.e., they take up time..” 7. 7 LODE: People conventionally refer to an action or occurrence taking place at a certain time at a specific location as an event. Things that have happened or that are scheduled to happen. 8. SEM: Event cannot commit to a specific definition. Events encompass everything that happens, even fictional events. 28Huang & Chuang, 2010
  29. 29. An Event Ontology Different Event Meaning 29Huang & Chuang, 2010
  30. 30. An Event Ontology [ DOLCE ][ ] [ model-F ] model- (occurant)[ BFO ] (continuant)[ GEM ] Objects Settings Events 30 Situate: GOClass Situate: GEClassHuang & Chuang, 2010
  31. 31. An Event Ontology DUL: TimeInterval DUL: SpaceRegion DUL:SpatioTemporalRegion 31Huang & Chuang, 2010
  32. 32. An Event Ontology “Many Knowledge Representation systems Many had a problem merging or interrelating two separate knowledge bases, as the model was that any concept had one and only one place in a tree of knowledge. They therefore did not scale, or pass the test of independent invention.” invention 32Huang & Chuang, 2010
  33. 33. An Event Ontology 5. General Event Relation (GER) ( ) Relation R l ti Simplicity Si li it 33Huang & Chuang, 2010
  34. 34. An Event Ontology Most upper ontologies define classes and their tree of hierarchies. By contrast, we generalize and define Event Relation mostly from the existing Event based Ontologies. 34Huang & Chuang, 2010
  35. 35. An Event Ontology EVENT CONCEPT Something- Something-A Something- Something-Bex. i di id l individuals, resource, objects, data  bj d ex. individuals, resource, objects, data  ex individuals resource objects databases, classes, domain ontology, upper  bases, classes, domain ontology, upper ontology,  framework, thesaurus,  ontology,  framework, thesaurus, reference models, … f d l reference models, … reference models 35Huang & Chuang, 2010
  36. 36. An Event Ontology GER Terms -1 CLASS Event: A significant happening which at least has four general relation statements and one possible relation described below. RELATION identity relation: representation of an Event which makes it definable and recognizable. ex. is‐a, isAbout, defines, occurs, exists, classifies,  express, describes, isRelatedTo, sameAs, according to…   temporal relation: express the relation which is relating to or limited by time time. ex. hasTime, timeInterval, time‐span, timestamp,   during, eventDate, begin, end, since, nextTo…   36Huang & Chuang, 2010
  37. 37. An Event Ontology GER Terms -2 spatial relation: express the relation which is relating to or limited by space, place, or location. ex. place, region, space, location, hasBoundary,  nearTo, direction, overlap, placeName…   cause relation: express the relation that any entity makes an event happen or is responsible for event results results. ex. cause, result, factor, agent, actor, action, activities,  impact, consequence, result, participant, role, product,  impact consequence result participant role product instrument, task…  exceptional relation: express the relation which is a noteworthy addition p p y to the event but has not mentioned in the four basic GERs above. ex. isPartOf, hasSubEvent, hasComponent, hasMember,  unifies, includes, involves, transitive, symmetric, negative,  unifies includes involves transitive symmetric negative opposite, contextualizing , interpretation, certainty…   37Huang & Chuang, 2010
  38. 38. An Event Ontology General Relation in Event Based Ontologies ex. is‐a, isAbout, defines, occurs,  Identity Relation exists, classifies, express, describes,  exists, classifies, express, describes, isRelatedTo, sameAs, according to…   ex. hasTime, timeInterval,  Temporal Relation time‐span, timestamp,   time span timestamp during, eventDate, begin, end,  since, nextTo…   ex. place, region, space,  ex place region space EVENT Spatial Relation location, hasBoundary, nearTo,  direction, overlap, placeName…   ex. cause, result, factor, agent,  ex cause result factor agent Cause Relation actor, action, activities, impact,  consequence, result, participant,  role, product, instrument, task…  ex. isPartOf, hasSubEvent,  Exceptional Relation hasComponent, hasMember,  unifies, includes, involves,  transitive, symmetric, negative,  , y , g , opposite, contextualizing ,  interpretation, certainty…   38Huang & Chuang, 2010
  39. 39. An Event Ontology ex. individuals, resource,  EVENT ex. individuals, resource,  objects, data bases,  objects, data bases,  j , , classes, domain ontology,  CONCEPT classes, domain ontology,  upper ontology,   upper ontology,   framework, thesaurus,  framework, thesaurus,  reference models, … , reference models, … Something- Something-A Something- Something-B 39Huang & Chuang, 2010
  40. 40. An Event Ontology 6. C i i Di 6 Crisis-Disaster GER t Simplicity able to access key information concerning bl t k i f ti i disaster situation & resource availability. 40Huang & Chuang, 2010
  41. 41. An Event Ontology DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-A DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-B 41Huang & Chuang, 2010
  42. 42. An Event Ontology For most crisis/disaster/emergency information, they have their domain categories/ hierarchies/ ontologies. We want to reuse them and provide freedom of them, meaning choices to users. GER provides Event Concept to associate disaster information and relate to other useful resources according to users’ specific applications. 42Huang & Chuang, 2010
  43. 43. An Event Ontology EVENT CONCEPT DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-A DisasterInfo- DisasterInfo-B 43Huang & Chuang, 2010
  44. 44. An Event Ontology alternatives exist over the Web your own URI or Web resource URI, hasEventID isClassifiedBy  GDAC: disaster type . isSameAs  . PreventionWeb: hazard type . . . . ger:id SWRLTemporalOntology:ValidPeriodClass isDuringReposnsePhase hasEventDate OWL Time Ontology: DateTimeDescription hasTemporalinterval Logic h li l i Allen’s interval-based calculi Crisis . . . . Disaster ger:time . . hasLocation GeoRSS: WGS84Information hasPlaceName GeoName Ontology hasSpatialTemporal . . GEM: SpatialTemporalRegion . ger:place . . . hasAction DUL: EmergencyRespose.owl hasActorVolunteer FOAF or SIOC Ontology hasImpact YouTube: user-post video g ger:cause . . . . . . hasPart‐WholeRelation OWL Simple part-whole relations hasContextualizingRelation  CGKAT top-level relation ontology hasTransitiveRelation ger:expnl . OBO Relation ontology . Huang & Chuang, 2010 . choices are yours 44
  45. 45. An Event Ontology The Ph Th Phased Framework Model dF kM d l 45Huang & Chuang, 2010
  46. 46. An Event Ontology Pacific N i hb h Neighborhood Consortium d ( PNC) ) 46Huang & Chuang, 2010
  47. 47. An Event Ontology Coordinated People & Organizations Neighborhood Assistance is just around the corner… 47Huang & Chuang, 2010 Coordinated Resources
  48. 48. An Event Ontology During crises and disasters, The M Th Morakot Disaster in Taiwan k t Di t i T i Information from friends, f fi d family and neighbors are particular important for the public to fulfill information seeking Within 5 minutes, one Taiwanese Plurker’s message requirements, requirements regarding to build a collaborative disaster map had been di t b ild ll b ti di t h db and to make spread to more than 6,500 people. decisions, because this kind of information provides local context, rapid updates as well as p , p p safety & welfare checking of close relationships. Palen, L., S. Vieweg, et al. (2009). "Crisis in a Networked World." 48 Social Science Computer Review 2009: 1-14.Huang & Chuang, 2010
  49. 49. An Event Ontology alternatives exist lt ti i t choices are yours Communication ontology: Tag ontology: Semantically-Interlinked O li C S ti ll I t li k d Online Communitiesiti (SIOC): Collaborative Networked O C ll b ti N t k d Organization (CNO) i ti ontology: 49
  50. 50. An Event Ontology 7. Conclusion & Suggestions gg 50Huang & Chuang, 2010
  51. 51. An Event Ontology 1. General Event Relation (GER) is a conceptual level suggestion to serve as a common context for disaster management communities to connect and utilize rich Web resources through the Event Concept. Concept 2. While interest groups would like to develop their own d domain ontology, we would also lik t i t l ld l like to suggest some ontology guidelines when users need to build their own framework for specific needs. (see Appendix) 3. The main principles for linking crisis-disaster p p g information to web of data are three: Meaning, Relation, and Simplicity. 51Huang & Chuang, 2010
  52. 52. An Event Ontology Meaning M i Relation R l ti Simplicity Si li it 52Huang & Chuang, 2010
  53. 53. An Event Ontology Thanks becauseOf YOUHuang & Chuang, 2010
  54. 54. An Event Ontology APPENDIX 54Huang & Chuang, 2010
  55. 55. An Event OntologyHuang & Chuang, 2010 Ontology for the Twenty First Century: An Introduction with Recommendations, 2006, Andrew D. Spear, Saarbrücken, Germany.