Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: 
an exploration on 
Research Publications & Cultural Objects 
4th Interna...
1.Why ? 
2.How ? 
3.Meaning: Interpretation/Citation 
4.Use Case: The Story of a Leaf 
5.Conclusion
1. Why ? 
Background information & Research Motivation.
open datacultural heritage data open science movementdata publication & citation principlesresearch publication linked dat...
Article 
Data 
Code 
License Provenan 
The need to represent & explore relations between the 
five major objects.
Reason 2: Several requirements from the internal research needs. 
Science Data / Research Data Publication 
http://codata2...
Research DataCultural Objects 
mostly preserved with rich metadata information. 
professionally established domain knowled...
Research Publications (Research Papers) ArticleDataCodeLAM CollectionsData(Cultural Objects) ArticleCode 
(Associated Publ...
Research Publications 
(Research Papers) Article 
Data 
Code 
LAM Collections 
Data(Cultural Objects) 
Article 
Code 
(Ass...
Research Publications (Research Papers) ArticleDataCodeLAM CollectionsData(Cultural Objects) ArticleCode 
(Associated Publ...
A digital object Y curated in a digital museum, is a cultural object Ywith rich metadata descriptions. 
This cultural obje...
Q2. Willtherichdomainknowledgefromresearchpublicationsandtheimplicitcross-domainmetadataofculturalobjectsbecompliantwithea...
“Yes” to (Q1 /Q2), but it depends on …
ContextMeaningRelationunderstandingexploring 
systemization
ContextMeaningRelation 
a contextual framework 
a R4R ontology
2. How ? 
Theoretical groundings for 
the contextual framework.
Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context 
Step 1: determining the design space of context models 
An ...
Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context 
Step 1: determining the design space of context models 
Cou...
Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context 
Step 1: determining the design space of context models 
Cou...
Three activity contexts: Reusing , Publication, Curation are situated in a multiple, overlapping & dynamic context. Reusin...
In other words, …. ReusingPublicationCuration 
shared context is emerged when things are reused. 
shared context is emerge...
A perspective setting: Representation-Preservation-Interpretation. 
Peirce’s Sign Theory
Representation Interpretant 
“apple” 
Object 
• an apple/fruit. 
• an apple/laptop. 
hasInterpretation 
referTo 
Sign 
rep...
Representation is a representation of the activity context setting itself (the sign), and is the form that the setting (th...
The triadic sign theory has been empirically applied as an 
analytical framework for dynamic and complex composition.
http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/CG.html
Activity Contexts: 
Reusing 
Publication 
Curation 
R 
P 
I 
a triadic sign setting 
9 major conceptual elements
Beaudoin(2012): 
Context and its role in the digital preservation of cultural objects. 
1.Technical 
2.Utilization 
3.Phys...
RepresentationPreservation 
Classification 
Authentication 
Application 
Authorization 
Utilization 
Identification 
Physi...
Ontological Relation: 
a fundamental relationships for dynamic contexts and a domain 
independent ontology formation. 
R4R...
ContextMeaningRelation 
a contextual frameworkRelations for Reusing (R4R) ontology
http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r
3. Meaning 
Meanings can be interpreted through Citation Relations 
& Domain Ontologies/ Vocabularies or 
Packaging the Pr...
What Citationcan relate to Interpretation (meaning) in different contexts? 
Article A 
----- 
------- 
--------- 
--------...
4. Use Case 
In the fowling, we will use R4R and different contexts to represent an example of interlinked data between re...
The Story of a Leaf 
Onceupatime,inthesouthernareaofTaiwantherewasoneleaffallingfromatree. 
ItwaspickedupbyagirlnamedS.T.C...
Eightyeaslater,thisleafwasdigitalizedbytheNaturalMuseumofNaturalScience(NMS)withaformalscientificname:“AlpiniapriceiHayata...
[1] The collection object and its basic 
information (Scientific Names & 
Vernacular Name) 
[2] Link to the original datab...
catalog.digitalarchives.tw Chou, T. W., Feng, J. H., Huang, C. C., Cheng, Y. W., Chien, S. C., Wang, S. Y., & Shyur, L. F....
Remixing 
Reusing 
ApplicationCasesChap. 5S010384 is looking forward to being
R4R can supports dynamic situations.
Provenance& licenseconcerns are notfully respected and implemented in existing practices, or have been curated as metadata...
For Reusing, context transitions occur, and according to Zimmermann et.al. (2007) , context attributeswill change when one...
Scenario 1: Digital Publication Only 
Data like the S010384 is published at here, 
and has been interpreted by the domain ...
RRPolicy 
rdfs:Resource 
locateAt 
time:Temoral 
Entity 
hasTime 
subClassOf subClassOf 
hasProvenance 
RRObject 
Data met...
RRPolicy 
rdfs:Resourc 
e 
locateAt 
time:Temoral 
Entity 
hasTime 
subClassOf subClassOf 
hasProvenance 
isPartOf hasLice...
Scenario 3:Publication for preparingReusing. 
Provenance information of the collection daT(S010384): two curation activiti...
PROV-O for daT(S010384) 
http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/examples/the_story_of_dat_s010384
Articles/ Papers/ E-Books 
Blogs/Twitters/Social 
Media 
derivesFrom New Datasets 
Applications 
Collections in different ...
5. Conclusion !
exploration 
Activity Context: 
Reusing , Publication, Curation 
Representation Preservation 
Perspective Setting 
Interpr...
Relations for Reusing (R4R) in a Shared Context: an exploration on Research Publications &Cultural Objects
The Result 1 -a contextual framework: 
Three dynamic contexts are expressed through a 3x3 matrix representing 9 conceptual...
3 Activity Contexts 
R 
P 
I 
We apply the triadic sign setting for decomposing the 
three activity contexts with associat...
In other words, this contextual framework is dynamic & relational 
in supporting 3 contexts which are identified by differ...
TheR4R ontology isanInterpretation in the Curation Context that represents Ontological Relations to interpret and model re...
Two results that you might like to 
bring them home.
Advantages for using these two results: 
System designers, developers & curators have a contextual framework & ontology to...
Advantages : 
4.articles,datasets,softwarecodes,provenanceandlicenseinformationcanbetreatedasfirst- classcontextualobjects...
The future work: 
http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/examples/possible_scenarios_for_different_contexts
We would also like to invite you to participate in validating this contextual framework and the R4R ontology. 
1.Provide y...
! Advertisement ! 
Sydney, Australia 
29 June–3 July 2015
Thank You !
Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: An Exploration on Research Publications and Cultural Objects
Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: An Exploration on Research Publications and Cultural Objects
Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: An Exploration on Research Publications and Cultural Objects
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Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: An Exploration on Research Publications and Cultural Objects

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Will the rich domain knowledge from research publications and the implicit cross-domain metadata of cultural objects be compliant with each other? A contextual framework is proposed as dynamic and relational in supporting three different contexts: Reusing, Publication and Curation, which are individually constructed but overlapped with major conceptual elements. A Relations for Reusing (R4R) ontology has been devised for modeling these overlapping
conceptual components (Article, Data, Code, Provence, and License) for interlinking research outputs and cultural heritage data. In particular, packaging and citation relations are key to build up interpretations for dynamic contexts. Examples are provided for illustrating how the linking mechanism can be constructed and represented as a result to reveal the data linked in different contexts.

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Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: An Exploration on Research Publications and Cultural Objects

  1. 1. Relations for Reusing (R4R) in A Shared Context: an exploration on Research Publications & Cultural Objects 4th International Workshop on Semantic Digital Archives (SDA 2014) in conjunction with International Digital Libraries Conference (DL 2014) London, 8th-12th September 2014 Andrea Wei-Ching Huang and Tyng-Ruey Chuang Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
  2. 2. 1.Why ? 2.How ? 3.Meaning: Interpretation/Citation 4.Use Case: The Story of a Leaf 5.Conclusion
  3. 3. 1. Why ? Background information & Research Motivation.
  4. 4. open datacultural heritage data open science movementdata publication & citation principlesresearch publication linked data approach Reason 1: Several challenges emerged from the external environment. ? ? ?
  5. 5. Article Data Code License Provenan The need to represent & explore relations between the five major objects.
  6. 6. Reason 2: Several requirements from the internal research needs. Science Data / Research Data Publication http://codata2012.tw/ http://digitalarchives.tw/ Potential values of Cultural Heritage Data Motivated by recent involvements with projects relating to research data publication & knowledge engineering for cultural heritage data.
  7. 7. Research DataCultural Objects mostly preserved with rich metadata information. professionally established domain knowledge. Q1: Is there a shared context between these two domains that can serve for a common understanding?
  8. 8. Research Publications (Research Papers) ArticleDataCodeLAM CollectionsData(Cultural Objects) ArticleCode (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Interpretations by Preservations by Representations by Representations by Interpretations by (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Preservations by Internal relation external relation potential relationMost of us are familiar with this process. Article C ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ ------- Article B ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ ------- Article A ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ -------
  9. 9. Research Publications (Research Papers) Article Data Code LAM Collections Data(Cultural Objects) Article Code (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Interpretations by Preservations by Representations by Representations by Interpretations by (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Preservations by But, this is still an adventure for research community to explore.
  10. 10. Research Publications (Research Papers) ArticleDataCodeLAM CollectionsData(Cultural Objects) ArticleCode (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Interpretations Interpretations by Preservations by Representations by Representations by Interpretations by (Associated Publications) (Supplement Materials) Preservations by Internal relation external relation potential relation Representations bySo, if they are interlinked …. Article B ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ ------- Article A ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ -------
  11. 11. A digital object Y curated in a digital museum, is a cultural object Ywith rich metadata descriptions. This cultural object Y that is reused by an academic article is not a cultural object but a science object Z that can be viewed under different context perspectives. By a definition of Zimmermann et al.(2007), “when the contexts of two entities overlap and parts of the context information become similar andshared,” a shared context emerges The scenario: object
  12. 12. Q2. Willtherichdomainknowledgefromresearchpublicationsandtheimplicitcross-domainmetadataofculturalobjectsbecompliantwitheachother? So, if they are interlinked ….
  13. 13. “Yes” to (Q1 /Q2), but it depends on …
  14. 14. ContextMeaningRelationunderstandingexploring systemization
  15. 15. ContextMeaningRelation a contextual framework a R4R ontology
  16. 16. 2. How ? Theoretical groundings for the contextual framework.
  17. 17. Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context Step 1: determining the design space of context models An entity’s activity determines to a great extend its current needs. relations A relation expresses a semantic dependency between two entities that emerges from certain circumstances these two entities are involved in.
  18. 18. Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context Step 1: determining the design space of context models Courtright’s(2007) ‘sActors-in-Context a relational view on •activities of users •information existence •information systems
  19. 19. Zimmermann et.al. (2007) An Operational Definition of Context Step 1: determining the design space of context models Courtright’s(2007) theoretical concept of Actors-in-Context a relational view on •activities of users, •information existence •information systems relate actors’ levels with associated activities as •Reusing •Publication •Curation 3 Activity Contexts inspire us to define
  20. 20. Three activity contexts: Reusing , Publication, Curation are situated in a multiple, overlapping & dynamic context. ReusingPublicationCuration Zimmermann et.al (2007) defines activity context as a context which decides to its current needs and covers current and future activities. current future current future future publication-now and reusing-in- the-future Curation Context from the view of technology activity, it has a dual role in context, technology variations depend on other contextual elements while at the same time technologies influence information practices. Courtright(2007) “when the contexts of two entities overlapand part of the context information become similar and shared,” a shared context emerges. shared context
  21. 21. In other words, …. ReusingPublicationCuration shared context is emerged when things are reused. shared context is emerged when things are published.
  22. 22. A perspective setting: Representation-Preservation-Interpretation. Peirce’s Sign Theory
  23. 23. Representation Interpretant “apple” Object • an apple/fruit. • an apple/laptop. hasInterpretation referTo Sign representedBy
  24. 24. Representation is a representation of the activity context setting itself (the sign), and is the form that the setting (the sign) takes. activity context Representation Interpretation Preservation (object) The Interpretantof a contextual setting is the Interpretation that is made of the setting. In this study, the interpretation is taken from the view of Zimmermann et.al. (2007) on Relations Context that context information captures the relations an entity has recognized to the others. The Object is the entity to which the context setting points, refers or applies. In this study, it is the specific preservation object that the authors, users, and curators refer to. The original “Object” has been adjusted to the object preservation for “Preservation” to describe associated activities.
  25. 25. The triadic sign theory has been empirically applied as an analytical framework for dynamic and complex composition.
  26. 26. http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/CG.html
  27. 27. Activity Contexts: Reusing Publication Curation R P I a triadic sign setting 9 major conceptual elements
  28. 28. Beaudoin(2012): Context and its role in the digital preservation of cultural objects. 1.Technical 2.Utilization 3.Physical 4.Intangible 5.Curatorial 6.Authentication 7.Authorization 8.Intellectual 1.Identification 2.Utilization 3.Physical 4.Intangible 5.Application 6.Authentication 7.Authorization 8.Classification 9.Ontological Relation9 major conceptual elements
  29. 29. RepresentationPreservation Classification Authentication Application Authorization Utilization Identification PhysicalnessThree Dynamic Contexts: Reusing , Publication, Curation IntangiblenessInterpretation Ontological Relations (R4R ontology) Mapping 9 major conceptual elements to activity contexts and the R-P-I setting.
  30. 30. Ontological Relation: a fundamental relationships for dynamic contexts and a domain independent ontology formation. R4R Ontology an Interpretation of Relations Context in the Curation level that supports the shared context both for Publication and Reusing.
  31. 31. ContextMeaningRelation a contextual frameworkRelations for Reusing (R4R) ontology
  32. 32. http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r
  33. 33. 3. Meaning Meanings can be interpreted through Citation Relations & Domain Ontologies/ Vocabularies or Packaging the Provenance/Metadata information.
  34. 34. What Citationcan relate to Interpretation (meaning) in different contexts? Article A ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference (citation) --------- ------------ ------- Interpretation of the article itself in the publication context. Article B ----- ------- --------- --------------- Reference --------- article A ------- ------- Interpretation of the article by others in the reusing context. Authors’ interpretation: citing references as evidences/interpretations for the authors’ arguments. Users’ interpretation: The object (article/data/code) is cited by others for the use of others’ interpretation.
  35. 35. 4. Use Case In the fowling, we will use R4R and different contexts to represent an example of interlinked data between research publications and a cultural object curated in Digital Archive Taiwan. How a shared context between different domains like research publications & LAM collections help us enrich contextual information and make our data better?
  36. 36. The Story of a Leaf Onceupatime,inthesouthernareaofTaiwantherewasoneleaffallingfromatree. ItwaspickedupbyagirlnamedS.T.Chiuin1993,andmadeitasaspecimen. Theleafisnotacorpseanymore.Itbecomesascienceobjectinthelab. Chap. 1Reborn
  37. 37. Eightyeaslater,thisleafwasdigitalizedbytheNaturalMuseumofNaturalScience(NMS)withaformalscientificname:“AlpiniapriceiHayata”, withanID[S010384]. InthisPublicationActivity, theNMSusesDarwinCore/ DwCtoclassifyanddescribetheLeafS010384intothescientificcategory. Chap. 2Digital Publication
  38. 38. [1] The collection object and its basic information (Scientific Names & Vernacular Name) [2] Link to the original database [3] Metadata Descriptions [4] Contact Information for Licensing [5] Citation Information (bibliography & unique URL) A Data-Paper like publication in digitalarchives.tw Chap. 3 Curation & Publication S010384 becomes one of the cultural heritage collections.
  39. 39. catalog.digitalarchives.tw Chou, T. W., Feng, J. H., Huang, C. C., Cheng, Y. W., Chien, S. C., Wang, S. Y., & Shyur, L. F. (2013). A Plant Kavalactone Desmethoxyyangonin Prevents Inflammation and Fulminant Hepatitis in Mice. PLOS ONE, 8(10), e77626. Citation Information: S. T. Chiu(1993-03-31)。[中文名:普萊氏月桃(S010384 )]。《數位典藏與 數位學習聯合目錄》。 http://catalog.digitalarchives.tw/item/00/61/e8/e2.html http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0077626#pone-0077626-g001 Chap. 4 isCitedBy as Reusing
  40. 40. Remixing Reusing ApplicationCasesChap. 5S010384 is looking forward to being
  41. 41. R4R can supports dynamic situations.
  42. 42. Provenance& licenseconcerns are notfully respected and implemented in existing practices, or have been curated as metadata in local curation that are notaccessible or downloadable. Thus, we use hasProvenanceand hasLicensefor creating relationships for local curation or for sharing publications.
  43. 43. For Reusing, context transitions occur, and according to Zimmermann et.al. (2007) , context attributeswill change when one context enters another, and thus Provenance or License, or both can be packaged with RRObject for reusing purposes. For such uses of the relation, isPackagedWith, RRObject (article/data/code) and RRPolicy (provenance/license) are reachable and accessible for changing the original Publication and Curation contexts for a shift of the Reusing context.
  44. 44. Scenario 1: Digital Publication Only Data like the S010384 is published at here, and has been interpreted by the domain knowledge such as the Biological Taxonomy Vocabulary. However, this object is not easy to be cited.
  45. 45. RRPolicy rdfs:Resource locateAt time:Temoral Entity hasTime subClassOf subClassOf hasProvenance RRObject Data metadata The contextual framework & R4R can help !
  46. 46. RRPolicy rdfs:Resourc e locateAt time:Temoral Entity hasTime subClassOf subClassOf hasProvenance isPartOf hasLicense RRObject Provenance License Relations for Resource Publication Relations for Resource Reusing Data rdfs:Resource Scenario 2: Publication for enriching Reusing. A data-paper like publication that has metadata, license, and citation information can also be modelled by R4R.
  47. 47. Scenario 3:Publication for preparingReusing. Provenance information of the collection daT(S010384): two curation activities were involved by National Museum of Natural Science (NMS) and Digital Archive Taiwan (daT). 1.Preservation 2.Mapping 3.Publication National Museum of Natural Science (NMS) Digital Archive Taiwan (daT). S010384PROV-O for daT(S010384)
  48. 48. PROV-O for daT(S010384) http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/examples/the_story_of_dat_s010384
  49. 49. Articles/ Papers/ E-Books Blogs/Twitters/Social Media derivesFrom New Datasets Applications Collections in different libraries, archives, museums Ready for Reusing
  50. 50. 5. Conclusion !
  51. 51. exploration Activity Context: Reusing , Publication, Curation Representation Preservation Perspective Setting Interpretation Decision Makings to A Contextual Framework for a Shared Context  open science movement  data publication and citation principles Identify article, data and code as major components; citation and packaging as key relations for modelling.  linked data approach A possible approach to link article, data and code with semantics.  LOD for research data  LOD for cultural heritage data domain knowledge semantics metadata-rich semantics a systematic contextual framework  a shared context need  relation explorations need ①. ②. ① . ② . R4R ontology for dynamic context modelling ③ .
  52. 52. Relations for Reusing (R4R) in a Shared Context: an exploration on Research Publications &Cultural Objects
  53. 53. The Result 1 -a contextual framework: Three dynamic contexts are expressed through a 3x3 matrix representing 9 conceptual components.
  54. 54. 3 Activity Contexts R P I We apply the triadic sign setting for decomposing the three activity contexts with associated 9 elements. 9 major conceptual elements This framework is inspired by context related theories and Charles Peirce’s sign theory (semiotics).
  55. 55. In other words, this contextual framework is dynamic & relational in supporting 3 contexts which are identified by different activities of 3 actors (user/author/curator). Activity Contexts: (Reusing/ Publication/ Curation) • individually constructed through the triadic sign setting: Representation-Preservation-Interpretation (R-P-I). • overlapped with 9 major conceptual elements (reflecting 3 dynamic contexts with relational associations to the R-P-I setting . R P I setting
  56. 56. TheR4R ontology isanInterpretation in the Curation Context that represents Ontological Relations to interpret and model relations between 5 conceptual components (Article, Data, Code, Provence, andLicense). The Result 2 -a R4R ontology
  57. 57. Two results that you might like to bring them home.
  58. 58. Advantages for using these two results: System designers, developers & curators have a contextual framework & ontology to assist them to: 1.identify major componentsin different contexts. 2.using R4R ontology to build relations between data from different domains. 3.explore meanings through the common understanding of the shared context.
  59. 59. Advantages : 4.articles,datasets,softwarecodes,provenanceandlicenseinformationcanbetreatedasfirst- classcontextualobjectsfordatamodellingtasks. 5.themodule-likedesignofRRObject& RRPolicyinR4Rontologycanbepracticedinisolation,andtheunifyingrepresentationoftheirrelationsissemanticallyenoughbutnotsostructurallyheavyweightedthatcuratorsorresearchersfinditdifficulttoapply.
  60. 60. The future work: http://guava.iis.sinica.edu.tw/r4r/examples/possible_scenarios_for_different_contexts
  61. 61. We would also like to invite you to participate in validating this contextual framework and the R4R ontology. 1.Provide your use cases from your own domain to help increase internal/external semantic relations within this systematic framework. 2.Or suggest related data repositories and vocabularies to enrich possible usages for the R4R term concepts.
  62. 62. ! Advertisement ! Sydney, Australia 29 June–3 July 2015
  63. 63. Thank You !

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