mbbs ims msu


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mbbs ims msu

  1. 1. Blood Composition and Function
  2. 2. Blood Components
  3. 3. Functions of Blood <ul><li>Transport of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases, nutrients, waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintenance of body temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against foreign substances </li></ul><ul><li>Clot formation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Blood Components: &quot;Blood Count&quot; – % of Each Component Figure 16-2: The blood count
  5. 5. Blood Components: Cells <ul><li>Erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red Blood Cells (RBC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>O 2 & CO 2 transport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White Blood Cells (WBC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immune defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phagocytosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Platelets: clotting </li></ul>
  6. 6. Plasma <ul><li>90% water </li></ul><ul><li>10% solutes </li></ul><ul><li>plasma transports:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions, e.g., Na + , Cl - , Ca ++ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients, e.g., simple sugars, amino acids, lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wastes, e.g., urea, ammonia, CO 2 </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Red Blood Cell <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Carry oxygen taken in by the lungs and carbon dioxide produced by cells. </li></ul><ul><li>RBC contain large quantity of carbonic anhydrase an enzyme that catalyzes the reversible reaction between CO 2 and H 2 O to form H 2 CO 3 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Erythrocytes <ul><li>7-8  m diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Biconcave disc shape </li></ul><ul><ul><li> surface area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> efficiency for diffusion of O2 & CO2 </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Erythrocytes <ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plasma membrane contain specific proteins and polysaccharides determine blood group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binds O 2 & CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No nucleus or organelles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Erythrocytes <ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Elastic </li></ul><ul><li>100-120 day life span </li></ul><ul><li>Originate in bone marrow </li></ul>
  11. 11. Production of RBC <ul><li>The site of erythrocyte production from the bone marrow </li></ul><ul><li>RBC can neither reproduce nor maintain normal structure </li></ul><ul><li>RBCs production from marrow less as age increases </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Is the element to which oxygen binds on a hemoglobin molecule within an erythrocyte </li></ul><ul><li>Iron imbalance can cause either in iron deficiency leading to inadequate hemoglobin production, or excess of iron with toxic effect (hemochromatosis) </li></ul>Erythrocytes
  13. 13. <ul><li>Folic acid is vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymine </li></ul><ul><li>If not adequate amount this will leads to impairment of cell division occur </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer RBC produced when folic acid is deficient </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12 required for the action of folic acid </li></ul>Erythrocytes
  14. 14. Erythropoiesis <ul><li>Production of red blood cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stem cells proerythroblasts early erythroblasts intermediate late reticulocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Erythropoietin : Hormone to stimulate RBC production </li></ul>
  15. 15. Anemia <ul><li>Anemia means deficiency of hemoglobin in the blood which could be due to </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease the total number of erythrocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Too little hemoglobin in the cell </li></ul><ul><li>Combination of both </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anemia <ul><li>Blood loss anemia </li></ul><ul><li>After rapid hemorrhage, low concentration of red blood cell </li></ul><ul><li>Aplastic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of functioning bone marrow. (e.g. expose to excessive x-ray treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Megaloblastic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of vit B12 and folic acid from the stomach mucosa which leads to slow production of erythroblasts in the bone marrow </li></ul>
  17. 17. Anemia <ul><li>Hemolytic Anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Abnormalities in RBC, many of which hereditarily required (e.g. sickle cell anemia) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Effect of anemia on function of circulatory system <ul><li>In anemia blood viscosity fall and this decreases the resistance to blood flow, more quantities of blood return to the heart and thus increase cardiac output </li></ul><ul><li>One of greater effect of anemia is increasing cardiac output and increased pumping workload on the heart </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Explain the Haempoisis process? </li></ul>