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  • 1.  Light or visible light is electromagnetic radiation that is visible to the human eye, and is responsible for the sense of sight.[1] Visible light has wavelength in a range from about 380 nanometres to about 740 nm, with a frequency range of about 405 THz to 790 THz. In physics, the term light sometimes refers to electromagnetic radiation of any wavelength, whether visible or not.[2][3] Primary properties of light are intensity, propagation direction, frequency or wavelength spectrum, and polarisation, while its speed in a vacuum, 299,792,458 meters per second (about 300,000 kilometre per second), is one of the fundamental constants of nature. Light, which is emitted and absorbed in tiny "packets" called photons, exhibits properties of both waves and particles. This property is referred to as the wave–particle duality. The study of light, known as optics, is an important research area in modern physics.
  • 2.  The speed of light in a vacuum is defined to be exactly 299,792,458 m/s (approximately 186,282 miles per second). The fixed value of the speed of light in SI units results from the fact that the metre is now defined in terms of the speed of light.
  • 3.  Certain other mechanisms can produce light: scintillation electroluminescence Sonoluminescence triboluminescence Cherenkov radiation There are many sources of light. The most common light sources are thermal: a body at a given temperature emits a characteristic spectrum of black-body radiation. The most common examples include Sun, artificial lights, incandescent light bulbs
  • 4.  There are three main theories on light Particle theory Wave theory Quantum theory
  • 5.  Newtons particle theory of light says that light is made up of little particles. They obey the same laws of physics as other particles. The elementary particle according to particle theory of light is photon evidence of light as particle
  • 6.  Light can exhibit both a wave theory, and a particle theory at the same time. Much of the time, light behaves like a wave. Light waves are also called electromagnetic waves because they are made up of both electric (E) and magnetic (H) fields. Electromagnetic fields oscillate perpendicular to the direction of wave travel, and perpendicular to each other. Light waves are known as transverse waves as they oscillate in the direction traverse to the direction of wave travel.
  • 7.  The Electromagnetic Wave Waves have two important characteristics - wavelength and frequency. Wave length .this is the distance between peaks of a wave. Wavelengths are measured in units of length - meters, When dealing with light, wavelengths are in the order of nanometres (1 x 10-9) Frequency: This is the number of peaks that will travel past a point in one second. Frequency is measured in cycles per second. The term given to this is Hertz (Hz) named after the 19th century discoverer of radio waves - Heinrich Hertz. 1 Hz = 1 cycle per second
  • 8.  A third anomaly that arose in the late 19th century involved a contradiction between the wave theory of light and measurements of the electromagnetic spectrum emitted by thermal radiators, or so- called black bodies. Physicists struggled with this problem, which later became known as the ultraviolet catastrophe, unsuccessfully for many years. In 1900, Max Planck developed a new theory of black- body radiation that explained the observed spectrum
  • 9.  . Plancks theory was based on the idea that black bodies emit light (and other electromagnetic radiation) only as discrete bundles or packets of energy. These packets were called quanta, and the particle of light was given the name photon, to correspond with other particles being described around this time, such as the electron and proton. A photon has an energy, E, proportional to its frequency, f, by where h is Plancks constant, λ is the wavelength and c is the speed of light. Likewise, the momentum p of a photon is also proportional to its frequency and inversely proportional to its wavelength: As it originally stood, this theory did not explain the simultaneous wave- and particle-like natures of light, though Planck would later work on theories that did. In 1918, Planck received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the founding of quantum theory.
  • 10.  Reflection is the change in direction of a wave front at an interface between two different media so that the wave front returns into the medium from which it originated. Common examples include the reflection of light, sound and water waves. The law of reflection says that for secular reflection the angle at which the wave is incident on the surface equals the angle at which it is reflected. Mirrors exhibit secular reflection. In acoustics, reflection causes echoes and is used in sonar. In geology, it is important in the study of seismic waves. Reflection is observed with surface waves in bodies of water. Reflection is observed with many types of electromagnetic wave, besides visible light. Reflection of VHF and higher frequencies is important for radio transmission and for radar. Even hard X- rays and gamma rays can be reflected at shallow angles with special "grazing" mirrors.
  • 11.  The bouncing back of light when it falls on an object is called reflection of light. Reflection of light consist of incident ray ,reflected ray and normal The ray that falls on a surface is called incident ray. The line perpendicular to the point of incidence is called normal ray The ray that moves away after falling on a surface is called reflected ray
  • 12.  . The laws of reflection are as follows: The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflection surface at the point of the incidence lie in the same plane. The angle which the incident ray makes with the normal is equal to the angle which the reflected ray makes to the same normal. The reflected ray and the incident ray are on the opposite sides of the normal.
  • 13.  When light strikes the surface of a (non-metallic) material it bounces off in all directions due to multiple reflections by the microscopic irregularities inside the material (e.g. the grain boundaries of a polycrystalline material, or the cell or fibber boundaries of an organic material) and by its surface, if it is rough. Thus, an image is not formed. This is called diffuse reflection. The exact form of the reflection depends on the structure of the material. One common model for diffuse reflection is Lambert an reflectance, in which the light is reflected with equal luminance (in photometry) or radiance (in radiometry) in all directions, as defined by Lambert s cosine law. The light sent to our eyes by most of the objects we see is due to diffuse reflection from their surface, so that this is our primary mechanism of physical observation.[1]
  • 14.  When light reflects off a mirror, one image appears. Two mirrors placed exactly face to face give the appearance of an infinite number of images along a straight line. The multiple images seen between two mirrors that sit at an angle to each other lie over a circle. [2] The centre of that circle is located at the imaginary intersection of the mirrors. A square of four mirrors placed face to face give the appearance of an infinite number of images arranged in a plane. The multiple images seen between four mirrors assembling a pyramid, in which each pair of mirrors sits an angle to each other, lie over a sphere. If the base of the pyramid is rectangle shaped, the images spread over a section of a torus. [3]
  • 15.  Light bounces exactly back in the direction from which it came due to a nonlinear optical process. In this type of reflection, not only the direction of the light is reversed, but the actual wave fronts are reversed as well. A conjugate reflector can be used to remove aberrations from a beam by reflecting it and then passing the reflection through the abating optics a second time
  • 16.  A mirror whose polished, reflecting surface is a part of a hollow sphere of glass or plastic is called a spherical mirror. Depending upon the nature of the reflecting surface of a mirror, the spherical mirror is classified as: Concave mirror Convex mirror
  • 17.  A concave mirror, or converging mirror, has a reflecting surface that bulges inward (away from the incident light). Concave mirrors reflect light inward to one focal point. They are used to focus light. Unlike convex mirrors, concave mirrors show different image types depending on the distance between the object and the mirror. These mirrors are called "converging" because they tend to collect light that falls on them, refocusing parallel incoming rays toward a focus. This is because the light is reflected at different angles, since the normal to the surface differs with each spot on the mirror.
  • 18.  A convex mirror, fish eye mirror or diverging mirror, is a curved mirror in which the reflective surface bulges toward the light source. Convex mirrors reflect light outwards, therefore they are not used to focus light. Such mirrors always form a virtual image, since the focus (F) and the centre of curvature (2F) are both imaginary points "inside" the mirror, which cannot be reached. As a result, images formed by these mirrors cannot be projected on a screen, since the image is inside the mirror. A collimated (parallel) beam of light diverges (spreads out) after reflection from a convex mirror, since the normal to the surface differs with each spot on the mirror.
  • 19.  A lens is an optical device with perfect or approximate axial symmetry which transmits and refracts light, converging or diverging the beam.[citation needed] A simple lens consists of a single optical element. A compound lens is an array of simple lenses (elements) with a common axis; the use of multiple elements allows more optical aberrations to be corrected than is possible with a single element. Lenses are typically made of glass or transparent plastic. Elements which refract electromagnetic radiation outside the visual spectrum are also called lenses: for instance, a microwave lens can be made from paraffin wax. The variant spelling lens is sometimes seen. While it is listed as an alternative spelling in some dictionaries, most mainstream dictionaries do not list it as acceptable
  • 20.  Most lenses are spherical lenses: their two surfaces are parts of the surfaces of spheres, with the lens axis ideally perpendicular to both surfaces. Each surface can be convex (bulging outwards from the lens), concave (depressed into the lens), or planar (flat). The line joining the centres of the spheres making up the lens surfaces is called the axis of the lens. Typically the lens axis passes through the physical centre of the lens, because of the way they are manufactured. Lenses may be cut or ground after manufacturing to give them a different shape or size. The lens axis may then not pass through the physical centre of the lens. Tonic or sphere-cylindrical lenses have surfaces with two different radii of curvature in two orthogonal planes. They have a different focal power in different meridians. This is a form of deliberate astigmatism. More complex are aspheric lenses. These are lenses where one or both surfaces have a shape that is neither spherical nor cylindrical. Such lenses can produce images with much less aberration than standard simple lenses
  • 21.  Lenses are classified by the curvature of the two optical surfaces. A lens is biconvex (or double convex, or just convex) if both surfaces are convex. If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens is convex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave (or just concave). If one of the surfaces is flat, the lens is Plano-convex or plane-concave depending on the curvature of the other surface. A lens with one convex and one concave side is convex-concave or meniscus. It is this type of lens that is most commonly used in corrective lenses. If the lens is biconvex or plane-convex, a collimated beam of light travelling parallel to the lens axis and passing through the lens will be converged (or focused) to a spot on the axis, at a certain distance behind the lens (known as the focal length). In this case, the lens is called a positive or converging lens.
  • 22.  If the lens is biconcave or plane-concave, a collimated beam of light passing through the lens is diverged (spread); the lens is thus called a negative or diverging lens. The beam after passing through the lens appears to be emanating from a particular point on the axis in front of the lens; the distance from this point to the lens is also known as the focal length, although it is negative with respect to the focal length of a converging lens. Convex-concave (meniscus) lenses can be either positive or negative, depending on the relative curvatures of the two surfaces. A negative meniscus lens has a steeper concave surface and will be thinner at the centre than at the periphery. Conversely, a positive meniscus lens has a steeper convex surface and will be thicker at the centre than at the periphery. An ideal thin lens with two surfaces of equal curvature would have zero optical power, meaning that it would neither converge nor diverge light. All real lenses have a nonzero thickness, however, which affects the optical power. To obtain exactly zero optical power, a meniscus lens must have slightly unequal curvatures to account for the effect of the lens thickness
  • 23.  Lenses are used as prosthetics for the correction of visual impairments such as myopia, hyperopic, presbyopia, and astigmatism. (See corrective lens, contact lens, eyeglasses.) Most lenses used for other purposes have strict axial symmetry; eyeglass lenses are only approximately symmetric. They are usually shaped to fit in a roughly oval, not circular, frame; the optical centres are placed over the eyeballs; their curvature may not be axially symmetric to correct for astigmatism. Sunglasses lenses are designed to attenuate light; sunglass lenses that also correct visual impairments can be custom made. Other uses are in imaging systems such as monocular, binoculars, telescopes, microscopes, cameras and projectors. Some of these instruments produce a virtual image when applied to the human eye; others produce a real image which can be captured on photographic film or an optical sensor, or can be viewed on a screen. In these devices lenses are sometimes paired up with curved mirrors to make a catadioptric system where the lenses spherical aberration corrects the opposite aberration in the mirror (such as Schmidt and meniscus correctors).
  • 24.  Convex lenses produce an image of an object at infinity at their focus; if the sun is imaged, much of the visible and infrared light incident on the lens is concentrated into the small image. A large lens will create enough intensity to burn a flammable object at the focal point. Since ignition can be achieved even with a poorly made lens, lenses have been used as burning-glasses for at least 2400 years.[16] A modern application is the use of relatively large lenses to concentrate solar energy on relatively small photovoltaic cells, harvesting more energy without the need to use larger, more expensive, cells. Radio astronomy and radar systems often use dielectric lenses, commonly called a lens antenna to refract electromagnetic radiation into a collector antenna. Lenses can become scratched and abraded. Abrasion resistant coatings are available to help control this.[17]
  • 25.  Refraction is the change in direction of a wave due to a change in its speed. This is most commonly observed when a wave passes from one medium to another at any angle other than 90° or 0°. Refraction of light is the most commonly observed phenomenon, but any type of wave can refract when it interacts with a medium, for example when sound waves pass from one medium into another or when water waves move into water of a different depth. Refraction is described by Snells law, which states that the angle of incidence θ1 is related to the angle of refraction θ2 by where v1 and v2 are the wave velocities in the respective media, and n1 and n2 the refractive indices. In general, the incident wave is partially refracted and partially reflected; the details of this behaviour are described by the Fresnel equations.
  • 26.  In optics, refraction occurs when waves travel from a medium with a given refractive index to a medium with another at an angle. At the boundary between the media, the waves phase velocity is altered, usually causing a change in direction. Its wavelength increases or decreases but its frequency remains constant. For example, a light ray will refract as it enters and leaves glass, assuming there is a change in refractive index. A ray traveling along the normal (perpendicular to the boundary) will change speed, but not direction. Refraction still occurs in this case. Understanding of this concept led to the invention offenses and the refracting telescope.
  • 27.  In optics the refractive index or index of refraction of a substance or medium is a measure of the speed of light in that medium. It is expressed as a ratio of the speed of light in vacuum relative to that in the considered medium.[1] [2] [3] This can be written mathematically as: n = speed of light in a vacuum / speed of light in medium. For example, the refractive index of water is 1.33, meaning that light travels 1.33 times faster in vacuum than it does in water. (See typical values of materials here). As light moves from a medium, such as air, water, or glass, into another it may change its propagation direction in proportion to the change in refractive index. This refraction is governed by Snells law, and is illustrated in the figure to the right. Refractive index of materials varies with the wavelength of light. This is called dispersion and results in a slightly different refractive index for each colour.[4] The wavelength λ of light in a material is determined by the refractive index according to λ = λ0 / n, where λ0 is the wavelength of the light in vacuum. Brewsters angle, the critical angle for total internal reflection, and the reflectivity of a surface is also affected by the refractive index. These material parameters can be calculated using the Fresnel equations.[4] The concept of refractive index can be used with wave phenomena other than light, e.g. sound. In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light and a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen.[5]
  • 28.  The refractive index, n, of a medium is defined as the ratio of the speed, c, of a wave phenomenon such as light or sound in a reference medium to the phase speed, up, of the wave in the medium in question: It is most commonly used in the context of light with vacuum as a reference medium, although historically other reference media (e.g. air at a standardized pressure and temperature) have been common. It is usually given the symbol n. In the case of light, it equals where is the materials relative permittivity, and or is its relative permeability. For most naturally occurring materials, or is very close to 1 at optical frequencies,[6] therefore n is approximately . Contrary to a widespread misconception, the real part of a complex n may be less than one, depending upon the material and wavelength (see dispersion (optics)). This has practical technical applications, such as effective mirrors for X-rays based on total external reflection.
  • 29.  The phase speed is defined as the rate at which the crests of the waveform propagate; that is, the rate at which the phase of the waveform is moving. The group speed is the rate at which the envelope of the waveform is propagating; that is, the rate of variation of the amplitude of the waveform. Provided the waveform is not distorted significantly during propagation, it is the group speed that represents the rate at which information (and energy) may be transmitted by the wave (for example, the speed at which a pulse of light travels down an optical fibber). For the analytic properties constraining the unequal phase and group speeds in dispersive media, refer to dispersion (optics). Another common definition of the refractive index comes from the refraction of a light ray entering a medium. The refractive index is the ratio of the sins of the angles of incidence θ1 and refraction θ2 as light passes into the medium[7] or mathematically The angles are measured to the normal of the surface. This definition is base on Snells law and is equivalent to the definition above if the light enters from the reference medium (normally vacuum). A complex refractive index is often used to take absorption into account. This is further discussed in the Dispersion and absorption section below. A closely related quantity is refractivity, which in atmospheric applications is denoted N and defined as N = 106(n - 1). The 106 factor is used because for air, n deviates from unity at most a few parts per thousand.
  • 30.  The refractive index of a material is the most important property of any optical system that uses refraction. It is used to calculate the focusing power of lenses, and the dispersive power of prisms. It can also be used as a useful tool to differentiate between different types of gemstone, due to the unique chatoyance each individual stone displays. Since refractive index is a fundamental physical property of a substance, it is often used to identify a particular substance, confirm its purity, or measure its concentration. Refractive index is used to measure solids (glasses and gemstones), liquids, and gases. Most commonly it is used to measure the concentration of a solute in an aqueous solution. A refract meter is the instrument used to measure refractive index. For a solution of sugar, the refractive index can be used to determine the sugar content (see Bricks). In GPS, the index of refraction is utilized in ray-tracing to account for the radio propagation delay due to the Earths electrically neutral atmosphere. It is also used in Satellite link design for the Computation of radio wave attenuation in the atmosphere

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