To-infinitive GERUND
To-infinitive + Gerund <ul><li>The to-infinitive after a verb often describes a future event. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: after ...
afford / agree <ul><li>I  agree to   go  to the Beijing trip this summer holiday.  </li></ul><ul><li>I can  afford to buy ...
Hope / wish <ul><li>I  hope to meet  Beckham in England. </li></ul><ul><li>I  wish to fly up  high in the sky. </li></ul><...
Expect / fail <ul><li>We  expect   to pass  the English exam. </li></ul><ul><li>We  failed to do  the homework. </li></ul>...
Ask / decide <ul><li>I  asked  my mum  to go  shopping with me. </li></ul><ul><li>I  decided   to go  hiking this Sunday. ...
No major difference in meaning <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either the to-infinitive or the gerund without any ma...
Gerund  ( general ),  to-infinitive  ( particular situation ) <ul><li>Some verbs are generally followed by the gerund when...
The Gerund is formed by adding  ‘ ing ’  to the base form of a verb. <ul><li>swim     swimming </li></ul><ul><li>eat    ...
The Gerund can be used  –   <ul><li>As a noun </li></ul><ul><li>E.g   </li></ul><ul><li>Running  is my favourite sport.  (...
Exercise   <ul><li>(swim) _________is a very good form of exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>I have some (shop) ______to do this ...
After  adjectives + preposition <ul><li>accustomed to  capable of </li></ul><ul><li>fond of  afraid of  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Exercise  <ul><li>Mary is fond of _______ (sing). </li></ul><ul><li>The boy soon became accustomed to _______ (work) hard....
<ul><li>G1  –  admit </li></ul><ul><li>G2- avoid </li></ul><ul><li>G3  –  delay G4-deny </li></ul><ul><li>G5-enjoy </li></...
<ul><li>Admit </li></ul><ul><li>My brother admitted breaking the vase. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>I avoid w...
finish <ul><li>I  finish doing  my homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>After 4 hours, he keeps standing the...
deny <ul><li>I deny that I am not good at singing. </li></ul><ul><li>I deny doing a wrong thing </li></ul><ul><li>I deny b...
After verbs <ul><li>admit can ’ t help dislike </li></ul><ul><li>keep  try  finish </li></ul><ul><li>advise keep enjoy </l...
Exercise  <ul><li>He kept ________(run) till the end.  </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoys _______  (run) for  competition.  </li...
Bare infinitive <ul><li>Infinitive form without  “ to ” </li></ul><ul><li>After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc),  “...
Bare infinitive  –  p111 <ul><li>2.  After  “ let ”  and  “ make ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother Teresa let the poor die in...
Bare infinitive <ul><li>Infinitive form without  “ to ” </li></ul><ul><li>After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc),  “...
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  enjoy   to  swim. 2  I    enjoy   swimming . right
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  want  to  study . 2     I  want   studying . right
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  finish  to  eat . 2     I  finish   eating . right
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  need  to  study . 2     I  need   studying . right
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  hope  to  study . 2     I  hope   studying . right
Which  is  correct ? 1  I  stopped  to  smoke . 2     I  stopped  smoking . right
Summary table for  to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) <ul><li>Use as subject </li></ul><ul><li>Eg:...
Summary table for  to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 4. After some adjectives and nouns .( adj =e...
Summary table for  to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 6. used in  general sense  (eg: love, like, ...
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Precentacion gerund3 and toinfinitive

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Precentacion gerund3 and toinfinitive

  1. 1. To-infinitive GERUND
  2. 2. To-infinitive + Gerund <ul><li>The to-infinitive after a verb often describes a future event. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: after hope, expect, promise, want, the event in the to-infintive comes after the activity or thought in the main verb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I hope to see you next week. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gerund describes an activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We enjoyed seeing you last weekend. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. afford / agree <ul><li>I agree to go to the Beijing trip this summer holiday. </li></ul><ul><li>I can afford to buy this picture. </li></ul><ul><li>learn / need </li></ul><ul><li>We should learn to do housework. </li></ul><ul><li>Human need to drink water. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Hope / wish <ul><li>I hope to meet Beckham in England. </li></ul><ul><li>I wish to fly up high in the sky. </li></ul><ul><li>Want / decide </li></ul><ul><li>I want to do the homework today. </li></ul><ul><li>I decide to buy this book. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Expect / fail <ul><li>We expect to pass the English exam. </li></ul><ul><li>We failed to do the homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell / want </li></ul><ul><li>He wanted to tell her about his feelings. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ask / decide <ul><li>I asked my mum to go shopping with me. </li></ul><ul><li>I decided to go hiking this Sunday. </li></ul><ul><li>Promise / refuse </li></ul><ul><li>I promised my mother to finish my homework by 6pm. </li></ul><ul><li>I refuse to invite Yumiko to my party. </li></ul>
  7. 7. No major difference in meaning <ul><li>Some verbs can be followed by either the to-infinitive or the gerund without any major difference in meaning: </li></ul><ul><li>Mother Teresa started to live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948. </li></ul><ul><li>Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continued to work/working for the poor. </li></ul>Begin Continue Start intend
  8. 8. Gerund ( general ), to-infinitive ( particular situation ) <ul><li>Some verbs are generally followed by the gerund when used in a general sense </li></ul><ul><li>The to-infinitive is often used for a particular situation. </li></ul><ul><li>(I like swimming) but I don ’ t like to swim ( on cold days). </li></ul>Love Like Hate Prefer
  9. 9. The Gerund is formed by adding ‘ ing ’ to the base form of a verb. <ul><li>swim  swimming </li></ul><ul><li>eat  eating </li></ul><ul><li>run  running </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Gerund can be used – <ul><li>As a noun </li></ul><ul><li>E.g </li></ul><ul><li>Running is my favourite sport. (subject) </li></ul><ul><li>He tried running faster. (object) </li></ul><ul><li>She was afraid of losing . (object of preposition) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Exercise <ul><li>(swim) _________is a very good form of exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>I have some (shop) ______to do this afternoon. </li></ul><ul><li>(learn) _________English takes a long time. </li></ul>
  12. 12. After adjectives + preposition <ul><li>accustomed to capable of </li></ul><ul><li>fond of afraid of </li></ul><ul><li>successful in good at </li></ul><ul><li>tired of interested in </li></ul><ul><li>E.g </li></ul><ul><li>She is accustomed to training for many hours. </li></ul><ul><li>He is good at running the 200 meters race </li></ul>
  13. 13. Exercise <ul><li>Mary is fond of _______ (sing). </li></ul><ul><li>The boy soon became accustomed to _______ (work) hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Are you afraid of _______ (play) the exciting electronic games. </li></ul><ul><li>She is never tired of _______ (talk) about her clever son. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>G1 – admit </li></ul><ul><li>G2- avoid </li></ul><ul><li>G3 – delay G4-deny </li></ul><ul><li>G5-enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>G6-finish </li></ul><ul><li>G7 – keep </li></ul><ul><li>G8-mind </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Admit </li></ul><ul><li>My brother admitted breaking the vase. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid </li></ul><ul><li>I avoid walking on busy streets. </li></ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul><ul><li>The school delayed opening this morning. </li></ul>
  16. 16. finish <ul><li>I finish doing my homework. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep </li></ul><ul><li>After 4 hours, he keeps standing there. </li></ul><ul><li>Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind lending your pen to me. </li></ul>
  17. 17. deny <ul><li>I deny that I am not good at singing. </li></ul><ul><li>I deny doing a wrong thing </li></ul><ul><li>I deny being late to school every day. </li></ul><ul><li>I deny talking during the lesson. </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>I enjoy playing computer games. </li></ul>
  18. 18. After verbs <ul><li>admit can ’ t help dislike </li></ul><ul><li>keep try finish </li></ul><ul><li>advise keep enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>appreciate mind avoid </li></ul><ul><li>understand suggest forgive </li></ul><ul><li>E.g </li></ul><ul><li>John has finished repairing his bicycle. </li></ul><ul><li>They enjoy walking in the evening. </li></ul><ul><li>Mary dislikes swimming in winter. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exercise <ul><li>He kept ________(run) till the end. </li></ul><ul><li>She enjoys _______ (run) for competition. </li></ul><ul><li>They dislike _______(drive) small cars. </li></ul><ul><li>He avoided ________(answer) my question. </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind me ________ (smoke) in this room. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Bare infinitive <ul><li>Infinitive form without “ to ” </li></ul><ul><li>After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc), “ had better ” and “ would rather ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We should respect people who are selfless and kind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You ’ d better prepare for the interview as you ’ ll be asked lots of questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ’ d rather go for a walk. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Bare infinitive – p111 <ul><li>2. After “ let ” and “ make ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother Teresa let the poor die in dignity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher made him stay behind after school. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. After </li></ul>She saw a man enter the room. I heard the boys quarrel with each other. Feel See Watch Notice Hear Listen to
  22. 22. Bare infinitive <ul><li>Infinitive form without “ to ” </li></ul><ul><li>After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc), “ had better ” and “ would rather ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We should respect people who are selfless and kind. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You ’ d better prepare for the interview as you ’ ll be asked lots of questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ’ d rather go for a walk. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Which is correct ? 1 I enjoy to swim. 2 I   enjoy swimming . right
  24. 24. Which is correct ? 1 I want to study . 2   I want studying . right
  25. 25. Which is correct ? 1 I finish to eat . 2   I finish eating . right
  26. 26. Which is correct ? 1 I need to study . 2   I need studying . right
  27. 27. Which is correct ? 1 I hope to study . 2   I hope studying . right
  28. 28. Which is correct ? 1 I stopped to smoke . 2   I stopped smoking . right
  29. 29. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) <ul><li>Use as subject </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: To smoke is bad for you </li></ul><ul><li>Use as subject (more common) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: smoking is bad for you. </li></ul><ul><li>To say why we do things </li></ul><ul><li>(purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train. </li></ul><ul><li>After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after … etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: you can ’ t live without eating </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: Thank you for listening . </li></ul>3. After some verbs (eg: expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) Eg: I expect to pass the exams. 3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can ’ t help … etc) Eg: I ’ ll finish studying in June.
  30. 30. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 4. After some adjectives and nouns .( adj =easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; noun = work , money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her. … etc) Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj) Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj) Eg: I ’ ve got work to do. (n) <ul><li>After phrasal verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I am not good at dancing . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I am not interested in singing . </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: John will give up smoking . </li></ul>5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or to-infinitive Eg: I love going to school/ I love to go to school 5. eg: begin, continue, hate, love, start … etc.
  31. 31. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 6. used in general sense (eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc) Eg: I like swimming. <ul><li>Used in particular situations </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: I don ’ t like swimming on cold days. </li></ul><ul><li>No + gerund </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: No money, no talking. </li></ul>* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. ( eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc) <ul><li>Stop + gerund. </li></ul><ul><li>Eg: stop talking, stop writing, stop walking … etc. </li></ul>* Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)
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