Precentacion gerund3 and toinfinitive
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Precentacion gerund3 and toinfinitive Presentation Transcript

  • 1. To-infinitive GERUND
  • 2. To-infinitive + Gerund
    • The to-infinitive after a verb often describes a future event.
    • Eg: after hope, expect, promise, want, the event in the to-infintive comes after the activity or thought in the main verb:
      • I hope to see you next week.
    • Gerund describes an activity.
      • We enjoyed seeing you last weekend.
  • 3. afford / agree
    • I agree to go to the Beijing trip this summer holiday.
    • I can afford to buy this picture.
    • learn / need
    • We should learn to do housework.
    • Human need to drink water.
  • 4. Hope / wish
    • I hope to meet Beckham in England.
    • I wish to fly up high in the sky.
    • Want / decide
    • I want to do the homework today.
    • I decide to buy this book.
  • 5. Expect / fail
    • We expect to pass the English exam.
    • We failed to do the homework.
    • Tell / want
    • He wanted to tell her about his feelings.
  • 6. Ask / decide
    • I asked my mum to go shopping with me.
    • I decided to go hiking this Sunday.
    • Promise / refuse
    • I promised my mother to finish my homework by 6pm.
    • I refuse to invite Yumiko to my party.
  • 7. No major difference in meaning
    • Some verbs can be followed by either the to-infinitive or the gerund without any major difference in meaning:
    • Mother Teresa started to live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948.
    • Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continued to work/working for the poor.
    Begin Continue Start intend
  • 8. Gerund ( general ), to-infinitive ( particular situation )
    • Some verbs are generally followed by the gerund when used in a general sense
    • The to-infinitive is often used for a particular situation.
    • (I like swimming) but I don ’ t like to swim ( on cold days).
    Love Like Hate Prefer
  • 9. The Gerund is formed by adding ‘ ing ’ to the base form of a verb.
    • swim  swimming
    • eat  eating
    • run  running
  • 10. The Gerund can be used –
    • As a noun
    • E.g
    • Running is my favourite sport. (subject)
    • He tried running faster. (object)
    • She was afraid of losing . (object of preposition)
  • 11. Exercise
    • (swim) _________is a very good form of exercise.
    • I have some (shop) ______to do this afternoon.
    • (learn) _________English takes a long time.
  • 12. After adjectives + preposition
    • accustomed to capable of
    • fond of afraid of
    • successful in good at
    • tired of interested in
    • E.g
    • She is accustomed to training for many hours.
    • He is good at running the 200 meters race
  • 13. Exercise
    • Mary is fond of _______ (sing).
    • The boy soon became accustomed to _______ (work) hard.
    • Are you afraid of _______ (play) the exciting electronic games.
    • She is never tired of _______ (talk) about her clever son.
  • 14.
    • G1 – admit
    • G2- avoid
    • G3 – delay G4-deny
    • G5-enjoy
    • G6-finish
    • G7 – keep
    • G8-mind
  • 15.
    • Admit
    • My brother admitted breaking the vase.
    • Avoid
    • I avoid walking on busy streets.
    • Delay
    • The school delayed opening this morning.
  • 16. finish
    • I finish doing my homework.
    • Keep
    • After 4 hours, he keeps standing there.
    • Mind
    • Would you mind lending your pen to me.
  • 17. deny
    • I deny that I am not good at singing.
    • I deny doing a wrong thing
    • I deny being late to school every day.
    • I deny talking during the lesson.
    • Enjoy
    • I enjoy playing computer games.
  • 18. After verbs
    • admit can ’ t help dislike
    • keep try finish
    • advise keep enjoy
    • appreciate mind avoid
    • understand suggest forgive
    • E.g
    • John has finished repairing his bicycle.
    • They enjoy walking in the evening.
    • Mary dislikes swimming in winter.
  • 19. Exercise
    • He kept ________(run) till the end.
    • She enjoys _______ (run) for competition.
    • They dislike _______(drive) small cars.
    • He avoided ________(answer) my question.
    • Would you mind me ________ (smoke) in this room.
  • 20. Bare infinitive
    • Infinitive form without “ to ”
    • After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc), “ had better ” and “ would rather ”
      • We should respect people who are selfless and kind.
      • You ’ d better prepare for the interview as you ’ ll be asked lots of questions.
      • I ’ d rather go for a walk.
  • 21. Bare infinitive – p111
    • 2. After “ let ” and “ make ”
      • Mother Teresa let the poor die in dignity.
      • The teacher made him stay behind after school.
    • 3. After
    She saw a man enter the room. I heard the boys quarrel with each other. Feel See Watch Notice Hear Listen to
  • 22. Bare infinitive
    • Infinitive form without “ to ”
    • After modal verbs (should, could, must..etc), “ had better ” and “ would rather ”
      • We should respect people who are selfless and kind.
      • You ’ d better prepare for the interview as you ’ ll be asked lots of questions.
      • I ’ d rather go for a walk.
  • 23. Which is correct ? 1 I enjoy to swim. 2 I   enjoy swimming . right
  • 24. Which is correct ? 1 I want to study . 2   I want studying . right
  • 25. Which is correct ? 1 I finish to eat . 2   I finish eating . right
  • 26. Which is correct ? 1 I need to study . 2   I need studying . right
  • 27. Which is correct ? 1 I hope to study . 2   I hope studying . right
  • 28. Which is correct ? 1 I stopped to smoke . 2   I stopped smoking . right
  • 29. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms)
    • Use as subject
    • Eg: To smoke is bad for you
    • Use as subject (more common)
    • Eg: smoking is bad for you.
    • To say why we do things
    • (purpose)
    • Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train.
    • After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after … etc.)
    • Eg: you can ’ t live without eating
    • Eg: Thank you for listening .
    3. After some verbs (eg: expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) Eg: I expect to pass the exams. 3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can ’ t help … etc) Eg: I ’ ll finish studying in June.
  • 30. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 4. After some adjectives and nouns .( adj =easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; noun = work , money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her. … etc) Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj) Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj) Eg: I ’ ve got work to do. (n)
    • After phrasal verbs
    • Eg: I am not good at dancing .
    • Eg: I am not interested in singing .
    • Eg: John will give up smoking .
    5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or to-infinitive Eg: I love going to school/ I love to go to school 5. eg: begin, continue, hate, love, start … etc.
  • 31. Summary table for to-infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms) 6. used in general sense (eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc) Eg: I like swimming.
    • Used in particular situations
    • Eg: I don ’ t like swimming on cold days.
    • No + gerund
    • Eg: No money, no talking.
    * Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. ( eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc)
    • Stop + gerund.
    • Eg: stop talking, stop writing, stop walking … etc.
    * Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)