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Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
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Mutual funds
Mutual funds
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Mutual funds
Mutual funds
Mutual funds
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Mutual funds
Mutual funds
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Mutual funds
Mutual funds
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Mutual funds
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Mutual funds

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    1. Mutual Funds
    2. Emergence of Mutual Funds <ul><li>Markets are increasingly becoming more sophisticated and complex </li></ul><ul><li>investors need a financial intermediary who provides the required knowledge and professional expertise on successful investing </li></ul><ul><li>Incremental flow of funds into mutual funds rather than traditional avenues </li></ul>
    3. Place of MFs in the financial markets <ul><li>Facilitate allocation of household savings to capital markets </li></ul><ul><li>Until 1992, primary market investors were assured good returns as new equity pricing was controlled - decontrolled now </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to free pricing and and hence higher volatility - investors lose money </li></ul><ul><li>Investors realize the need for a diversified portfolio and professional management </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Funds - A link between saving public and capital market as they mobilize savings from investors and bring them to borrowers in capital markets </li></ul>
    4. The Players in the Indian MF Industry <ul><li>Birla Sun Life </li></ul><ul><li>DSP Merrill </li></ul><ul><li>Prudential ICICI </li></ul><ul><li>Morgan Stanley </li></ul><ul><li>Templeton </li></ul><ul><li>ING Savings Trust </li></ul><ul><li>JM </li></ul><ul><li>Reliance </li></ul><ul><li>Tata </li></ul>
    5. Background <ul><li>What do we expect from our investments? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquidity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We need a combination of these based on our objective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Child marriage / retirement - high safety and good return by capital appreciation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General savings and emergency funds - high liquidity and safety </li></ul></ul>
    6. Key Investment Considerations <ul><li>For the same liquidity - higher the safety, lower the returns </li></ul><ul><li>For the same safety - higher the liquidity, lower the returns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: You can’t score more than two out of three </li></ul></ul>Safety You get your money back Liquidity You get your money back when you want it Post-tax Returns How much is really left for you post tax? Plus Convenience How easy is it to invest, disinvest and adjust to your needs?
    7. Aar ya paar Indian investors have traditionally invested in: Risk High Risk - High Return or Low Risk - Low Return IPO's Plantation Schemes PPF Post office NSS Bank Deposits Co. FDs Bonds/Debentures Assured Schemes
    8. Myths about Mutual Funds <ul><li>Mutual Funds invest only in shares. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Funds are prone to very high risks/actively traded. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Funds are very new in the financial market. </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Funds are not reliable and people rarely invest in them. </li></ul><ul><li>The good thing about Mutual Funds is that you don’t have to pay attention to them. </li></ul>
    9. Facts about Mutual Funds 1. Equity Instruments like shares form only a part of the securities held by mutual funds. Mutual funds also invest in debt securities which are relatively much safer. 2. The biggest advantage of Mutual Funds is their ability to diversify the risk. 3. Mutual Funds are in India since 1964. Mutual Funds market is very evolved in U.S.A and is there for the last 60 years. 4. Mutual Funds are the best solution for people who want to manage risks and get good returns.
    10. Facts about Mutual Funds 5. The truth is as an investor you should always pay attention to your mutual funds and continuously monitor them. There are various funds to suit investor needs, both as a long term investment vehicle or as a very short term cash management vehicle. 6. US-64 is very much a part of the market and is not immune to its vagaries. The crisis has risen due to mismanagement of the fund.
    11. History of Mutual Funds Phase I – 1964 – 87: In 1963, UTI was set up by Parliament under UTI act and given a monopoly. The first scheme launched by UTI was Unit Scheme-64. Later in ’70’s and ’80’s, UTI started offering some special purpose schemes like ULIP and Children’s Gift Growth Fund. Master share, the first equity fund was launched in 1986. These were launched to suit the needs of different class of investors. Phase II – 1987 – 93: 1987 marked the entry of non-UTI, Public Sector mutual funds . Some of the mutual funds launched during this period are SBI Mutual Fund, Canbank Mutual Fund, LIC Mutual Fund, Indian Bank Mutual Fund, GIC Mutual Fund and PNB Mutual Fund. Also marked a spurt in launch of assured funds like
    12. History of Mutual Funds Cantriple, Magnum Triple, BOI Double Square Plus. Equity funds with assured returns were launched which later ended in disaster. Phase III – 1993 – 96: Permission was granted for entry of private sector funds . It gave greater choice to the Indian Investors. These private funds have brought in with them the latest product innovations, investment management techniques and investor servicing technology that makes the Indian mutual fund industry vibrant and growing. This phase also marked the launch of an open-end funds. Phase IV – 1996: Investor friendly regulatory measures have been taken both by SEBI to protect the investor, and by the government to enhance investor’s returns through tax benefits.
    13. What Is a Mutual Fund? <ul><li>A mutual fund is a pool of money collected from investors and is invested according to stated investment objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Terms to know </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investment objectives </li></ul></ul>
    14. Advantages of Mutual Funds <ul><li>Portfolio diversification : It enables him to hold a diversified investment portfolio even with a small amount of investment like Rs. 2000/-. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional management : The investment management skills, along with the needed research into available investment options, ensure a much better return as compared to what an investor can manage on his own. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction/Diversification of Risks: The potential losses are also shared with other investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of transaction costs: The investor has the benefit of economies of scale; the funds pay lesser costs because of larger volumes and it is passed on to the investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Wide Choice to suit risk-return profile: Investors can chose the fund based on their risk tolerance and expected returns. </li></ul>
    15. Advantages of Mutual Funds <ul><li>Liquidity : Investors may be unable to sell shares directly, easily and quickly. When they invest in mutual funds, they can cash their investment any time by selling the units to the fund if it is open-ended and get the intrinsic value. </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience and Flexibility : Investors can easily transfer their holdings from one scheme to other, get updated market information and so on. Funds also offer additional benefits like regular investment and regular withdrawal options. </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency : Fund gives r egular information to its investors on the value of the investments in addition to disclosure of portfolio held by their scheme, the proportion invested in each class of assets and the fund manager's investment strategy and outlook </li></ul>
    16. Disadvantages of Mutual Funds <ul><li>No control over costs : The investor pays investment management fees as long as he remains with the fund, even while the value of his investments are declining. He also pays for funds distribution charges which he would not incur in direct investments. </li></ul><ul><li>No tailor-made portfolios : The very high net-worth individuals or large corporate investors may find this to be a constraint as they will not be able to build their own portfolio of shares, bonds and other securities. </li></ul>
    17. <ul><li>Managing a portfolio of funds : Availability of a large number of funds can actually mean too much choice for the investor. So, he may again need advice on how to select a fund to achieve his objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Delay in redemption : It takes 3-6 days for redemption of the units and the money to flow back into the investor’s account. </li></ul>
    18. Broad Types of Mutual Funds
    19. Open-end Vs. Closed-end Funds <ul><li>Open-end Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Available for sale and repurchase at all times based on the net asset value (NAV) per unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Unit capital of the fund is not fixed but variable. </li></ul><ul><li>Fund size and its total investment go up if more new subscriptions come in than redemptions and vice-versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed-end Fund </li></ul><ul><li>One time sale of fixed number of units. </li></ul><ul><li>Investors are not allowed to buy or redeem the units directly from the funds. Some funds offer repurchase after a fixed period. For example, UTI MIP offers a repurchase after 3 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Listed on stock exchange and investors can buy or sell units through the exchange. </li></ul><ul><li>Units maybe traded at a discount or premium to NAV based on investor’s perception about the funds future performance and other market factors. </li></ul>
    20. Load Vs. No-load Funds <ul><li>Marketing a new mutual fund scheme involves initial expenses. These expenses are charged to the investors through loads and are recovered from the investors in different ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Front-end or entry load is charged to the investor at the time of his entry into the scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Back-end or exit load is charged to the investor at the time of his exit from the scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred load is charged to the investor over a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Contingent deferred sales charge : Different amount of loads are charged to the investor depending upon the time period the investor has stayed with the fund. The longer he stays with the fund, lesser the amount of exit fund he is charged. </li></ul><ul><li>Very often, AMC’s do not charge any initial expenses to the investor in the IPO. These are hence are no-load funds . In no-load funds, the investors get units for the complete amount invested. </li></ul>
    21. Mutual Fund Types <ul><li>Money Market Funds/Cash Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in securities of short term nature I.e. less than one year maturity. </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in Treasury bills issued by government, Certificates of deposit issued by banks, Commercial Paper issued companies and inter-bank call money. </li></ul><ul><li>Aim to provide easy liquidity, preservation of capital and moderate income. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilt Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in Gilts which are government securities with medium to long term maturities, typically over one year. </li></ul><ul><li>Gilt funds invest in government paper called dated securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtually zero risk of default as it is backed by the Government. </li></ul><ul><li>It is most sensitive to market interest rates. The price falls when the interest rates goes up and vice-versa. </li></ul>
    22. Mutual Fund Types <ul><li>Broad fund types by Nature of Investments: Mutual funds may invest in equities, bonds or fixed income securities, or short-term money market securities. So, we have Equity, Bond and Money Market Funds . </li></ul><ul><li>Broad fund types by Investment Objective: Investors and hence mutual funds pursue different objectives while investing. </li></ul><ul><li>- Growth funds invest for medium to long term capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>- Income funds invest to generate regular income and preservation of capital with little emphasis on capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Value funds invest in equities that are considered under-valued today, whose value will be unlocked in future. </li></ul><ul><li>Broad fund types by Risk Profile: Fund’s portfolio and its investment objective imply different risk levels. Equity funds have a greater risk of capital loss than a debt fund. Money Market funds are exposed to lesser risk than Bond funds. </li></ul>
    23. Debt Funds <ul><li>Debt Funds/Income Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in debt instruments issued not only by government, but also by private companies, banks and financial institutions and other entities such as infrastructure companies/utilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Target low risk and stable income for the investor. </li></ul><ul><li>Have higher price fluctuation as compared to money market funds due to interest rate fluctuation. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a higher risk of default by borrowers as compared to Gilt funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Debt funds can be categorized further based on their risk profiles. </li></ul><ul><li>Carry both credit risk and interest rate risks . </li></ul>
    24. Debt Funds <ul><li>Diversified Debt Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invests in all available types of debt securities, issued by entities across all industries and sectors. </li></ul><ul><li>Derives benefit of risk reduction through risk diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused Debt Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Have a narrow focus with less diversification in its investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Include Sector, Specialized and Offshore debt funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Have a higher risk as compared to diversified debt funds. </li></ul><ul><li>High Yield Debt Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in debt instruments that are not backed by tangible assets and considered “below investment grade”. </li></ul><ul><li>May earn higher returns though at the cost of higher risk. </li></ul>
    25. Debt Funds <ul><li>Assured Return Funds- An Indian Variant: </li></ul><ul><li>Assured Return or Guaranteed Monthly Income Plans are essentially Debt/Income funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Returns are indicated in advance for all the future years of the closed-end funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Any shortfall is borne by the sponsors or managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Market regulator, SEBI has been discouraging fund managers from offering assured return schemes. If offered, explicit guarantee is required from a guarantor whose name is specified in advance in the offer document of the scheme. </li></ul>
    26. Equity Funds <ul><li>Equity Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest a major portion of their corpus in equity shares issued by companies, acquired directly in initial public offering or through secondary market and keep a part in cash to take care of redemptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk is higher than debt funds but offer very high growth potential for the capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Equity funds can be further categorized based on their investment strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Equity funds must have a long-term objective. </li></ul>
    27. Equity Funds <ul><li>Aggressive Growth Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is to earn very high returns for the investor. </li></ul><ul><li>Target is maximum capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in less researched or speculative shares and may adopt speculative investment strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>High volatility and risk as compared to other funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is capital appreciation over a long time, 7 - 10 years span. </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in companies whose earnings are expected to rise at an above average rate. </li></ul><ul><li>These companies will be considered to have growth potential, but not entirely unproven and speculative. </li></ul><ul><li>Less volatile than aggressive growth funds. </li></ul>
    28. Equity Funds <ul><li>Specialty Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Thematic funds that have a theme for investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow portfolio orientation and invest only in companies that meet pre-defined criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification is limited to one type of investment. </li></ul><ul><li>More volatile than diversified funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty funds are further sub-categorized based on their investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Diversified Equity Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest only in equities except for a very small portion in liquid money market securities. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not focused on any one or few sectors or shares. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce the sector or stock specific risks through diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Lower risks than growth funds. </li></ul>
    29. Equity (Specialty) Funds <ul><li>Sector Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios consists of investments in only in one industry or sector of the market such as IT, Pharmaceuticals or FMCG. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher level of company or sector specific risk than diversified funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Offshore Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in equities in one or more foreign countries. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to foreign exchange rate risk and economic conditions of the countries they invest in. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-Cap Equity Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in shares of companies with relatively low market capitalization that that of big blue chip companies. </li></ul><ul><li>More volatile than other funds as smaller companies are not very liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of investment style, it may be aggressive-growth or growth type or even value fund . </li></ul>
    30. Equity Funds <ul><li>Equity Linked Savings Schemes - an Indian Variant: </li></ul><ul><li>Investment in these schemes entitles the investor to claim an income tax rebate. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually has a lock-in period of 3 years before the end of which funds cannot be withdrawn. </li></ul><ul><li>There are no specific restrictions on the investment objectives for the fund managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, such funds would be Diversified Equity Funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Equity Income Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is to give high level of current income along with some steady capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in shares of companies with high dividend yields and do not fluctuate as much as other shares. Ex - Power/Utility sector. </li></ul><ul><li>Less volatile and risky than other equity funds. </li></ul>
    31. Equity Funds <ul><li>Equity Index Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>The objective is to match the performance of the stock market by tracking an index that represents the overall market. </li></ul><ul><li>Invests in shares that constitute the index and in the same proportion. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to overall market risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: UTI Nifty Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Value Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Invest in fundamentally sound companies whose shares are currently under-priced in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>Have lower risk as compared to Growth Funds and take a long term approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Often invested in cyclical industries. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Templeton India Growth fund that has shares of Cement/Aluminum and other cyclical industries. </li></ul>
    32. Hybrid Funds <ul><li>Balanced Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Has a portfolio comprising of debt instruments, convertible securities, preference and equity shares. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost equal proportion of debt/money market securities and equities. Normally funds maintain a Equity-Debt ratio of 55:45 or 60:40. </li></ul><ul><li>Objective is to gain income, moderate capital appreciation and preservation of capital. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for investors with a conservative and long-term orientation. </li></ul>
    33. Hybrid Funds <ul><li>Growth & Income Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Strike a balance between capital appreciation and income for the investor. </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio is a mix between companies with good dividend paying records and those with potential for capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Less risky than growth funds but more risky than income funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Asset Allocation Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>Follow variable asset allocation policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Move in an out of an asset class (equity, debt, money market or even non-financial assets) </li></ul><ul><li>Asset allocation funds that follow more stable allocation policies are like balanced funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Asset allocation funds that follow more flexible allocation policies are like aggressive growth or speculative funds. </li></ul>
    34. Options Available to the Investor
    35. Mutual Funds Vs. Other Investments Product Return Safety Liquidity Tax Benefit Conven- ience Bank Deposit Low High High No High Equity Instruments High Low High or Low No Moderate Debentures Moderate Moderate Low No Low Fixed Deposits by Companies Moderate Low Low No Moderate Bonds Moderate Moderate Moderate Yes Moderate
    36. Mutual Funds Vs. Other Investments Product Return Safety Liquidity Tax Benefit Conven- ience RBI Relief Bonds Moderate High Low Yes Moderate PPF Moderate High Low Yes Moderate National Saving Certificate Moderate High Low Yes Moderate National Saving Scheme Moderate High Low Yes Moderate Monthly Income Scheme Moderate High Low Yes Moderate
    37. Mutual Funds Vs. Other Investments Product Return Safety Liquidity Tax Benefit Conven- ience Life Insurance Moderate High Low Yes Moderate Mutual Funds (Open-end) Moderate Moderate High No High Mutual Funds (Closed-end) Moderate Moderate High Yes High
    38. Bank Deposits Vs. Debt Funds <ul><li>Bank Deposits cater to investor class that look for safety and accepts a relatively low return. They cannot be compared with equity funds but with debt funds. </li></ul><ul><li>A bank deposit is guaranteed by the bank for repayment of principal and interest whereas a debt fund has no contractual guarantee for repayment of principal or interest. </li></ul><ul><li>In bank deposits, the investor has to assess the risk in terms of credit ratings of the bank which gives an indication of the financial soundness of the bank. However, a debt fund is not rated by any agency. The investor has to assess the risk on the portfolio held by the fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Bank deposits are not totally free from risk and generally give lower returns. A conservative debt fund can give higher returns than a bank deposit, even though there is no contractual guarantee as in a deposit. </li></ul>
    39. Mutual Funds Prove Best! While instruments like shares give high returns at the cost of high risk, instruments like NSC and bank deposits give lower returns and higher safety to the investor. Mutual Funds aim to strike a balance between risk and return and give the best of both to the investor.
    40. Fund Structure and its Constituents
    41. Fund Structure Fund Sponsor Trustees Asset Management Company Depository Custodian Agent
    42. Fund Sponsor <ul><li>The Fund Sponsor </li></ul><ul><li>Any person or corporate body that establishes the Fund and registers it with SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Form a Trust and appoint a Board of Trustees. </li></ul><ul><li>Appoints Custodian and Asset Management Company either directly or through Trust, in accordance with SEBI regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>SEBI regulations also define that a sponsor must contribute </li></ul><ul><li>at least 40% to the net worth of the asset management </li></ul><ul><li>company. </li></ul>
    43. Trustees <ul><li>Trustees </li></ul><ul><li>Created through a document called the Trust Deed that is executed by the Fund Sponsor and registered with SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trust - The mutual fund may be managed by a Board of Trustees- a body of individuals or a Trust Company- a corporate body. </li></ul><ul><li>Protector of unit holders interests. </li></ul><ul><li>2/3 of the trustees shall be independent persons and shall not be associated with the sponsors. </li></ul>
    44. Trustees <ul><li>Rights of Trustees: </li></ul><ul><li>Approve each of the schemes floated by the AMC. </li></ul><ul><li>The right to request any necessary information from the AMC. </li></ul><ul><li>May take corrective action if they believe that the conduct of the fund's business is not in accordance with SEBI Regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Have the right to dismiss the AMC , </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that, any shortfall in net worth of the AMC is made up. </li></ul>
    45. Trustees <ul><li>Obligations of the Trustees: </li></ul><ul><li>Enter into an investment management agreement with the AMC. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the fund's transactions are in accordance with the Trust Deed. </li></ul><ul><li>F urnish to SEBI on a half-yearly basis, a report on the fund's activities </li></ul><ul><li>E nsure that no change in the fundamental attributes of any scheme or the trust or any other change which would affect the interest of unit holders is happens without informing the unit holders. </li></ul><ul><li>Review the investor complaints received and the redressal of the same by the AMC. </li></ul>
    46. Asset Management Company <ul><li>Acts as an invest manager of the Trust under the Board Supervision and direction of the Trustees. </li></ul><ul><li>Has to be approved and registered with SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Will float and manage the different investment schemes in the name of Trust and in accordance with SEBI regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Acts in interest of the unit-holders and reports to the trustees. </li></ul><ul><li>At least 50% of directors on the board are independent of the sponsor or the trustees. </li></ul>
    47. Asset Management Company <ul><li>Obligation of Asset Management Company: </li></ul><ul><li>Float investment schemes only after receiving prior approval from the Trustees and SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Send quarterly reports to Trustees. </li></ul><ul><li>Make the required disclosures to the investors in areas such as calculation of NAV and repurchase price. </li></ul><ul><li>Must maintain a net worth of at least Rs. 10 crores at all times. </li></ul><ul><li>Will not purchase or sell securities through any broker, which is average of 5% or more of the aggregate purchases and sale of securities made by the mutual fund in all its schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>AMC cannot act as a trustee of any other mutual fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not undertake any other activity conflicting with managing the fund. </li></ul>
    48. Structure of Mutual Funds <ul><li>Custodian </li></ul><ul><li>Has the responsibility of physical handling and safe keeping of the securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be independent of the sponsors and registered with SEBI. </li></ul><ul><li>Depositories </li></ul><ul><li>Indian capital markets are moving away from physical certificates for securities to ‘dematerialized’ form with a Depository. </li></ul><ul><li>Will hold the dematerialized security holdings of the Mutual Fund. </li></ul>
    49. Distribution Channels
    50. Distribution Channels <ul><li>Mutual Funds are primary vehicles for large collective investments, working on the principle of pooling funds. </li></ul><ul><li>A substantial portion of the investments happen at the retail level. </li></ul><ul><li>Agents and distributors are a vital link between the mutual funds and investors. </li></ul><ul><li>Agents </li></ul><ul><li>Is a broker between the fund and the investor and acts on behalf of the principal. </li></ul><ul><li>He is not exclusive to the fund and also sells other financial services. This in a way helps him to act as a financial advisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Is a company which sells mutual funds on behalf of the fund. </li></ul><ul><li>It has several employees or sub-broker under it. </li></ul><ul><li>It manages distribution for several funds and receives commission for its services. </li></ul>
    51. Distribution Channels <ul><li>Banks and NBFCs </li></ul><ul><li>Several banks, particularly private and foreign banks are involved in a fund distribution by providing similar services like that of distribution companies. </li></ul><ul><li>They work on commission basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual funds sell their own products through their sales officers and employees of the AMC. </li></ul><ul><li>This channel is normally used to mobilise funds from high net worth individuals and institutional investors. </li></ul>
    52. Accounting and Taxation
    53. Accounting Calculating Net Asset Value Unit Capital is the investor’s subscriptions. In mutual funds it is not treated as a liability. Investments made on behalf of the investors are reflected on the assets side of the balance sheet. There are liabilities of short-term nature. Fund’s Net Asset = Asset – Liabilities Net Asset Value = Net Assets of the scheme / No. of Outstanding Units i.e NAV = (Market value of investments + Receivables + Other Accrued Income + Other assets – Accrued Expenses – Other Payables – Other liabilities) / ( No. of Units Outstanding as at the NAV date)
    54. Accounting <ul><li>The factors affecting the NAV are as following: </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Gains or Losses on the sale or purchase of the Investment securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Dividend and income earned on the assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Capital Appreciation in the underlying value of the stocks held in the portfolio. </li></ul><ul><li>Other assets and liabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Number of units sold or purchased. </li></ul>
    55. Accounting <ul><li>SEBI regulations for NAV </li></ul><ul><li>The day on which NAV is calculated by a fund is called valuation date . </li></ul><ul><li>NAV of all schemes must be calculated and published at least weekly. </li></ul><ul><li>This is applicable to both open-end and closed-end fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Some closed end funds (Monthly Income Schemes) that are not listed on stock exchange may publish it monthly-quarterly. </li></ul>
    56. Accounting <ul><li>SEBI Guidelines for Pricing of Units: </li></ul><ul><li>The mutual fund shall ensure that the re-purchase price is not lower than 93% of the NAV. </li></ul><ul><li>The sale price is not higher than 107% of the NAV. Repurchase price of closed end scheme shall not be lower than 95% of the NAV. </li></ul><ul><li>The difference between the repurchase price and the sale price of the units shall not exceed 7% of the sale price. </li></ul>
    57. Accounting <ul><li>Since investments held by a mutual fund in its portfolio are to </li></ul><ul><li>be marked to the market, the NAV includes two components: </li></ul><ul><li>Realized gains or losses. </li></ul><ul><li>Unrealized gains or losses. </li></ul><ul><li>As per SEBI guidelines, unrealized appreciation cannot be </li></ul><ul><li>distributed by a fund, whereas the realized gain can be </li></ul><ul><li>distributed. </li></ul>
    58. Taxation <ul><li>Taxation in the Hands of the Fund </li></ul><ul><li>Income earned by any mutual fund registered with SEBI or set up by a public sector bank/Financial Institution or authorised by RBI is exempt from tax. </li></ul><ul><li>Income distributed to unit holders by a closed-end or debt fund has to pay a distribution tax of 10% plus surcharge of 1% I.e. a tax of 11%. This tax is also applicable to distributions made by open-end funds which have less than 50% allocation to equity. </li></ul><ul><li>The Impact on the Fund and the Investor </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the tax payment by the fund, the NAV and the value of the investor’s investment will come down. </li></ul><ul><li>The tax bears no relationship to the investor’s tax bracket. </li></ul><ul><li>This tax makes the income schemes less attractive than growth schemes. </li></ul><ul><li>The fund cannot avoid tax even if the investor chooses to reinvest the distribution back into the fund. </li></ul>
    59. Investment Plans <ul><li>Automatic Re-investment Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the investor to re-invest in additional units the amount of dividends or other distributions made by the fund instead of receiving it in cash. </li></ul><ul><li>Investment takes place at ex-dividend NAV. </li></ul><ul><li>The investors reap the benefit of compounding his investments. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Investment Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the investor to invest a fixed sum periodically. Enables him to save in a disciplined and phased manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Such funds help in ‘ rupee cost averaging’. </li></ul><ul><li>Mode of investment could be through direct debit to investor’s salary or bank account. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary Accumulation Plan, a modified version of AIP allows the investor flexibility in terms of amount and frequency of investment. </li></ul>
    60. Investment Plans <ul><li>Systematic Withdrawal Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Allow systematic withdrawals from his fund investment on a periodic basis. </li></ul><ul><li>The investor must withdraw a specific minimum amount and also maintain a minimum balance in his fund account. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount withdrawn is treated as redemption of units at the applicable NAV as specified in the Offer Document. </li></ul><ul><li>SWPs are different from MIPs. SWPs allows investors to get back the principal amount invested while MIP’s will only pay the income part on regular basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Transfer Plans </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the investor to transfer on a periodic basis from one scheme to another within the same fund family. </li></ul><ul><li>A transfer will be treated as redemption of units from one scheme and investment of units in another scheme. </li></ul><ul><li>Such redemption and investment will be at applicable NAV as mentioned in the Offer Document. </li></ul>
    61. Measuring and Evaluating Mutual Fund Performance
    62. Why Measure Fund Performance <ul><li>The Investor Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>To make intelligent decisions on whether he should continue with the investment or not. </li></ul><ul><li>He needs the basic knowledge of fund evaluation to judge the performance of the fund. </li></ul><ul><li>The Advisor’s Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>The potential investors would expect the advisor to give them a proper advise on which funds have good performance. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to compare different funds, the advisor must have the correct knowledge and appropriate measures of evaluating the fund performance. </li></ul>
    63. Different Performance Measures <ul><li>Change in NAV </li></ul><ul><li>- most commonly used by investors to evaluate fund performance and most commonly published by fund managers. </li></ul><ul><li>Easily understood and applied to any type of fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Should be interpreted in light of the investment objective of the fund, current market conditions and alternative investment returns. </li></ul><ul><li>Long term growth fund or infrastructure fund will give low returns in the initial years. </li></ul><ul><li>NAV Change in absolute terms: </li></ul><ul><li>(NAV at the end of period) – (NAV at the beginning of period) </li></ul><ul><li>NAV Change in percentage terms: </li></ul><ul><li>(Absolute change in NAV/NAV at the beginning of period) * 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Annualised NAV Change: </li></ul><ul><li>{[(Absolute Change in NAV/NAV at the beginning)/months covered]*12}*100 </li></ul>
    64. Different Performance Measures <ul><li>No, percentage NAV change cannot give a correct picture as it does not take into account the interim dividends paid. The correct measure here is Total Return Method. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Return Method </li></ul><ul><li>It takes into account the dividends paid in the interim period and is suitable for all types of funds. </li></ul><ul><li>It must be interpreted in the light of market conditions and investment objective of the fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Its limitation is that it ignores the fact that distributed dividends also get reinvested if received during the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Total Return is: </li></ul><ul><li>[(Distributions + Change in NAV)/NAV at the beginning of the period]* 100 </li></ul>
    65. Expense Ratio <ul><li>The Expense Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Indicator of fund’s efficiency and cost effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined as the ratio of total expenses to average net assets of the fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Past and estimated expense figures and ratios are disclosed in the Offer Document. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluctuations in the ratio across periods require that an average over three to five years be used to judge a fund’s performance. Also it should be evaluated in the light of the fund size, average account size and portfolio composition. </li></ul><ul><li>Funds with small corpus size will have higher expense ratio. </li></ul><ul><li>If a fund’s income levels or returns are small say a debt fund with 10% return, expense ratio becomes important and difference of even 0.5% between two funds can make lot of difference. </li></ul>
    66. Income Ratio <ul><li>The Income Ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Defined as its net investment income divided by its net assets for the period. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for measuring income oriented funds, particularly debt funds and not suitable for funds looking for capital appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be used in isolation, but only with expense ratio and total return. </li></ul>
    67. Portfolio Turnover Rate <ul><li>Portfolio Turnover Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the buying and selling done by a fund. </li></ul><ul><li>A 100% turnover implies that the manager replaced his entire portfolio during the period in question, lets say one year. </li></ul><ul><li>A 50% turnover implies that the manager replaced his entire portfolio in 2 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Most useful while evaluating equity and balance funds, but not appropriate for equity funds with a value-based long term investment philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher T/o does not necessarily mean greater efficiency and must be seen in relation to the total return to the investor. </li></ul>
    68. Fund Size & Cash Holdings <ul><li>Fund Size </li></ul><ul><li>Small fund are easier to manoeuvre and can achieve their objectives easily. </li></ul><ul><li>Large funds benefit from economies of scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Cash Holdings </li></ul><ul><li>A large cash holding allows the fund to strengthen its position in preferred securities without liquidating others. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows cushion against decline in market prices of shares or bonds. </li></ul>
    69. Benchmarking <ul><li>Importance of Benchmarking </li></ul><ul><li>A funds performance can be judged in relation to investor’s expectations. </li></ul><ul><li>However, it is important for the investor to define his expectations in relation to certain “guideposts”. </li></ul><ul><li>These guideposts or indicators of performance can be thought of as benchmarks against which a fund’s performance ought to be measured. </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, BSE-30 will be a benchmark for diversified equity fund and BSE IT index for tech funds. </li></ul><ul><li>While an advisor needs to look at the absolute measures of performance, he needs to select the right benchmark to evaluate a fund’s performance, so that he can compare the measured performance figures against the selected benchmark. </li></ul>
    70. Benchmarking <ul><li>Basis for choosing an Appropriate Performance Benchmark </li></ul><ul><li>The appropriate benchmark has to be selected by reference to: </li></ul><ul><li>The Asset Class it invests in. Thus, an equity fund has to be judged by from an appropriate benchmark from the equity market and so on. </li></ul><ul><li>The fund’s stated Investment Objective. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of benchmarks that can be used to evaluate a fund’s performance: </li></ul><ul><li>Relative to the market as a whole. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative to other mutual funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Relative to other comparable financial products or investments options open to the investor. </li></ul>
    71. Benchmarking relative to market <ul><li>Equity Funds </li></ul><ul><li>Index Funds- a base index: </li></ul><ul><li>- If an investor were to chose an equity index fund, he can expect to get the same return as on the Index, called the Base Index. </li></ul><ul><li>- For index funds, the benchmark is clear and pre-specified by the fund manager in advance. </li></ul><ul><li>Tracking Error: </li></ul><ul><li>- an Index Fund invests in all of the stocks included in the index calculation, in the same proportion as the stocks’ weight in the index. </li></ul><ul><li>- An index funds actual return may be better or worse by what is called the “tracking error.” </li></ul><ul><li>- The tracking error arises from the practical difficulties faced by the fund manager in trying to remain in line with the weight that the stocks enjoy in the index. </li></ul>
    72. Benchmarking relative to market <ul><li>Active Equity Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>- Using appropriate market index. </li></ul><ul><li>- The appropriate index to be used to evaluate a broad-based equity fund should be decided on the basis of the size and the composition of the fund’s portfolio. </li></ul><ul><li>- If the fund has a large portfolio, a broader market index like BSE 100 or 200 or NSE 100 may be used to benchmark rather than S&P NIFTY or BSE 30. </li></ul><ul><li>- An actively managed fund expects to beat the index. </li></ul><ul><li>Sector Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>- Benchmark will be the relative Sectoral Index. </li></ul><ul><li>- An investor in Infotech or Pharma Sector funds can expect the same return as the relative sectoral indices. </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, the choice of a correct equity index as a benchmark also depends upon the investment objective of the fund. For example, a small cap fund has to be compared with a small cap index. </li></ul>
    73. Benchmarking relative to market <ul><li>Debt Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>- Using appropriate debt market index. </li></ul><ul><li>- A broad based bond fund or debt fund should be benchmarked with broad based debt index whereas a narrower Government Securities Fund, only the Government Sector sub-segment of the broad based index has to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>- Closed-end funds with clear maturity can be compared with bank deposits. </li></ul><ul><li>- I-SEC’s I-BEX is most commonly used by some analysts. </li></ul><ul><li>Money Market Funds: </li></ul><ul><li>- Money market funds due to their short term nature are benchmarked against the government funds of appropriate maturities. </li></ul><ul><li>- J.P.Morgan’s T-Bill index is used by analysts. </li></ul><ul><li>- NSE’s “mibid/mibor” rates that reflect interbank call money money market interest rates can also be used as a benchmark. </li></ul>
    74. Benchmarking relative to other MFs <ul><li>While comparing two funds, it is extremely important to ensure that the comparisons are meaningful and meet the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>The Investment Objectives and Risk Profiles </li></ul><ul><li>- Of two funds being compared must be same. </li></ul><ul><li>- For example an equity fund cannot be compared with a debt fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolio Compositions </li></ul><ul><li>- Of the funds compared must be similar. </li></ul><ul><li>- High returns fund investing in high risk-prone securities cannot be </li></ul><ul><li>compared with a scheme that invests in low risk securities. </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Quality and Average Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>- The credit ratings of the investments have to be comparable, for example a security with investments in AAA is not same as AA-. </li></ul><ul><li>- A fund with maturity of 3 yrs is not same as the fund with 6yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Fund Size </li></ul><ul><li>- Funds of equal size should be compared. </li></ul>
    75. Benchmarking relative to other Financial Products <ul><li>An investor will compare the mutual fund performance with other -investment products like bank deposits, NSC’s Indira Vikas Patra etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Only instruments of similar investment characteristics and with returns and calculated over the same periods should be used for meaningful comparisons. </li></ul>
    76. Evaluating the AMC <ul><li>While every fund is exposed to market risks, good funds should at least match major market indices. An AMC or the fund managers must be evaluated on the following criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Operate with long-term perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not indulge in excessive trading that generates high transaction costs and in turn reduce the NAV/risk of loss. </li></ul><ul><li>Turns out a more consistent performance rather than a one time high and otherwise volatile performance record. </li></ul><ul><li>Team of managers with successful records as against fund that are managed by one individual. </li></ul><ul><li>The reliability and track record of the sponsors. </li></ul><ul><li>Performance record against competing managers running similar funds. </li></ul>
    77. Tracking MF Performance <ul><li>To track fund performance, the first step is to find the relevant information on NAV, expenses, cash flow, appropriate indices etc. The common sources of information are: </li></ul><ul><li>Mutual Fund’s Annual and Periodic Reports include data on the fund’s financial performance which are indicators for expense ratios and total return. It also includes a listing of the fund’s portfolio holdings at market value, statement of revenue and expenses, unrealized appreciation/depreciation at year end and changes in net assets. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Press: Daily newspapers like Economic Times provide daily NAV figures for open-end schemes and share prices of closed-end schemes. There are also weekly supplements like Smart Investor of Business Standard and Investor Guide of Economic Times also give enough information for evaluation. </li></ul>
    78. Tracking MF Performance <ul><li>Fund Tracking agencies like Credence and Value Research are sources for MF performance data and evaluation. </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters: Many MFs, banks and non-banking firms catering to retail investors publish their own newsletters. </li></ul><ul><li>Prospectus: SEBI regulations requires sponsors to disclose performance data relating to schemes being managed by them. </li></ul>
    79. Power of Compounding <ul><li>Investing for Long Term – the power of compounding </li></ul><ul><li>Invest for the long term and let your money grow on a compound basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher the frequency of compounding, greater the growth of capital. </li></ul><ul><li>An advisor must enable the investor to understand the benefits of compounding. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>If MR. Kapoor invests Rs. 1000 @ 8% interest rate for 10 years and the </li></ul><ul><li>amount is compounded annually, this is how the money grows: </li></ul><ul><li>Interest generated in the first year would be Rs. 80 (1,000*.08) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest generated in the second year would be 86.4 [(1,000 + 80 )*.08] instead of 80 </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in the third year would be 93 [(1000 + 80+ 86.4 ) * .08) </li></ul><ul><li>And so on till the interest keeps growing each year, resulting in a total of Rs. 2,600 at the end of 10 </li></ul>
    80. Strategy to Maximize Returns <ul><li>Buy and Hold </li></ul><ul><li>- Most common strategy adopted by investors and the most common mistake. </li></ul><ul><li>- Long term investments does not necessarily mean buy and hold without adjusting the portfolio. </li></ul><ul><li>- Continuous tracking needs to be for keeping the right funds. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Rupee Cost Averaging </li></ul><ul><li>- It is advisable to invest regularly in small amounts rather than investing a lump sum at one go. </li></ul><ul><li>- A regular investor is always a winner. </li></ul><ul><li>- The disadvantage of this method is that it does not tell the investor when to buy and sell a fund. </li></ul><ul><li>Value Averaging </li></ul><ul><li>- Investor keeps the target value of investment constant. </li></ul><ul><li>- He accordingly keeps changing the investment amount either by increasing or decreasing the same. </li></ul>
    81. Rupee Cost Averaging Scenario 24. Mrs. Sudhakar is investing Rs. 1000 every month for 3 months in ABC mutual fund. Following are the details: Check whether rupee cost averaging method will prove beneficial to Mrs. Sudhakar. Date Amount Invested NAV January 1000 R. 10/- February 1000 Rs. 8/- March 1000 Rs. 12.50
    82. Rupee Cost Averaging Solution 24. Average cost per unit under the plan = 3000/305 = Rs. 9.84 Average NAV = (10 + 8 + 12.50)/3 = Rs. 10.17 Average of the three NAV’s is higher than the figure achieved through rupee-cost averaging. So, we can say that rupee-cost-averaging is beneficial to Investors. Date Amount Invested NAV Units Purchased January 1000 R. 10/- 100 February 1000 Rs. 8/- 125 March 1000 Rs. 12.50 80
    83. Thank You!

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