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Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1
 

Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1

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The history of Lutherans in colonial New Amsterdam, New Jersey and New Sweden

The history of Lutherans in colonial New Amsterdam, New Jersey and New Sweden

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    Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1 Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1 Presentation Transcript

    • Lutherans in Our Area A History 24 May 2009 Alana Coble
    • Early Lutherans In America
      • 1564 - The first Lutheran colony in America settled by the French near St. Augustine. Florida
      • 1619 - Danish vessels arrive in Hudson Bay in their attempt to get to India.
    • Lutherans in Two Colonies
      • New Sweden
        • Swedish / Finnish Lutherans
      • New Amsterdam
        • Dutch Lutherans
    • New Sweden
      • New South Company founded 1633
      • Peter Minuit made head of it
      Peter Minuit Queen Christina of Sweden
    • 1638 – New Sweden
      • Ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip sail into Delaware Bay
      • Trade was their purpose
      • Brought Lutheranism with them – built a small church
      • ~600 arrived the next year with the first Lutheran pastor, Rev. Reorus Torkillus
    • Swedish Colonies on the Delaware
      • Fort Christina (now Wilmington, DE)
      • Wicaco [Tinicum Island] (now Philadelphia)
      • Fort Trinity (now New Castle)
      • Fort Elfsborg (now Salem)
    • Life in New Sweden
      • First use of log cabins in new world
      • New Governor 1643 – Johann Printz
      • With him arrived Lutheran minister, John Campanius Holm
      Gov. Printz
    • John Campanius Holm (1601-1683)
      • First New Swedish church erected 1646
      • First U.S. weatherman: first observer to take systematic weather observations in the American Colonies.
      • Translated catechism into Leni-Lenape (after return to Sweden 1648)
    • 1655 – end of New Sweden
      • Peter Stuyvesant takes over
      • 1664 – English take over from Dutch (as in New Amsterdam to north)
    • Lutherans in New Amsterdam
      • Among first Dutch settlers in New Amsterdam (Father Isaac Jogues report, 1643)
      • 1648: requested a pastor from Amsterdam (that congregation is now St. Matthew’s NY. Oldest existing Lutheran parish in US)
      • First congregation in 1649 - but no pastor!
      • Finally, Johann Ernst Gutwasser, July 1657
        • Dutch Reformed church protested; Gutwasser arrested several times, forced to leave June 19,1659
        • First ordered to leave: “1658, May 20th. Lutheran minister and some bad women sent back to Holland."
    • New Amsterdam 1660
    • Lutherans in New Amsterdam & New York
      • Lutheranism allowed in private homes by Dutch & English
      • 1660 - 1662: Swedish Lutheran pastors from Delaware, Lars Lock and Abelius Zetskoorn, served congregation.
      • 1664 – British take over
      • Dec 6, 1664: First Lutheran Church chartered by first British Governor, Richard Nicolls.
      • Still no building
    • Trouble with Pastors
      • 1669 – Jakob Fabritius arrives to serve New York & Albany - dismissed because of “despotic and irascible nature” – also drinking and dressing children in red – moved to Delaware 1671
    • New Amsterdam 1673
    • Progress
      • 1671 – first permanent minister, Bernardus Arensius, served for 20 years (also serves Albany Lutherans)
      • 1671 – 1 st church building (4 th church bldg in Manhattan) - demolished 1673, rebuilt 1676 as Trinity Lutheran (wooden) southwest corner of Rector Street and Broadway.
      • 1691 – Arensius dies, no pastor till Andrew Rudman in 1701.
      • 1695 – 30 Dutch Lutheran families – out of 6,000 people
    • Trinity Lutheran Church, 1695
    • First Lutheran Ordained in America
      • November 24, 1703 - Justus Falckner ordained by Rudman in Gloria Dei (Old Swedes’) Church, Philadelphia becomes Pastor for New York and Albany, serves till death in 1723
    • Justus Falckner (1672-1723)
      • Pastor, evangelizer, writer, composer, "a man of excellent gifts, of fine acquirements, of lovely temper and of fervent disposition."
    • Falckner’s Territory
      • From Albany to Philadelphia (over 240 miles apart) – travelled some 1200 miles a year
      • Ministered to a diverse flock, including African and Native Americans, Swedes, Dutch and Germans
      • Wrote textbook
      • Spread Lutheranism in area
    • Zion Lutheran Church
      • 1705, Lutheran service at the home of freed slaves Aree and Jora von Guinea (origin of Zion Church in Oldwick, NJ, founded in 1714, the state's oldest continuing Lutheran congregation.)
    • From Swedish to English
      • New Sweden was diverse to begin with
      • Pastors spoke Swedish, English and German
      • 1697 – Church of Sweden restores relations with Delaware congregations, sends 21 ministers through 1776
      • But many parish vacancies, e.g., Swedesboro (21 years on and off 1703-1749)
      • By 1742, English services become common
      • Last Swedish minister, Nicholas Collin, arrived 1770
    • From Dutch to German
      • Palatinate German Lutherans becoming more numerous in area (1708 – 1722)
      • 1742 – German Lutherans in NYC request German-language services
      • Conflict between Dutch Lutherans and new German Lutherans
      • 1767 - Germans built Christ Church on Frankfort Street (a/k/a Old Swamp Church)
    • Old Swamp Church (Christ’s Church) 1767-1850
    • From Dutch to German
      • More Germans arrived in Hudson Valley
      • Peter N. Sommer 1743 – west of Albany
      • John Christopher Hartwick 1746 – Rhinebeck
      • Between 1703 – 1787 in area – over 31 pastors – all German
      • November 1771 – Dutch used for last time in NYC’s Trinity Church
    • Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711-1787)
      • Arrived in Pennsylvania 1742
      • Started at Trappe, with Augustus Lutheran Church
      • 1748 – called together the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, first permanent synod
    • Muhlenberg’s accomplishments
      • Muhlenberg first asked to mediate in NYC 1745
      • Goes to NY 1751-1753 to reconcile factions, writes English translation of Augsburg Confession
      • 1760 – NY congregations join Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States
    • Patriarch of American Lutheranism
      • Established training for new pastors,
      • Developed liturgy of 1748, and common Lutheran Service Hymnal
      • Travelled extensively (NY to Georgia), mediated in disputes
      • Introduced constitutional provisions in congregations that eased transition to “free church” model
      Old Trappe Church Muhlenberg House
    • German Lutherans in 1790 Estimated. Because of the dispersal of people among farmland and wilderness, it was hard to get a true count. 191 18 25 # of churches 65,000 Pennsylvania 8,000 New Jersey 10,000 New York # of Lutherans