Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1


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The history of Lutherans in colonial New Amsterdam, New Jersey and New Sweden

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Lutherans In NJ/NY/PA - Part 1

  1. 1. Lutherans in Our Area A History 24 May 2009 Alana Coble
  2. 2. Early Lutherans In America <ul><li>1564 - The first Lutheran colony in America settled by the French near St. Augustine. Florida </li></ul><ul><li>1619 - Danish vessels arrive in Hudson Bay in their attempt to get to India. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Lutherans in Two Colonies <ul><li>New Sweden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swedish / Finnish Lutherans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch Lutherans </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. New Sweden <ul><li>New South Company founded 1633 </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Minuit made head of it </li></ul>Peter Minuit Queen Christina of Sweden
  5. 5. 1638 – New Sweden <ul><li>Ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip sail into Delaware Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was their purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Brought Lutheranism with them – built a small church </li></ul><ul><li>~600 arrived the next year with the first Lutheran pastor, Rev. Reorus Torkillus </li></ul>
  6. 6. Swedish Colonies on the Delaware <ul><li>Fort Christina (now Wilmington, DE) </li></ul><ul><li>Wicaco [Tinicum Island] (now Philadelphia) </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Trinity (now New Castle) </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Elfsborg (now Salem) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Life in New Sweden <ul><li>First use of log cabins in new world </li></ul><ul><li>New Governor 1643 – Johann Printz </li></ul><ul><li>With him arrived Lutheran minister, John Campanius Holm </li></ul>Gov. Printz
  8. 8. John Campanius Holm (1601-1683) <ul><li>First New Swedish church erected 1646 </li></ul><ul><li>First U.S. weatherman: first observer to take systematic weather observations in the American Colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Translated catechism into Leni-Lenape (after return to Sweden 1648) </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1655 – end of New Sweden <ul><li>Peter Stuyvesant takes over </li></ul><ul><li>1664 – English take over from Dutch (as in New Amsterdam to north) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Lutherans in New Amsterdam <ul><li>Among first Dutch settlers in New Amsterdam (Father Isaac Jogues report, 1643) </li></ul><ul><li>1648: requested a pastor from Amsterdam (that congregation is now St. Matthew’s NY. Oldest existing Lutheran parish in US) </li></ul><ul><li>First congregation in 1649 - but no pastor! </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, Johann Ernst Gutwasser, July 1657 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch Reformed church protested; Gutwasser arrested several times, forced to leave June 19,1659 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First ordered to leave: “1658, May 20th. Lutheran minister and some bad women sent back to Holland.&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. New Amsterdam 1660
  12. 12. Lutherans in New Amsterdam & New York <ul><li>Lutheranism allowed in private homes by Dutch & English </li></ul><ul><li>1660 - 1662: Swedish Lutheran pastors from Delaware, Lars Lock and Abelius Zetskoorn, served congregation. </li></ul><ul><li>1664 – British take over </li></ul><ul><li>Dec 6, 1664: First Lutheran Church chartered by first British Governor, Richard Nicolls. </li></ul><ul><li>Still no building </li></ul>
  13. 13. Trouble with Pastors <ul><li>1669 – Jakob Fabritius arrives to serve New York & Albany - dismissed because of “despotic and irascible nature” – also drinking and dressing children in red – moved to Delaware 1671 </li></ul>
  14. 14. New Amsterdam 1673
  15. 15. Progress <ul><li>1671 – first permanent minister, Bernardus Arensius, served for 20 years (also serves Albany Lutherans) </li></ul><ul><li>1671 – 1 st church building (4 th church bldg in Manhattan) - demolished 1673, rebuilt 1676 as Trinity Lutheran (wooden) southwest corner of Rector Street and Broadway. </li></ul><ul><li>1691 – Arensius dies, no pastor till Andrew Rudman in 1701. </li></ul><ul><li>1695 – 30 Dutch Lutheran families – out of 6,000 people </li></ul>
  16. 16. Trinity Lutheran Church, 1695
  17. 17. First Lutheran Ordained in America <ul><li>November 24, 1703 - Justus Falckner ordained by Rudman in Gloria Dei (Old Swedes’) Church, Philadelphia becomes Pastor for New York and Albany, serves till death in 1723 </li></ul>
  18. 18. Justus Falckner (1672-1723) <ul><li>Pastor, evangelizer, writer, composer, &quot;a man of excellent gifts, of fine acquirements, of lovely temper and of fervent disposition.&quot; </li></ul>
  19. 19. Falckner’s Territory <ul><li>From Albany to Philadelphia (over 240 miles apart) – travelled some 1200 miles a year </li></ul><ul><li>Ministered to a diverse flock, including African and Native Americans, Swedes, Dutch and Germans </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote textbook </li></ul><ul><li>Spread Lutheranism in area </li></ul>
  20. 20. Zion Lutheran Church <ul><li>1705, Lutheran service at the home of freed slaves Aree and Jora von Guinea (origin of Zion Church in Oldwick, NJ, founded in 1714, the state's oldest continuing Lutheran congregation.) </li></ul>
  21. 21. From Swedish to English <ul><li>New Sweden was diverse to begin with </li></ul><ul><li>Pastors spoke Swedish, English and German </li></ul><ul><li>1697 – Church of Sweden restores relations with Delaware congregations, sends 21 ministers through 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>But many parish vacancies, e.g., Swedesboro (21 years on and off 1703-1749) </li></ul><ul><li>By 1742, English services become common </li></ul><ul><li>Last Swedish minister, Nicholas Collin, arrived 1770 </li></ul>
  22. 22. From Dutch to German <ul><li>Palatinate German Lutherans becoming more numerous in area (1708 – 1722) </li></ul><ul><li>1742 – German Lutherans in NYC request German-language services </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict between Dutch Lutherans and new German Lutherans </li></ul><ul><li>1767 - Germans built Christ Church on Frankfort Street (a/k/a Old Swamp Church) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Old Swamp Church (Christ’s Church) 1767-1850
  24. 24. From Dutch to German <ul><li>More Germans arrived in Hudson Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Peter N. Sommer 1743 – west of Albany </li></ul><ul><li>John Christopher Hartwick 1746 – Rhinebeck </li></ul><ul><li>Between 1703 – 1787 in area – over 31 pastors – all German </li></ul><ul><li>November 1771 – Dutch used for last time in NYC’s Trinity Church </li></ul>
  25. 25. Henry Melchior Muhlenberg (1711-1787) <ul><li>Arrived in Pennsylvania 1742 </li></ul><ul><li>Started at Trappe, with Augustus Lutheran Church </li></ul><ul><li>1748 – called together the Ministerium of Pennsylvania, first permanent synod </li></ul>
  26. 26. Muhlenberg’s accomplishments <ul><li>Muhlenberg first asked to mediate in NYC 1745 </li></ul><ul><li>Goes to NY 1751-1753 to reconcile factions, writes English translation of Augsburg Confession </li></ul><ul><li>1760 – NY congregations join Ministerium of Pennsylvania and Adjacent States </li></ul>
  27. 27. Patriarch of American Lutheranism <ul><li>Established training for new pastors, </li></ul><ul><li>Developed liturgy of 1748, and common Lutheran Service Hymnal </li></ul><ul><li>Travelled extensively (NY to Georgia), mediated in disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced constitutional provisions in congregations that eased transition to “free church” model </li></ul>Old Trappe Church Muhlenberg House
  28. 28. German Lutherans in 1790 Estimated. Because of the dispersal of people among farmland and wilderness, it was hard to get a true count. 191 18 25 # of churches 65,000 Pennsylvania 8,000 New Jersey 10,000 New York # of Lutherans