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Changing Donor Priorities and Strategies for Agricultural R&D in Developing Countries:  Evidence From Africa
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Changing Donor Priorities and Strategies for Agricultural R&D in Developing Countries: Evidence From Africa

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By David J. Spielman, Fatima Zaidi, and Kathleen Flaherty. Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - …

By David J. Spielman, Fatima Zaidi, and Kathleen Flaherty. Presented at the ASTI-FARA conference Agricultural R&D: Investing in Africa's Future: Analyzing Trends, Challenges, and Opportunities - Accra, Ghana on December 5-7, 2011. http://www.asti.cgiar.org/2011conf

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  • 1. Changing Donor Priorities and StrategiesFor Agricultural R&D in Developing Countries: Evidence From Africa David J. Spielman, Fatima Zaidi, and Kathleen Flaherty International Food Policy Research Institute
  • 2. A stylized history of agricultural R&D funding• The “good old days” – late 1960s to early 1980s• The “lean years” – mid 1980s to early 2000s • Loss of faith • Loss of patience • Project completion • Regionalization • Competition • ComplacencyINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 3. Donor commitments to agricultural development and public spending agricultural R&D, Sub-Saharan Africa, 1973-2009 8,000 25 DAC countries’ commitments to agriculture 7,000 20Constant (2007) US$m Constant (2005) US$m 6,000 Agricultural R&D spending in Sub-Saharan Africa 5,000 15 4,000 10 3,000 2,000 5 Multilateral agencies’ countries’ commitments to agriculture 1,000 0 0 1973 1978 1983 1988 1993 1998 2003 2008 Source: Authors, based on data from OECD (2011) and Beintema and Stads (2011)
  • 4. A stylized history of agricultural R&D funding• The “good old days” – late 1960s to early 1980s• The “lean years” – mid 1980s to early 2000s • Loss of faith • Loss of patience • Project completion • Regionalization • Competition • Complacency• The “renewal years” – early 2000s to presentINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 5. Donor commitments and public spending on agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1997-2009 80 800 Constant (2005) US$mConstant (2009) US$m 70 700 60 600 50 500 40 400 30 300 20 200 10 100 0 0 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 DAC country assistance to agricultural research excluding France (3-year moving average) Multilateral donor assistance to agricultural research (3-year moving average) Public expenditures on agricultural research in Sub-Saharan Africa (3-year moving average) Source: Authors, based on data from OECD (2011) and Beintema and Stads (2011)
  • 6. Renewed commitments to agriculture• 2000 • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)• 2001 • New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)• 2003 • Maputo Declaration  Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Program (CAADP)• 2006 • Framework for African Agricultural Productivity (FAAP)INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 7. % 12 14 16 18 10 0 2 4 6 8 Angola Benin Botswana Burkina Faso Burundi CAR Chad DRC Cote dIvoire Djibouti Gambia Ghana Guinea Guinea-Bissau Kenya Lesotho Liberia Madagascar Malawi Mali Mozambique Namibia Niger Nigeria Senegal Seychelles Sudan Swaziland Tanzania budgetary expenditure, selected countries, 2007 Togo Public expenditure on agriculture as a share of total Uganda Zambia ZimbabweSource: Fan (2009), IFPRI RESAKSS (2011).
  • 8. New donor landscape (1)• 2005 • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) enters agricultural development spaceINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 9. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation funding for agricultural development and agricultural research, 2003-2011 2,000 1,822 1,800 1,600Number, US$ million 1,400 1,200 1,142 1,000 800 642 600 400 269 200 152 80 0 Agricultural development Agricultural development Agricultural R&D in Africa in Africa Grants (no.) Grants (US$ million) INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE Source: Authors, based on data from BMGF (2010).
  • 10. New donor landscape (1)• 2005 • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) enters agricultural development space• 2006 • BMGF and Rockefeller Foundation fund the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA)• 2007-09 • World Bank agricultural productivity programs (EAPP, WEAPP)INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 11. International commodity prices, major staples, 2005-2011 0.80 Maize Wheat Rice 0.60US$/kg 0.40 0.20 0.00 Jul-05 Jul-06 Jul-07 Jul-08 Jul-09 Jul-10 Jul-11 Source: Fan (2011), based on data from FAO (2011)
  • 12. Renewed donor commitments• 2008 • US Global Hunger and Food Security Initiative (GHFSI)• 2009 • L’Aquila Summit  Global Agriculture & Food Security Program (GAFSP)  US Feed the Future (FTF) Initiative  Increase in European commitments to agricultureINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 13. New priorities and strategies?• Strengthen the international agricultural research system • Reform CGIAR governance and management • Increase funding for critical researchINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 14. Donor funding to the CGIAR, 1980-2010 BMGF 3,000 Netherlands Switzerland 2,500 EC Japan 2,000 DenmarkUS$ millions Netherlands UK Switzerland EC Germany 1,500 Italy Japan Canada Switzerland EC Japan UK UNDP Germany 1,000 UK IADB Canada World Bank Germany Canada World Bank 500 World Bank USA USA USA 0 1980-1989 1990-1999 2000-2010 Source: CGIAR (2011)
  • 15. New priorities and strategies?• Strengthen the international agricultural research system • Reform CGIAR governance and management • Increase funding for critical research• Strengthen regional and sub-regional organizations • FARA, ASARECA, CORAF, SADC • EAAPP, WEAAPP• Cultivate private sector investment • Crop-science, agri-food industries• Open the doors for new donors • Brazil, India, China?INTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 16. Discussion• Diversification of donors, priorities, strategies • Accompanied by greater donor coordination?• Greater recognition of need for policy reform? • Reallocation of funding from R&D projects to institution building?• Greater interest in donor funding to private sector? • Will donor constituents give support?• Sufficient recipient country voice in donor programs? • NEPAD, CAADP √ ; other donor investments √−• Sufficient absorptive capacity in recipient countries? • Risks of replicating past failuresINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE
  • 17. Thank youINTERNATIONAL FOOD POLICY RESEARCH INSTITUTE