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Tracking Agricultural R&D Investmentand Staffing Trends around the WorldGert-Jan StadsASTI Program Coordinator | Internati...
Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Trans...
Why Invest in Agricultural R&D?• By 2050, the world will need to feed 9–10 billion people,in the face of:– Changing climat...
Why Invest in Agricultural R&D?• Extensive empirical evidence that ARD investments havegreatly contributed to agricultural...
Importance of agricultural R&D indicators (1)• Agricultural R&D is a long-term commitment requiring sufficientand sustaine...
Importance of agricultural R&D indicators (2)Monitoring,evaluation &priority settingData &StatisticsResearch& PolicyAnalys...
Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Trans...
Objectives of the ASTI program• ASTI compiles, processes, and publicizes data oninstitutional developments, investments, a...
ASTI Methodology• ASTI data collected based on internationally accepteddefinitions and statistical procedures for compilin...
Portfolio of ASTI Data at Country Level• Institutional arrangements and changes affectingagricultural R&D• R&D spending ti...
Current ASTI Outputs• Country notes• Regional and subregional reports• Downloadable datasets• Analytical assessments• Coun...
ASTI’s Impact to Date• National partner institutions have widely used ASTI data toadvocate for increased funding to agricu...
• Need to establish an institutionalized data collection system atregular intervals• Need to expand geographical coverage•...
Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Trans...
Spending in Brazil, China, and India, 2009
0.00.51.01.52.01971197519791983198719911995199920032007SSAAgriculturalR&Dspending(biilion2005PPP$)• Growth driven by onlya...
Africa’s investment challenge: Underinvestment• Common target: Allocation of at least 1 % of GDP to R&D• In 2008, Africa s...
Africa’s investment challenge: volatility01102203304401981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005012341991 1994 1997 2000 2003 2006...
020406080100GuineaEritreaUgandaMadagascarBurkinaFasoNigerMaliBeninTanzaniaBurundiSenegalMauritaniaKenyaGambiaTogoZambiaCôt...
Africa’s human capacity challenges• Many countries face rapidly aging pools of scientists dueto public sector recruitment ...
Latin America: Declining role of INIAs
Cross-country diversity in LAC: R&D intensity
Cross-country diversity in LAC: Qualifications
Cross-country diversity in LAC: R&D funding
Colombia: 2007/08 ASTI study7 government agencies/units: the Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (CORPOIC...
Colombia: Results from 2007/08 ASTI study• Stable R&D capacity• Relative role of CORPOICAdeclining• Gradual decline in R&D...
Colombia: (In)congruence between R&D andproduction value, 2006
Colombia: Macro-study July 2012• To estimate the trend of Colombian agricultural R&Dstaffing and expenditures for GCARD201...
Colombia: Macro-study July 20122005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010CORPOICA 298 273 250 265 261 278CENICAFE 161 170 85 88 91 92CE...
Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Trans...
2012—2014: Expansion of activities in Sub-Saharan Africa and South AsiaIncreased BMGF funding for ASTIactivities in Sub-Sa...
Enhance country participation and ownership• Establish longer termpartnerships with nationalinstitutions• Develop a networ...
Expansion of ASTI’s core set of indicators• Adapt surveys to caterfor specific needs atcountry level• ASTI’s core activiti...
Similar plans for LAC• Move from an ad-hoc data collection to a sustainableand institutionalized monitoring system with fr...
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Tracking Agricultural R&D Investment and Staffing Trends around the World

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By Gert-Jan Stads, ASTI Program Coordinator, International Food Policy Research Institute. Presentation given at ASTI seminar at CIAT, Cali, Colombia, August 27, 2012

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Tracking Agricultural R&D Investment and Staffing Trends around the World

  1. 1. Tracking Agricultural R&D Investmentand Staffing Trends around the WorldGert-Jan StadsASTI Program Coordinator | International Food Policy Research InstituteASTI seminar at CIATCali | 27 August 2012
  2. 2. Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Transforming ASTI to a sustainable andinstitutionalized system
  3. 3. Why Invest in Agricultural R&D?• By 2050, the world will need to feed 9–10 billion people,in the face of:– Changing climate– Competing demands for land and labor– Competing demands for biofuels– Co-evolving pests and diseases• Crucial that agricultural productivity is increased• Conduct enough of the right types of agricultural R&Dand get the resulted innovations adopted soon enough tomeet the farm productivity challenge.
  4. 4. Why Invest in Agricultural R&D?• Extensive empirical evidence that ARD investments havegreatly contributed to agricultural development,economic growth, and poverty reduction (World DevelopmentReport 2008; International Assessment for Agricultural S&T for Development 2010)• Despite the well-documented evidence that the payoffsto ARD are considerable, many countries continue tounderinvest in agricultural research.• The time lag between research investment and themoment when the research rewards can be reaped issubstantial: typically decades, not years.
  5. 5. Importance of agricultural R&D indicators (1)• Agricultural R&D is a long-term commitment requiring sufficientand sustained funding for well-functioning R&D agencies.• Stakeholders need to be able to identify trends in agriculturalR&D investments and capacity, as well as gaps and neglectedareas to set future investment priorities, and to bettercoordinate and harmonize research.• R&D indicators are essential to measure, monitor, andbenchmark the inputs, outputs, and performance of agriculturalR&D systems• Key to understanding the contribution of agricultural R&D toagricultural productivity growth and economic growth.
  6. 6. Importance of agricultural R&D indicators (2)Monitoring,evaluation &priority settingData &StatisticsResearch& PolicyAnalysisDeliberation,negotiation &policy selectionImple-mentation“You can’tmanagewhat youdon’tmeasure.”R&D indicators assist researchmanagers and policymakers informulating policy and makingdecisions about strategic planning,priority setting, and M&E
  7. 7. Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Transforming ASTI to a sustainable andinstitutionalized system
  8. 8. Objectives of the ASTI program• ASTI compiles, processes, and publicizes data oninstitutional developments, investments, and humancapacity trends in agricultural R&D in developingcountries worldwide• Led by IFPRI• Collaborative network consisting of a large number ofnational, regional, and international partners• First-hand data collection on institutional basis• Covering government, higher education, nonprofit (andprivate for-profit) R&D agencies• Focus is mainly on input indicators (for now)
  9. 9. ASTI Methodology• ASTI data collected based on internationally accepteddefinitions and statistical procedures for compiling S&Tstatistics (OECD’s Frascati Manual)• This facilitates comparisons of ASTI datasets with otherrelevant S&T datasets• FAO definition of agriculture: crops, livestock, forestry,fisheries, natural resources, etc.• Aim is to provide:• Trends over time• Comparable information across countries and regions
  10. 10. Portfolio of ASTI Data at Country Level• Institutional arrangements and changes affectingagricultural R&D• R&D spending time series data by cost category• R&D funding time series data by funding source• Time series data on researchers and support staff bydegree, gender, and age• Research focus data by commodity and thematic area
  11. 11. Current ASTI Outputs• Country notes• Regional and subregional reports• Downloadable datasets• Analytical assessments• Country/regional/other seminars andpresentations• Press releases/media outreach events• ASTI website (www.asti.cgiar.org)
  12. 12. ASTI’s Impact to Date• National partner institutions have widely used ASTI data toadvocate for increased funding to agricultural R&D, the hiring of(women) researchers, raising the retirement age of researchstaff, etc.• Participation in the ASTI survey has prompted improved datacollection and management of ASTI-type indicators at a largenumber of institutions.• Donors and international organizations such as the World Bankhave used ASTI data for decisionmaking in and analysis offunding for agricultural R&D.• ASTI data cited frequently in influential policy documents (e.g.Report of the Secretary General on Agricultural Technology forDevelopment )
  13. 13. • Need to establish an institutionalized data collection system atregular intervals• Need to expand geographical coverage• Need to improve private sector coverage• Need to expand analysis beyond the descriptive examination ofnational and regional capacity and investment trends.• Focused on input indicators, not output, performance, andoutcome indicators; covering research not the agriculturalinnovation field.• Building the capacity to improve long-term sustainability of ASTI,and increase the reach, advocacy, and policy relevance of thedataASTI’s Challenges
  14. 14. Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Transforming ASTI to a sustainable andinstitutionalized system
  15. 15. Spending in Brazil, China, and India, 2009
  16. 16. 0.00.51.01.52.01971197519791983198719911995199920032007SSAAgriculturalR&Dspending(biilion2005PPP$)• Growth driven by onlya few countries• Growth not alwayssustainable• Region-wide growthmasks severe declinesin many other (mainlyfrancophone WestAfrican) countriesAfrica’s investment challenge: Uneven growth20% growth in SSA public agriculturalR&D spending, 2000-08
  17. 17. Africa’s investment challenge: Underinvestment• Common target: Allocation of at least 1 % of GDP to R&D• In 2008, Africa spent $0.61 for every $100 of AgGDP onagricultural R&D• Despite an overall increase in recent years, Africa is widelyunderinvesting in agricultural R&D
  18. 18. Africa’s investment challenge: volatility01102203304401981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005012341991 1994 1997 2000 2003 20060102030401981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 20050102030401981 1985 1989 1993 1997 2001 2005AgriculturalR&Dspending(miilion2005PPP$)Burkina FasoNigeriaGabonNiger• Agricultural R&D spending inAfrica has been more volatilethan in other regions• Volatility more pronounced indonor-dependent low-incomecountries• Stable and sustainablegovernment funding is key,not just towards salaries butalso to enable necessarynonsalary expenditures
  19. 19. 020406080100GuineaEritreaUgandaMadagascarBurkinaFasoNigerMaliBeninTanzaniaBurundiSenegalMauritaniaKenyaGambiaTogoZambiaCôtedIvoireNamibiaGhanaSouthAfricaBotswanaMauritiusShareintotalfunding,2001-08(%)Africa’s investment challenge: donor dependencyAverage donorshareSpread ofdonor share• Many countries areextremely dependenton donor funding anddevelopment bankloans• Donor funding isgenerally short-termand ad-hoc, adding tothe volatility• Increased fundingfrom World Bank(loans) in recent years
  20. 20. Africa’s human capacity challenges• Many countries face rapidly aging pools of scientists dueto public sector recruitment restrictions• Large influx of young BSc-qualified scientists after yearsof recruitment restrictions in some countries• High staff turnover / brain drain: Many researchers haveleft agencies due to low salaries and conditions of service• Limited in-country postgraduate training opportunities• Female scientists severely underrepresented• Small countries lack required critical mass of agriculturalR&D capacity
  21. 21. Latin America: Declining role of INIAs
  22. 22. Cross-country diversity in LAC: R&D intensity
  23. 23. Cross-country diversity in LAC: Qualifications
  24. 24. Cross-country diversity in LAC: R&D funding
  25. 25. Colombia: 2007/08 ASTI study7 government agencies/units: the Corporación Colombiana de Investigación Agropecuaria (CORPOICA), theInstituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales (IDEAM), the Instituto de Investigaciones Ambientales del Pacifico(IIAP), the Instituto de Investigaciones de Recursos Biológicos “Alexander von Humboldt” (IIBG), the Instituto de InvestigacionesMarinas y Costeras “José Benito Vives de Andréis” (INVEMAR), the Subgerencia de Pesca y Acuicultura of the InstitutoColombiano de Desarrollo Rural (INCODER), and the Instituto Amazónico de Investigaciones Científicas “SINCHI” (SINCHI);13 nonprofit agencies: Centro de Innovación de la Floricultura Colombiana (CENIFLORES), the Centro deInvestigación de la Acuicultura de Colombia (CENIACUA), the Centro de Investigaciones del Banano (CENIBANANO), the CentroNacional de Investigaciones de Café (CENICAFE), the Centro de Investigación de la Caña de Azúcar de Colombia (CENICAÑA), theCentro de Investigación en Palma Aceite (CENIPALMA), the Corporación Nacional de Investigación y Fomento Forestal (CONIF),the Federación Nacional de Arroceros (FEDEARROZ), the Federación Nacional de Cacaoteros (FEDECACAO), the Centro deDesarrollo Tecnológico de la Cadena Agroalimentaria de la Papa (CEVIPAPA), the Federación Nacional de Cultivadores deCereales (FENALCE), the Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios S.A. (VECOL), and the Centro para la Investigación enSistemas Sostenibles de Producción Agropecuaria (CIPAV);18 higher-education agencies/units: the Facultad de Agronomía, the Facultad de Medicina Veterinariay de Zootecnia, and the Instituto de Biotecnología under the Universidad Nacional de Colombia (UNC); the Facultad de CienciasAgropecuarias of UNC-Medellín; the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias of UNC-Palmira; the Centro de Investigaciones yAsesorías Agroindustriales of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano (UJTL), the Facultad de Ciencias Agrícolas and the Facultad deMedicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia under the Universidad de Córdoba; the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, theFacultad de Ingeniería Forestal, and the Facultad de Ingeniería Agronómica under the Universidad de Tolima; the Facultad deMedicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Fundación Universitaría San Martín; the Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y RecursosNaturales of the Universidad Tecnológica de Los Llanos, the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, the Facultad de Administración deEmpresas Agropecuarias, and the Facultad de Zootecnia under the Universidad de la Salle; the Departamento de Biología of theFacultad de Ciencias of the Universidad del Valle; and the Facultad de Ingeniería Agro-Industrial of the Universidad PontificiaBolivariana.
  26. 26. Colombia: Results from 2007/08 ASTI study• Stable R&D capacity• Relative role of CORPOICAdeclining• Gradual decline in R&Dspending• Intensity ratio of 0.50% in2006• Private sector playsimportant role in financingR&D
  27. 27. Colombia: (In)congruence between R&D andproduction value, 2006
  28. 28. Colombia: Macro-study July 2012• To estimate the trend of Colombian agricultural R&Dstaffing and expenditures for GCARD2012• Surveyed 4 government/nonprofit agencies• Surveyed 5 university faculties2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010CORPOICA 57.362 55.267 66.109 84.501 82.735 68.973CENICAFE 17.521 17.784 9.967 13.007 12.269 12.659CENIPALMA 5.901 6.351 7.459 11.247 12.654 12.448INVEMAR 10.835 13.388 6.573 6.666 7.937 7.197Total (4 institutes) 91.620 92.789 90.107 115.421 115.595 101.276(in million 2005 PPP dollars)
  29. 29. Colombia: Macro-study July 20122005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010CORPOICA 298 273 250 265 261 278CENICAFE 161 170 85 88 91 92CENIPALMA 43 49 46 58 74 101INVEMAR 67 72 75 76 79 78FA - Bogotá 11 12 13 13 13 13FMVZ - Bogotá 16 16 16 17 17 17Instituto de Biotecnología - Bogotá 5 5 5 5 5 5FA – Medellin 13 13 15 16 15 16FA – Palmira 10 12 11 12 12 12Total (9) 624 622 515 550 567 612(in full-time equivalents)
  30. 30. Outline presentation• Why track agricultural R&D indicators?• A short overview of ASTI• Some of ASTI’s key findings• Transforming ASTI to a sustainable andinstitutionalized system
  31. 31. 2012—2014: Expansion of activities in Sub-Saharan Africa and South AsiaIncreased BMGF funding for ASTIactivities in Sub-Saharan Africa andSouth Asia to:• Monitor investment and capacitytrends at frequent intervals• Allow for a more decentralizedand institutional approach of datacollection and analysis• Enhance the use of ASTI datasetsand outputs for analyticalpurposes• Achieve increased impact
  32. 32. Enhance country participation and ownership• Establish longer termpartnerships with nationalinstitutions• Develop a network of nationalfocal points• Organize implementation andtraining workshops• Develop an online datamanagement portal• Prepare manuals for surveyrespondents, data collectors,and output disseminators
  33. 33. Expansion of ASTI’s core set of indicators• Adapt surveys to caterfor specific needs atcountry level• ASTI’s core activities willnot be compromisedhorizontal expansion?performance/outputindicators, beyond R&Dvertical expansion?(deepening input indicators)combination?ASTI now:input indicators
  34. 34. Similar plans for LAC• Move from an ad-hoc data collection to a sustainableand institutionalized monitoring system with frequentupdates• Enhance data ownership and stimulate further advocacyand analysis at the national level• Intensify analysis of trends to make information morerelevant for policymakers and other stakeholders• Address the demand to measure the effectiveness ofagricultural R&D institutions as well• ASTI coordination office at CIAT• Funding constraints
  35. 35. THANK YOU

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