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Agricultural research investment and human capacity trends in Latin America and the Caribbean: New evidence

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-In order to feed a growing population and to address other challenges (including climate change and food price volatility), it is crucial that agricultural productivity is increased.
-Agricultural R&D is a major contributor to productivity growth, food security, and poverty reduction.
-Quantitative data are essential to analyze trends in agricultural R&D investments; identify gaps; set future investment priorities; and better coordinate agricultural R&D across institutes, regions, and commodities.
-R&D indicators are also an indispensable tool when assessing the contribution of agricultural R&D to agricultural growth and to economic growth more generally.

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Agricultural research investment and human capacity trends in Latin America and the Caribbean: New evidence

  1. 1. Agricultural research investment and human capacity trends in Latin America and the Caribbean: New evidence Inter-American Development Bank Washington, DC | April 27, 2016 Nienke Beintema ASTI Program Head, International Food Policy Research Institute AgriculturalScienceandTechnologyIndicators
  2. 2. Introduction
  3. 3. WhymonitoragriculturalR&Dresources?  In order to feed a growing population and to address other challenges (including climate change and food price volatility), it is crucial that agricultural productivity is increased.  Agricultural R&D is a major contributor to productivity growth, food security, and poverty reduction.  Quantitative data are essential to analyze trends in agricultural R&D investments; identify gaps; set future investment priorities; and better coordinate agricultural R&D across institutes, regions, and commodities.  R&D indicators are also an indispensable tool when assessing the contribution of agricultural R&D to agricultural growth and to economic growth more generally.
  4. 4. ASTI’sthreeprogrammaticcomponents DATA & INDICATORS ANALYSIS AND DIAGNOSTICS OUTREACH AND ADVOCACY
  5. 5. ASTIOUTPUTS ASTI outputs • Country factsheets • Regional and global reports • Datasets and online tools • Analytical assessments • Seminars and presentations • Various dissemination instruments • ASTI website (www.asti.cgiar.org) ASTI indicators • Institutional arrangements • R&D spending by cost category • Funding sources • R&D staff by degree, gender, and age • R&D focus by commodity and theme • Output indicators
  6. 6. LACsurveyround  Most complete coverage in ASTI’s history (27 countries):  South America excludes Suriname and Guyana  Central America excludes El Salvador  Caribbean excludes Cuba and Haiti  South America and Mexico funded by IDB, Brazil by Embrapa, Central America and Caribbean funded by Canada  Surveyed close to 700 government, higher education, and nonprofit agencies  Timeseries: total spending (by cost categories); funding (by source), total researchers (by degree)  Other indicators: 2012 for Central America and Carribbean / 2013 for South America and Mexico
  7. 7. Methodology  Collected data from who performs agricultural research, not who funds it (but funding sources were collected).  Human resource data were FTE-adjusted.  Financial data include salaries, operating, and capital costs.  Financial data are expressed in 2011 PPP dollars.  Collected quantitative and qualitative information.  Data results exclude private for-profit sector due to incomplete data.  Some quality concerns regarding research output data.
  8. 8. Overall trends
  9. 9. 0 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 0 1,500 3,000 4,500 6,000 1981 1986 1991 1996 2001 2006 2011 Totalnumberofresearchers(FTEs) Totalspending(million2011PPP dollars) Spending Researchers Longtermresearcherandspendingtrends  Since 2006, total spending and the number of researchers have increased by 37 and 20 percent, respectively. Brazil and Argentina accounted for most of this growth.
  10. 10. Dominanceof Argentina,Brazil,andMexico Total spending 0 6,000 12,000 18,000 24,000 1981 1991 2001 2013 Totalnumberofresearchers(FTEs) Argentina Brazil Mexico Other  The three countries accounted for a combined total of roughly 80 percent of the region’s spending and three- quarters of its agricultural researchers during 1981–2013. Total researchers 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.7 1.4 2.0 1.8 2.70.6 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.8 1.0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1981 1991 2001 2013 Researchspending (billion2011PPPdollars) 2.4 3.0 3.0 5.8 4.2 5.2 4.8 5.9 2.1 3.1 3.7 4.0 2.7 3.7 4.2 4.9 0 6 12 18 24 1981 1991 2001 2013 Totalnumberofresearchers (thousandFTEs)
  11. 11. InstitutionaldistributionofagriculturalR&D  The government sector dominates agricultural R&D in more than half of the region’s countries, but the higher education sector has become a major player in a number of countries. 88 83 75 73 71 67 61 58 54 52 51 50 40 39 34 28 26 24 12 16 24 14 26 24 34 42 28 19 48 50 20 61 66 41 48 30 14 10 18 29 39 31 27 45 0 20 40 60 80 100 Panama Venezuela DominicanRep. Ecuador Brazil Chile Nicaragua Paraguay Guatemala Angl.Caribbean Uruguay Argentina Colombia Mexico Peru Bolivia CostaRica Honduras ShareoftotalFTEresearcjers(%) Government Higher education Nonprofit
  12. 12. Financial resources
  13. 13. 1.82 1.65 1.60 1.40 1.29 1.06 1.05 0.93 0.79 0.74 0.38 0.35 0.31 0.30 0.26 0.18 0.17 0.14 1.10 1.15 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Brazil Chile Angl.Caribbean Uruguay Argentina CostaRica Mexico Bolivia Colombia Panama Nicaragua Peru Venezuela DominicanRep. Paraguay Ecuador Honduras Guatemala LAC,2006 LAC,2013 AgriculturalR&Dspending asashareofAgGDP(%) AgriculturalR&Dspendingintensity  Eight countries fall on the low end of the spectrum, spending 0.4 percent or less of their AgGDP on agricultural R&D. Many of the Southern Cone countries invest more than 1.0 percent. > 1.0 < 0.4
  14. 14. Spendingallocation,NARIs(2009–2013average)  For most of the NARIs, salaries and related expenses account for the bulk of agricultural R&D costs. 86 79 78 78 75 72 72 69 62 54 54 51 51 49 42 42 12 10 16 18 22 23 18 23 27 38 39 35 45 35 45 11 38 37 11 11 14 47 20 51 0 20 40 60 80 100 Colombia(Corpoica) Argentina(INTA) Paraguay(IPTA) Honduras(DICTA) Guatemala(ICTA) Brazil(Embrapa) CostaRica(INTA) DominicanRep.(IDIAF) Panama(IDIAP) Mexico(INIFAP) Chile(INIA) Angl.Caribbean(CARDI) Uruguay(INIA) Ecuador(IDIAP) Venezuela(INIA) Peru(INIA) Bolivia(INIAF) Shareoftotalspending(%) Salaries Operating and program costs Capital investments
  15. 15. Fundingsources,NARIs(2009–2013average)  Government contributions remain the main source of funding for most NARIs, although many NARIs receive considerable funding through other sources. 97 97 94 94 93 90 89 84 76 74 70 60 58 57 55 43 28 14 35 51 41 10 24 13 30 22 30 37 12 2117 13 0 20 40 60 80 100 Brazil(Embrapa) CostaRica(INTA) Argentina(INTA) Panama(IDIAP) Honduras(DICTA) DominicanRep.(IDIAF) Colombia(Corpoica) Mexico(INIFAP) Ecuador(IDIAP) Peru(INIA) Paraguay(IPTA) Chile(INIA) Angl.Caribbean(CARDI) Venezuela(INIA) Guatemala(ICTA) Uruguay(INIA) Bolivia(INIAF) Shareoftotalfunding(%) Government Donors/development banks Commodity levies Sale goods/services Other
  16. 16. Human resources
  17. 17. Degreequalification ofagriculturalresearchers 73 47 37 26 23 21 17 16 14 13 11 10 10 10 9 8 6 5 21 35 20 32 34 18 41 42 41 46 35 51 46 26 42 36 19 25 6 18 43 42 44 61 42 41 45 40 54 39 44 64 49 56 76 69 0 20 40 60 80 100 Brazil Mexico Chile Uruguay Colombia Argentina Angl.Caribbean Venezuela CostaRica Peru Bolivia DominicanRep. Ecuador Guatemala Nicaragua Panama Honduras Paraguay ShareoftotalFTEresearchers(%) PhD MSc BSc  Brazil and Mexico employed more than 70 percent of the region’s total researchers with PhDs. Many other countries lack the critical mass of PhD-qualified researchers.
  18. 18. Femaleparticipation  The overall share of female agricultural researchers is higher in LAC than in other developing regions. No gap in qualification levels is apparent between females and males. 48 45 41 37 37 36 34 33 32 30 25 24 20 20 18 18 14 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Shareoftotal FTEresearchers(%) 50 50 40 31 39 31 35 24 24 23 24 12 61 6 20 15 5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Brazil Chile Angl.Caribbean Uruguay Argentina CostaRica Mexico Bolivia Colombia Panama Nicaragua Peru Venezuela DominicanRep. Paraguay Ecuador Honduras ShareoftotalFTEresearchers holdingPHddegrees(%)
  19. 19. Agedistributionofresearchstaff 10 10 12 11 12 24 11 17 18 13 14 17 25 18 18 29 30 17 27 20 34 30 31 43 18 22 24 31 32 29 36 38 24 24 38 28 42 27 31 19 2346 43 49 34 36 28 39 30 25 25 31 28 26 18 25 18 19 10 12 19 16 10 14 11 12 0 20 40 60 80 100 Panama Mexico CostaRica Peru DominicanRep. Brazil Guatemala Venezuela Argentina Uruguay Nicaragua Honduras Bolivia Chile Paraguay Colombia Ecuador ShareoftotalFTEresearchers(%) <31 31–40 41–50 51–60 >60  Overall, 40 percent of the region’s agricultural researchers are in their 50s or 60s.
  20. 20. AgingofPhD-holders 77 74 71 63 61 58 55 55 50 49 49 46 39 38 35 35 25 0 20 40 60 80 100 Peru Guatemala Panama CostaRica Mexico Venezuela Honduras DominicanRep. Nicaragua Bolivia Colombia Argentina Brazil Uruguay Ecuador Chile Paraguay Shareofresearchersolder than50yearsofage(%)  Fifty-five percent of the country’s remaining researchers with PhD degrees are currently in their 50s and are set to retire in the short to medium term.
  21. 21. Commodityfocus 84 74 74 71 70 69 69 66 61 60 55 51 49 48 43 42 42 28 12 21 10 22 10 15 12 27 20 17 21 20 30 22 18 12 16 11 14 15 20 12 18 10 18 18 25 21 22 26 32 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ecuador Bolivia DominicanRep. Honduras Guatemala Paraguay Brazil Nicaragua Panama Colombia CostaRica Chile Angl.Caribbean Venezuela Mexico Argentina Peru Uruguay ShareoftotalFTEresearchers(%) Crops Livestock Natural resources Fisheries Other  In most countries, more than half of all FTE researchers conducted crop research, followed by livestock research.
  22. 22. Concluding remarks
  23. 23. Conclusion  Agricultural research spending and researcher capacity in LAC have grown progressively in recent years.  But there are considerable differences across countries:  Brazil outperforms every other country with its highly qualified research staff and world class research infrastructure/outputs.  Argentina, Colombia, Costa Rica, Mexico, and Uruguay also have relatively well-developed agricultural research systems.  Many other countries (Central American countries, Caribbean island nations, and poorer Andean countries) have fallen behind in terms of infrastructure, investment levels, and capacity.
  24. 24. Policyimplications  Given the critical role of agricultural research in addressing climate change, persisting rural poverty and other challenges, stable and sustainable levels of funding are key.  Governments will also need to provide the necessary policy environment to stimulate cooperation among their countries’ agricultural R&D agencies.  Further integration of R&D at the regional level is indispensable too.  Given the immense diversity of the region’s countries as well as the large differences in the quality of agricultural research systems across countries, the implications for potential policy interventions differ broadly by country.
  25. 25. Thank you www.asti.cgiar.org www.asti.cgiar.org/es

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