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Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa:Investment and capacity challengesGert-Jan StadsASTI program coordinator | Internat...
Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI)• Institutional, investment andstaffing data on agricultural R&D:– Fo...
ASTI Indicators and OutputsASTI outputs:• Country notes• Regional and subregional reports• Downloadable datasets• Analytic...
Global Public Agricultural R&D Spending, 2008
Global Public Agricultural R&D Spending, 2008
Global Private Agricultural R&D Spending• Most private-sector R&D was undertaken by companies inOECD countries;• Evidence ...
CGIAR Spending, 1981-2011After more than a decade of stagnation, R&D spendingby the CGIAR has accelerated since 2006Inbill...
ASTI’s Findings in Sub-Saharan Africa• Investment Trends• Human Capacity Trends• Institutional Developments• Future Direct...
ASTI activities in Africa• 2009/10 data collection round:– In close collaboration with SROs andnational focal points– Cove...
Public agricultural R&D Spending in SSA, 2008• In 2008, spendingtotaled $1.7 billion (in2005 PPP prices)• Total includes s...
0.00.51.01.52.01971197519791983198719911995199920032007SSAAgriculturalR&Dspending(biilion2005PPP$)• 22% growth in 2001–08•...
Investment challenge: Uneven growth• 2001–08 marked by spending decline in 13 countries (7of which in francophone West Afr...
Investment challenge: Underinvestment• Common target: Allocation of at least 1% of GDP to R&D• In 2008, Africa spent $0.61...
Investment challenge: Volatility010203040024681981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008Billion2005CFAfrancsBurkina...
Investment challenge: Volatility• Annual agricultural R&D spending in Africa has beenconsiderably more volatile than in ot...
Donor2008
020406080100GuineaEritreaUgandaMadagascarBurkinaFasoNigerMaliBeninTanzaniaBurundiSenegalMauritaniaKenyaGambiaTogoZambiaCôt...
Public agricultural R&D staff in SSA, 2008• More than 12,000FTE researchers in2008• Total includesgovernment, highereducat...
Agricultural researchers, 1981–2008• 20% growth incapacity since2000• Includes PhD,MSc, BSc holders• Increased role ofuniv...
• Striking thatmany WestAfrican countriesmaintain largepool of PhDsdespite recentdeclines in overallcapacity andinvestment...
Africa’s human capacity challenges• Many countries face rapidly aging pools of scientists dueto public sector recruitment ...
Changing composition of agricultural R&D82% 77% 73%15% 20% 24%0204060801001991 2001 2008Higher educationNonprofitGovernmen...
Investment /capacity challenge: FragmentationIndicators32 Africancountries(2008)Brazil(2006)China(2007)India(2009)US(2008)...
Private Sector Involvement in Agricultural R&D• ASTI/Rutgers study in Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, and Zambia• Private R&...
SummaryLIMITED TRAINING OPPORTUNITIESAGING SCIENTISTSUNDERINVESTMENTVOLATILE FUNDINGINSTITUTIONAL FRAGMENTATIONLIMITED PRI...
Addressing Challenges:1) Counteract Decades of Underinvestment• Governments, donors, and regional and internationalorganiz...
Addressing Challenges:2) Stop Excessive Volatility in Annual Spending Levels• Gains achieved through donor-funded projects...
Addressing Challenges:3) Invest in Human Resources• Enhance the number and size of MSc and PhD programsand improve the cur...
Addressing Challenges:4) Maximize (Sub-)Regional Cooperation in R&D• Small countries generally lack the required critical ...
Way Forward:Monitoring R&D Investment and Capacity Trends• Up-to-date information is critical to accurate interpretations ...
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Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa: Investment and capacity challenges

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By Gert-Jan Stads, ASTI program coordinator, International Food Policy Research Institute.
Presented at the Development Partners Business Meeting on CAADP
Brussels | 5–6 February 2013


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Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa: Investment and capacity challenges

  1. 1. Agricultural R&D in Sub-Saharan Africa:Investment and capacity challengesGert-Jan StadsASTI program coordinator | International Food Policy Research InstituteDevelopment Partners Business Meeting on CAADPBrussels | 5–6 February 2013
  2. 2. Agricultural Science and Technology Indicators (ASTI)• Institutional, investment andstaffing data on agricultural R&D:– Focus on developing countries– Primary data collection• Large network of national,regional and internationalpartners; facilitated by IFPRI• Aim is to provide:– Trends over time at agency, country,regional and global levels– Comparisons across institutes,countries and regions
  3. 3. ASTI Indicators and OutputsASTI outputs:• Country notes• Regional and subregional reports• Downloadable datasets• Analytical assessments• Seminars, presentations• Media outreach• ASTI website (www.asti.cgiar.org)ASTI indicators:• Institutional arrangements• R&D spending by cost category• Funding sources• R&D staff by degree, gender, and age• R&D focus by commodity and thematic area
  4. 4. Global Public Agricultural R&D Spending, 2008
  5. 5. Global Public Agricultural R&D Spending, 2008
  6. 6. Global Private Agricultural R&D Spending• Most private-sector R&D was undertaken by companies inOECD countries;• Evidence suggests significant growth in large middle-incomecountries such as China and India
  7. 7. CGIAR Spending, 1981-2011After more than a decade of stagnation, R&D spendingby the CGIAR has accelerated since 2006Inbilliondollars
  8. 8. ASTI’s Findings in Sub-Saharan Africa• Investment Trends• Human Capacity Trends• Institutional Developments• Future Directions to Address Current Challenges
  9. 9. ASTI activities in Africa• 2009/10 data collection round:– In close collaboration with SROs andnational focal points– Coverage: 500 government , higher-education, and nonprofit agencies in32 countries• 2012/13 data collection round:– Expansion in number of countries andindicators– Analytical expansion– Transformation to more frequent anddecentralized data monitoring andanalysis system– Also initiated surveys in North Africa
  10. 10. Public agricultural R&D Spending in SSA, 2008• In 2008, spendingtotaled $1.7 billion (in2005 PPP prices)• Total includes salaries,operating costs, andcapital investments• Total includes R&D oncrops, livestock,forestry, fisheries,postharvest, etc.• Nigeria, South Africa,and Kenya combinedaccounted for half theregion’s agriculturalR&D spending
  11. 11. 0.00.51.01.52.01971197519791983198719911995199920032007SSAAgriculturalR&Dspending(biilion2005PPP$)• 22% growth in 2001–08• Growth driven by just afew countries• Growth largely result ofincreased governmentcommitment to boostsalaries and restoreneglected infrastructure• Continent-wide growthmasks severe declines inmany smaller countriesSSA’s long-term spending, 1971–2008
  12. 12. Investment challenge: Uneven growth• 2001–08 marked by spending decline in 13 countries (7of which in francophone West Africa); for some declinebegan in 1990s
  13. 13. Investment challenge: Underinvestment• Common target: Allocation of at least 1% of GDP to R&D• In 2008, Africa spent $0.61 for every $100 of AgGDP onagricultural R&D• Caution: Intensity ratios should neither be used as the solemeasure of AgR&D spending, nor as a target to be reached
  14. 14. Investment challenge: Volatility010203040024681981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008Billion2005CFAfrancsBurkinaFasoMillion2005PPPdollars09182635024681981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008Billion2005CFAfrancsNigerMillion2005PPPdollars0.00.81.52.33.13.90.00.20.40.60.81.01991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007Billion2005CFAfrancsGabonMillion2005PPPdollars0831662493324150.00.30.60.91.21.51981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008Billion2005randSouth Africa Million2005PPPdollars
  15. 15. Investment challenge: Volatility• Annual agricultural R&D spending in Africa has beenconsiderably more volatile than in other developing regions• Volatility is found to be more pronounced in donor-dependent low-income countries• Donor and development bank funding is generally short-term and ad-hoc (and nearly 3 times more volatile thangovernment funding)
  16. 16. Donor2008
  17. 17. 020406080100GuineaEritreaUgandaMadagascarBurkinaFasoNigerMaliBeninTanzaniaBurundiSenegalMauritaniaKenyaGambiaTogoZambiaCôtedIvoireNamibiaGhanaSouthAfricaBotswanaMauritiusShareintotalfunding,2001-08(%)Investment challenge: Donor dependencyShare of donorfunding as a %of totalagriculturalR&D funding,2001–08Range betweenhighest andlowest annualshare of donorfunding in totalagriculturalR&D funding,2001–08
  18. 18. Public agricultural R&D staff in SSA, 2008• More than 12,000FTE researchers in2008• Total includesgovernment, highereducation, nonprofitsectors• 4 countries withNARS > 1,000 FTEs• 9 countries withNARS < 100 FTEs
  19. 19. Agricultural researchers, 1981–2008• 20% growth incapacity since2000• Includes PhD,MSc, BSc holders• Increased role ofuniversities(Nigeria, Sudan)• Relaxation ofrecruitmentrestrictions(Kenya, Nigeria)• However, manynew recruits areBSc holders02,0004,0006,0008,00010,00012,00014,0001981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008Full-timeequivalentresearchstaff
  20. 20. • Striking thatmany WestAfrican countriesmaintain largepool of PhDsdespite recentdeclines in overallcapacity andinvestment levels• These high sharesstem in large partfrom trainingprogramsconducted duringthe 1990s (andearlier), fundedthrough bilateralor World Bankprojects
  21. 21. Africa’s human capacity challenges• Many countries face rapidly aging pools of scientists dueto public sector recruitment restrictions• Large influx of young BSc-qualified scientists after yearsof recruitment restrictions in some countries• High staff turnover / brain drain: Many researchers haveleft agencies due to low salaries and conditions of service• Limited in-country postgraduate training opportunities• Female scientists severely underrepresented (22% in2008)• Small countries lack required critical mass of agriculturalR&D capacity
  22. 22. Changing composition of agricultural R&D82% 77% 73%15% 20% 24%0204060801001991 2001 2008Higher educationNonprofitGovernmentShareofFTEresaerchers(%)
  23. 23. Investment /capacity challenge: FragmentationIndicators32 Africancountries(2008)Brazil(2006)China(2007)India(2009)US(2008)Number of public agriculturalresearch agencies 353 130 1,105 131 51Number of public agriculturalresearchers (FTEs) 12,120 5,376 70,000 11,217 9,965Annual public spending onagricultural R&D (million2005 PPP dollars) 1,741 1,307 3,626 2,276 4,825Researchers / agency 34.3 41.4 63.3 85.6 195.4Annual spending / agency 4.9 10.1 3.3 17.4 94.6
  24. 24. Private Sector Involvement in Agricultural R&D• ASTI/Rutgers study in Kenya, Senegal, South Africa, and Zambia• Private R&D in Africa remains limited (but is on the increase)• Sources of innovation from private sector: 1/3 own R&D, 10%public R&D, >50% imported• New released cultivars primarily from private sector in SouthAfrica, Tanzania, and Zambia; from public sector in Kenya andSenegal• More enabling environment for private agricultural R&Dneeded (admin procedures, stringent regulations, taxincentives, IPR regulations)
  25. 25. SummaryLIMITED TRAINING OPPORTUNITIESAGING SCIENTISTSUNDERINVESTMENTVOLATILE FUNDINGINSTITUTIONAL FRAGMENTATIONLIMITED PRIVATE-SECTOR INVOLVEMENTDONOR DEPENDENCYSMALL-COUNTRIES LACKCRITICAL MASS 2001–08: >20%
  26. 26. Addressing Challenges:1) Counteract Decades of Underinvestment• Governments, donors, and regional and internationalorganizations must cooperate more closely and increasetheir commitments to agricultural R&D if SSA countriesare to meet CAADP’s targets• Increased funding to allow universities to establish andmaintain basic research programs, which to date havebeen limited.• Diversification of funding sources is needed (includingprivate sector)
  27. 27. Addressing Challenges:2) Stop Excessive Volatility in Annual Spending Levels• Gains achieved through donor-funded projects can getquickly eroded in the absence of viable mechanisms tosustain them• Governments have to clearly identify long-term nationalR&D priorities and design relevant, focused, andcoherent R&D programs accordingly• Donor funding needs to be better aligned with nationalpriorities• Consistency and complementarities between donorprograms need to be ensured.
  28. 28. Addressing Challenges:3) Invest in Human Resources• Enhance the number and size of MSc and PhD programsand improve the curricula of existing programs• Countries with serious capacity gaps must:- lift recruitment restrictions- increase the retirement age for scientists- institute flexible working arrangements to ensure thatretired researchers can contribute to much-neededtraining and mentorship initiatives
  29. 29. Addressing Challenges:4) Maximize (Sub-)Regional Cooperation in R&D• Small countries generally lack the required critical mass ofagricultural R&D capacity and face great challenges inproducing high-quality research outputs• (Sub-)regional linkages need to be strengthened in orderto maximize synergistic opportunities• CGIAR will continue to act as a critical provider ofagricultural technologies in most SSA countries, as well assupporting capacity building efforts
  30. 30. Way Forward:Monitoring R&D Investment and Capacity Trends• Up-to-date information is critical to accurate interpretations ofthe current status and direction of national agricultural researchsystems• Monitoring the inputs, outputs, and performance of agriculturalR&D systems is fundamental to assessing progress towardCAADP’s targets• New ASTI data collection round currently ongoing• By mid-2013, ASTI will release updated (to 2011) datasets forSSA• Pilot a number of key agricultural R&D output and performanceindicators• More analysis on issues underlying agricultural R&D andinstitutional developments in close collaboration with Africa-based economists and other agricultural R&D experts needed
  31. 31. Thank you

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