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Priorities for Public Sector Research on Food Security and Nutrition

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Presentation by John McDermott, CGIAR; Terri Raney, FAO and Howarth Bouis, IFPRI. Food Security Futures I Conference on April 11, 2013 in Dublin, Ireland.

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Priorities for Public Sector Research on Food Security and Nutrition

  1. 1. Priorities for Public Sector Research on Food Security and Nutrition Howarth Bouis, IFPRI Terri Raney, FAO John McDermott, IFPRI Food Security Futures Research Priorities for the 21st Century 11-12 April 2013 Dublin, Ireland
  2. 2. Evidence on malnutrition• 850 million people are undernourished• 28 percent of children are stunted• 2 billion people are micronutrient deficient• 1.4 billion overweight/500 million obese
  3. 3. Child undernutrition Stunting Vitamin A deficiency70 7060 6050 5040 4030 3020 2010 10 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 1990 1995 2000 2005 2007 Anaemia* Low urinary iodine**70 7060 6050 50 Africa40 40 Asia Developing regions30 3020 20 Latin America and the Caribbean10 10 2000 2002 2004 2006 2007 2008 1995-2000 2000 2005 2000-2007 Africa Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Oceania Developing regions
  4. 4. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults, by regionPercentage Obesity Overweight, excluding obesity80706050403020100 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 1980 2008 Africa Asia Latin Oceania Asia and Europe Northern America Oceania America and the Caribbean World Developing regions Developed regions
  5. 5. Not just a double- burdenanymore
  6. 6. Social costs of malnutrition Maternal and child Adult overweight malnutrition and obesity Total DALYs (‘000s) 1990 2010 1990 2010World 339,951 166,147 51,613 93,840Developed regions 2,243 1,731 29,956 37,959Developing regions 337,708 164,416 21,657 55,882 Africa 121,492 78,017 3,571 9,605 Asia 197,888 80,070 12,955 34,551 Latin Am & Caribbean 17,821 6,043 5,062 11,449
  7. 7. Effect of incomes and prices
  8. 8. Malnutrition by Ag GDP category N = 38 N = 52 N = 36 N = 44 100% 80%Percentage of countries 60% 40% 20% 0% Low (≤ 999 US$) Medium (1,000 - 4,499 US$) High (4,500-11,999 US$) Very high (≥US $ 12,000 US$) Stunting and micronutrient deficiencies (AB) Stunting, micronutrient deficiencies and obesity (ABC) Micronutrient deficiencies (B) Micronutrient deficiencies and obesity (BC) Obesity (C) No malnutrition problem (D)
  9. 9. Indices of Inflation-adjusted Prices for Bangladesh 1973-75 = 100200175 Staple150125 Non-100 Staple Plants 75 50 Fish & Animal 25 0 1973-75 1979-81 1988-90 1994-96
  10. 10. Share of Energy Source & Food Budget in Rural Bangladesh Fish and Meat Non-Staple plants Energy Source Food BudgetStaple foods
  11. 11. 50% Increase in All Food Prices Share of Total Expenditures Before After StaplesAnimal Staples Non-Food Non-Food
  12. 12. Food system interventions for better nutrition
  13. 13. Supplementation Commercial FortificationDietaryDiversity(higher Agriculturalincomes; Approacheseducation)
  14. 14. Agriculture – Nutrition Disconnects ↑ Diet Quality ↑ Vitamin A ↓ Anemia Gillespie et al, 2012; Masset et al, 2012; Webb, 2013
  15. 15. Food system approaches• Biofortification and micronutrient fertilization• Diversifying production – Introducing single nutrient-dense foods – Homestead food gardens – Re-introducing/expanding traditional crops – Integrated production systems• Enhancing supply chains to deliver diverse, safe, nutritious foods• Influencing consumer behaviour
  16. 16. Crops for Africa & Release Dates 20112 2012 2012Cassava Beans MaizeVitamin A Iron (Zinc) Vitamin ANigeria Rwanda ZambiaDR Congo DR CongoCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  17. 17. Crops for Asia & Release Dates 20122 20132 20132Pearl Millet Rice WheatIron (Zinc) Zinc ZincIndia Bangladesh India India PakistanCrops are high-yielding and with other traits farmers want.
  18. 18. Status of Nutrition Studies Crop & Countries of first Dietary Nutrient release Intake & Bioavailabiliy Efficacy Effectiveness RetentionVitamin A Crops (released) Nigeria,Cassava   2013-14 2013-15 DR CongoMaize Nigeria, Zambia    2013-2015 Uganda,OSP     MozambiqueIron Crops (released)Bean Rwanda   Pearl Millet India    2013-2015Zinc crops (under development—to be released in 2013) Bangladesh,Rice  2013 2013-14 2014-2016 IndiaWheat India, Pakistan   2013-14 2014-2016
  19. 19. Impact on vitamin A intakes
  20. 20. Information gaps• Understanding diets and nutritional outcomes: what really matters?• Life-cycle and life-style considerations: 1000 days, women, urban• How to scale up agriculture/nutrition interventions?• Something good to eat: What determines consumer behaviour?
  21. 21. Agricultural research priorities• Productivity growth for staples, yes, but also especially non-staples• Give nutritional characteristics higher priority in breeding objectives• Consider dietary quality … not just energy … throughout the food system• Partnerships: – Development implementers – Private sector and other value chain actors – Enablers (investors and policy makers) – Health sector (care, safety, disease)
  22. 22. ForthcomingThe State of Food and Agriculture 2013: Food Systems for Better Nutrition June 2013 www.fao.org/publications/sofa

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