1. Career PathTrue professional valuesby Dan ReevesProfessionals in many industries are expected to upgrade and refine their skills andknowledge in order to move up the corporate ladder.Lisa Yip, director, accountancy division, FTC Kaplan, is at the forefront of thisdevelopment, helping to further educate accounting professionals. "We run trainingthat leads to professional qualifications," she explains. "Some are at internationallevels.""You have to be able to immediately identify if something is feasible"Communication skillsThe bulk of Ms Yips day is spent communicating. She begins her day by checkingstudent enrolment numbers and thinking of strategies to meet and even exceedtargets. "I constantly think about what we can do better in terms of marketing. A bigpart of this is making information clear and accessible to prospective studentsbecause we need to make sure that they understand how our training can meettheir objectives," she says."I attend internal meetings to review target and performance data, and have regulardialogues with business administrators, sales consultants and the front-desk salesstaff. This way I can get a direct measure of how well we are doing," Ms Yip notes.She meets regularly with the companys CEO and other senior management, todiscuss new ideas and future planning. She also works closely with the companyslocal counterparts, and overseas ones in Singapore, Australia and Shanghai.
2. She also spends time liaising with clients and there are always operational and ad-hoc issues with tutors and students to deal with. A part of her day is even spentmonitoring competitors in the industry, checking out what is new, and anythingworth investigating further."People in this business need strong communication skills in Cantonese andEnglish," she says, adding that another requirement is sound analytical ability."You have to be able to immediately identify if something is feasible or not; and if itis, you must be able to implement it quickly." On top of this, business skills are alsoessential. "You need basic understanding of how to run a business and you mustbe equipped with marketing know-how and knowledge about this specificmarketplace," Ms Yip explains.Take ownershipOne of the great things about Ms Yips job is that she is able to take ownership. "Iam given the autonomy to do many things, including hiring my own staff," she says."This way I know that they are passionate about what they do and it makes the jobso much better."Ms Yip advises those wanting to enter the field to first of all gain accountingexposure with a larger firm. In addition to the required qualities and skills, Ms Yipbelieves that graduates aspiring to succeed in the industry should have persistenceand determination. "Whatever you do, you need to work hard," she continues. "Ourprogrammes run in the evening and my day normally concludes around 7pm. Butup until last year I still taught business management and my days often stretchedto 12 hours with additional hours required at home for course preparation."Despite this, Ms Yip says the reward is job satisfaction. "Helping professionals getmore qualifications is actually very gratifying," she says. "We provide a service tothe professional community and I like that. I like to take ideas and implement themand I really love working as part of a team to make things better. There is a realsense of accomplishment and value here."(careertimes.com.hk, 2007)
3. NCTE Core ValuesWritingNCTE is the principal professional organization supporting research and teachingin the field of writing and advocating writing as a central tool for learning, thinking,and communication. We, therefore, have a unique responsibility for helping othereducators understand the value of writing across the curriculum and forunderstanding its appropriate uses in evaluation and assessment. Members benefitby becoming acquainted with authors who share their work and their writingprocesses as well as by hearing from fellow teachers about the instructionalstrategies, technologies, and outlets for student writing they have devised.Integrated Language ArtsNCTE is the one professional organization that has always stood for an integratedapproach to language instruction. In this regard, NCTE has a unique role in helpingeducators understand the role that all the expressions of language play in learningas well as in helping them expand their definitions of literacy to includereading,writing, speaking, listening, viewing, and media study. Members benefit byunderstanding the integrated curriculum in terms of what it means to lead a literate21st century life, in terms of its ability to expand each students communicationpotential, and in terms of its ability to provide wider access to populations ofstudents not currently well served by schools. Members also benefit from theexperience and expertise of fellow teachers and curriculum specialists who haveput in place an integrated curriculum in their classroom.DiversityThe English/Language Arts classroom can and should be a unique place todevelop voice as well as to respect and to hear all voices. It is the place wheremany students learn they have a right to their own language, where multiple formsof literacy are explored, where censorship is abhorred, and where difference isvalued in pursuit of an education befitting a democracy. Members benefit fromopportunities to work with and hear from colleagues with varying backgrounds andexperience; to study, question and critique dominant and often assumed societalstances; to learn how to create classrooms where students develop voices thatmake them effective participants in academic and public discourses; and, fromopportunities to learn how to make their classrooms more relevant, more inclusive,and more critical to the lives of the learners they teach and the society in whichthey teach.Knowledgeable, Caring TeachersThe key to good education is having knowledgeable teachers in every classroomwho understand and care about students, language, learning, teaching, andcurriculum. NCTE plays a unique role in fostering, supporting, and leading the wayin developing collaborative, participatory, and effective forms of professionaldevelopment where teachers voices are heard and respected. Members benefit byassuming leadership roles in the English/Language Arts field, by attending
4. conferences, by participating in professional development activities, by findingsupport for teacher research, and by finding colleagues at all levels, from pre-kindergarten through college, who mentor and sustain their faith in the work ofteaching generally, and teaching the English/Language Arts particularly..CITATION Nat08 l 9226 (English, 2008)Moral Responsibility in Professional EthicsAbstractProfessionals generally acknowledge gravely that they shoulder specialresponsibilities, and believe that they should conform to “higher” ethical standardsthan laypersons.2Yet, doctors, lawyers, engineers, and indeed all other types ofprofessionals also claim special warrant for engaging in some activities that, werethey performed by others, would be likely to draw moral censure.3Skeptical of thisclaim to special license, Macaulay asked about lawyers (and most of my examplesin this essay shall be drawn from law since that’s where my experience lies),“[whether it be right that a man should, with a wig on his head, and a band roundhis neck, do for a guinea what, without these appendages, he would think it wickedand infamous to do for an empire.”4This conflict may trouble the layperson, but forthe professional who must come to grips with his or her professionalresponsibilities it is especially problematic.(Postema, 1983)Strategic Leadership and Decision MakingVALUES AND ETHICSINTRODUCTIONValues and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the nationalsecurity arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics?Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most
5. relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is thedistinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influencethe ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actionsstrategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations.THE CHARACTER OF VALUES AND ETHICSValues can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone.That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization. One placewhere values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives fororganizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with theorganizations core values. In one example of a vision statement well look at later,the organizations core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring,teamwork, and stewardship- were deemed important enough to be included withthe statement of the organizations vision. Dr. John Johns, in an article entitled"The Ethical Dimensions of National Security," mentions honesty and loyalty asvalues that are the ingredients of integrity. When values are shared by all membersof an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments,assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing amongalternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members "on the same sheet ofmusic" with regard to what all members as a body consider important.The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for the year "values," and listed fourorganizational values-loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and fourindividual values- commitment, competence, candor, and courage. A Departmentof the Army pamphlet entitled Values: The Bedrock of Our Profession spent sometime talking about the importance of values, and included this definition:Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right. They are more than words-they are themoral, ethical, and professional attributes of character . . . there are certain core values that must beinstilled in members of the U.S. Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike. These are not the onlyvalues that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession andshould guide our lives as we serve our Nation.Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be thebasis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of theorganization do not share and have not internalized the organizations values?Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizationalvalues will bedysfunctional. Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhapsin an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guideorganizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect betweenstated and operatingvalues, it may be difficult to determine what is "acceptable."For example, two of the Armys organizational values include candor and courage.One might infer that officers are encouraged to "have the courage of theirconvictions" and speak their disagreements openly. In some cases, this does work;in others it does not.
6. The same thing works at the level of the society. The principles by which thesociety functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those inpower may covertly allow the use of force to suppress debate in order to remain inpower. ("death squads" are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may berewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of "death squad" action. Inothers, a group member may be ostracized or expelled.Group members quickly learn the operatingvalues, or they dont survive for long.To the extent they differ from statedvalues, the organization will not only sufferfrom doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of its members, whohave yet another reason for mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom.VALUES PROVIDE THE BASIS FOR JUDGMENTS ABOUT WHAT IS IMPORTANT FOR THEORGANIZATION TO SUCCEED IN ITS CORE BUSINESS.So, there are some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However,the central purpose of values remains. They state either an actual or an idealizedset of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based onlong experience. The relevance of the Armys values, for example, is apparent.When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to mortal danger in theperformance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to trust their fellow soldiers(to do their fair share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to guardthem from unnecessary risk). So the Armys values prescribe conditions thatfacilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to face danger. Without trust, risktolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness.TO BEHAVE ETHICALLY IS TO BEHAVE IN A MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH WHAT ISGENERALLY CONSIDERED TO BE RIGHT OR MORAL. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS THE BEDROCKOF MUTUAL TRUST.So how do values relate to ethics, and what do we mean by ethics? One of thekeys is in the phrase we quoted above from the DA pamphlet: "Values are whatwe, as a profession, judge to be right." Individually or organizationally, valuesdetermine what is right and what is wrong, and doing what is right or wrongis what we mean by ethics. To behave ethically is to behave in a mannerconsistent with what is right or moral. What does "generally considered to beright" mean? That is a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whetheror not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong.Perhaps the first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society.Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior. InIslamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religiousstrictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be lessobvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to beright or wrong is based in Judeo-Christian heritage. The Ten Commandments, formany people, define what is morally right or wrong. Societies not only regulate the
7. behavior of their members, but also define their societal core values. "Life, liberty,and the pursuit of happiness" represent core American values.Experience often has led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for thecommon good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but notin the general principles.) One example is the notion of reciprocity. ("One gooddeed deserves another.") Another is the notion of good intent. ("A gentlemansword is his bond.") Yet, a third is the notion of appreciation of merit in othersregardless of personal feelings. ("Give the Devil his due.")These all contain implied "shoulds" about how people interact and behave towardone another in groups, organizations, and societies. These "shoulds" definecollective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationshipsthat entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practicesbecome.Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of theorganization. Ethical codes, such as West Points "A cadet will not lie, cheat, orsteal, or tolerate those who do," make clear what the organization considers to beright or wrong. To quote again from the DA Pamphlet, "Values: The Bedrock of OurProfession," statements such as :Loyalty to the Nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential.Selfless service puts the welfare of the Nation and the accomplishment of the assigned missionbefore individual welfare. All who serve the Nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain,personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good.[Integrity] is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and the led.Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in ones personal life.are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be ethical behavior.What does "generally considered to be right" mean? All one needs to do is to lookat the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and what isright or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered,however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms. Norms arethe unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, whichgovern the behavior of the groups members. Norms often have a greater effect onwhat is and isnt done by the members of a group than formal rules andregulations.The reason norms are important for a discussion of ethics and values is that normsmay allow or even encourage certain behavior as "OK" that is not in keeping withsocietys or an organizations stated values. When there is a disconnect betweenstated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is "right." Anexample might be a company that has among its stated values to treat everyone
8. with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps evenencouraged a pattern of sexual harassment over a number of years. Do those inthe organization know that the behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless? Is itclear to the Bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would itfall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to be acceptable in thatsociety? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have beenmade, and you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothingwrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them.THE PUBLIC TRUSTIf ethics and morality are important for groups and organizations, they should alsobe important for public officials, and for very much the same reasons. YorkWillbern, in an article entitled "Types and Levels of Public Morality," argues for sixtypes or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials. By public officials, hemeans those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in otherwords, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national securityarena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law;conflicts of interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic ofdemocratic responsibility; the ethic of public policy determination; and the ethic ofcompromise and social integration.WILLBERNS LEVEL OF PUBLIC MORALITYETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATIONETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATIONETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITYSERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESSCONFLICT OF INTERESTBASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAWBASIC HONESTY AND CONFORMITY TO LAW. "The public servant is morallybound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect theperson and the property of others, and to abide by the requirements of the law"(Willbern). In many ways, this level only describes the basic adherence to moralcodes that is expected of all members of a group or society. There are somebasics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for thecollective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is importantto adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than theaverage member of the society, and hence more opportunity for violation of thosecodes or laws. There also is the negative example that misconduct by publicofficials provides.CONFLICT OF INTEREST. This relates to public officials, because it deals with theconflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged todo, and advancing ones self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the public
9. interest comes first, and that one does not advance his own personal interest at theexpense of the public.Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks asexamples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the public. Therequirements for public officials to divest themselves of investments that might beinfluenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recusethemselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to helppublic officials avoid conflicts of interest. Ultimately, it still comes down to theindividual making an ethical decision.Avoidance of conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to separatepersonal and public interests, and because individuals as private citizens areencouraged to pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areaswhere there is the greatest potential for conflicts of interest is where public officialsdeal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, andwhere any decision by a public official on allocation of resources will favor someprivate interest. The fields of government contracting and acquisition are two areaswhere the possibility of conflicts of interest is high.SERVICE ORIENTATION AND PROCEDURAL FAIRNESS. This level relatesclosely to the last, and deals with the responsibility of public officials to ensure theiractions serve the public, and that the power they wield is used only for thatpurpose. It is easy to abuse the power that comes with public office. Proceduralsafeguards are designed to prevent that abuse. The moral obligation of publicservants is to follow established procedures, and not to use their power tocircumvent those procedures for their own convenience or benefit. Power must beused fairly and for the benefit of the public. One can again think of examples ofpublic officials who have violated this moral charge by using their influence andpower for their own benefit or for the benefit of special interest groups, or who havecircumvented established procedures for their own benefit or convenience. Onefrequent example is the use of government vehicles or aircraft for nonofficialbusiness.These first three levels of public morality share one important characteristic: theyall relate to the behavior or conduct of public officials. These three levels are theareas that get most of the attention in discussions of ethics, this is where publicofficials are most likely to get in trouble. However, there are three additional levelsof public morality equally important. These deal with the content of what publicofficials do, "the moral choices involved in deciding what to do, in pursuing thepurposes of the state and the society" (Willbern).THE ETHIC OF DEMOCRATIC RESPONSIBILITY. Given that public officials areoperating within a democratic system, they either are elected by the people orappointed by an elected official. This confers upon them the obligation to carry outthe will of the people. However, public officials also have the responsibility to make
10. moral choices consistent with their own values, and that may be in conflict withwhat they perceive to be the will of the people.Willbern contends that the public official acts according to his or her own judgment,rationalizing that it would be the will of the people if they were well enoughinformed on the issue. To give one example of this level of public morality, considerwhether or not the representative in Congress is morally bound to support policiesand legislation which his constituents overwhelmingly support but he personallyopposes.THE ETHIC OF PUBLIC POLICY DETERMINATION. This level involves the mostdifficult ethical choices, because it concerns making moral judgments about publicpolicies. The responsibility is to make moral policies; the difficulty is in determininghow moral a policy is. Public policies almost always deal with very complex issues,where ethical choices are rarely clear, and it is often difficult to determine if a policyis right or wrong. For example, many public policies deal with the distribution oflimited resources. Is it right or wrong to slash funding for one program, or toincrease funding for another? In almost any decision, there will be winners andlosers, and there will be some benefit for some and cost to others. "Right" and"wrong" may not apply. Equity and fairness are important considerations, but notalways easy to discern. The determination of how much funding to provide fornational security, and which social programs to fund, involves ethical choices of themost difficult type. What is the difference between equality and equity? Considerthe controversy around affirmative action programs: are they examples of moralpublic policies?THE ETHIC OF COMPROMISE AND SOCIAL INTEGRATION. This final leveldeals with an area not as salient as some of the others. It deals with the necessityfor compromise in a society. A society with irreconcilable differences onfundamental issues will be torn apart. Hence, it becomes a moral obligation ofpublic officials to engage in give and take, working toward compromise in thepolicies they develop. One often sees legislators in our political system establishingpositions where they may not get all they want from particular legislation, but willsettle for some of what they want. Willbern contends that compromise, rather thanstanding on principle, is moral, because without compromise there will be discordand conflict, and disintegration rather than integration of the society.Public officials are given the trust of the public to develop and carry out policiesthat are in the publics best interest. Living up to this trust has a significant impacton the national will; public confidence is essential to the exercise of national power.Public officials have a moral duty to act in a trustworthy manner.Why, then, do individuals behave unethically? One reason is the complexity of theissues leaders deal with, and the difficulty in many instances of determining whichis the most ethical alternative. There are several systemic factors. One is thecompetition for scarce resources. It is easy to slip into unethical acts to gain acompetitive advantage in the race for position or power. A second is conflicting
11. loyalties, which Johns labels "the most troublesome ethical dilemma facing publicofficials." The Iran Contra affair is a case of unethical behavior on the part of North,Poindexter, Secord, and McFarlane because of misplaced loyalty to the executivechain of command.Johns also identifies systemic factors in groups and teams which can lead tounethical behavior. One is groupthink, which can occur in a homogeneous groupwith a strong leader. A second is the presence of idealogues: individuals who viewtheir own extreme positions as "right" and any opposing positions as "wrong." Athird is the organizations response to dissent. There are few incentives for"whistleblowers" or those who try to expose unethical behavior in organizations.Organizational norms encourage "going along" and discourage questioning theunethical actions of others. This can quickly compromise ethical standards in anyorganization.CAUSES OF UNETHICAL BEHAVIORINDIVIDUALCOMPLEXITY OF STRATEGIC ISSUES OBSCURES ETHICSCOMPETITION FOR SCARCE RESOURCES/ POWER/POSITIONCONFLICTING LOYALTIESGROUPGROUPTHINKPRESENCE OF IDEALOGUESNEGATIVE ORGANIZATIONAL RESPONSE TO DISSENTETHICS IN PRACTICEKenneth R. Andrews, in "Ethics in Practice," contends that there are three aspectsto ethical behavior in organizations: the development of the individual as an ethicalperson, the effect of the organization as an ethical or unethical environment, andthe actions or procedures developed by the organization to encourage ethicalbehavior and discourage unethical behavior.INFLUENCES ON ETHICAL BEHAVIORPRIOR DEVELOPMENT OF INDIVIDUAL AS ETHICAL PERSON.THE ORGANIZATION AS AN ETHICAL ENVIRONMENT.PROCEDURES THAT ENCOURAGE ETHICAL BEHAVIOR.Most of an individuals ethical development occurs before entering an organization.The influence of family, church, community, and school will determine individualvalues. The organization, to a large extent, is dealing with individuals whose valuebase has been established. This might imply that ethical organizations are thosefortunate enough to bring in ethical individuals, while unethical organizations
12. brought in unethical people. But it is not that simple. While the internalized valuesof individuals are important, the organization has a major impact on the behavior ofits members, and can have a positive or negative influence on their values. Oneexample of the development of ethical individuals is the service academies. In theiradmissions processes, the academies attempt to get individuals of good characterwith the values integral to the military profession. However, the academies alsorecognize that their core values may be different than those prevalent in society,and they devote considerable effort to the development and internalization of theircore values. As is evident from periodic breaches of integrity at the academies,e.g., cheating scandals, these attempts to instill core values do not alwayssucceed.There are three qualities individuals must possess to make ethical decisions. Thefirst is the ability to recognize ethical issues and to reason through the ethicalconsequences of decisions. The ability to see second and third order effects, oneof the elements of strategic thinking, is very important. The second is the ability tolook at alternative points of view, deciding what is right in a particular set ofcircumstances. This is similar to the ability to reframe. And the third is the ability todeal with ambiguity and uncertainty; making a decision on the best informationavailable.ATTRIBUTES FOR ETHICAL DECISIONSSEEING SECOND- AND THIRD-ORDER CONSEQUENCES-"WARGAMING" ETHICALCONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONSSEEING ALTERNATIVE POINTS OF VIEW-REFRAMINGDEALING WITH AMBIGUITY AND UNCERTAINTY-MAKING DECISIONS WITH BESTINFORMATION AVAILABLEAs important as these individual characteristics are, the influence of theorganization is equally important. The ethical standards that one observes in theorganization will have a significant effect on individual behavior. "People will dowhat they are rewarded for doing" (Andrews). The organization has its greatestimpact in the standards it establishes for ethical and unethical conduct in its formalreward systems. Informal norms also have a strong influence on individualsbehavior as do the actions of the leaders of the organization. Strategic leadersmust understand that their actions, more than words alone, will determine theoperating values in the organization.The influence of the organizational context is underscored in "Why Be Honest IfHonesty Doesnt Pay?" In this article, Bhide and Stevenson note that there oftenare no economic or other incentives to encourage ethical behavior and discourageunethical behavior. They contend that it most often is the dishonest individual whogets ahead, and that cases where unethical behavior was punished are faroutweighed by those in which there either were no consequences or unethicalbehavior was rewarded. The Gordon Ghekkos of the world (the unethical corporate
13. executive played by Michael Douglas in the movie "Wall Street") often get ahead,because they rarely are held to account for their actions.While these observations might lead one to a cynical view of ethics inorganizations, Bhide and Stevenson come to a different conclusion. They see roomfor optimism despite the lack of financial gain for ethical behavior, or the absenceof negative consequences for unethical behavior. Their reasoning is based in thefact that so many people do behave ethically, in spite of the apparent lack of gain.Ethical behavior must be intrinsically rewarding; and most people behave ethicallybecause its the right thing to do. People are guided by their personal valuesystems. They often "choose the harder right instead of the easier wrong"specifically because of their intrinsic values of what is right.Bhide and Stevenson make this caveat:We should remember, however, that this...works only as long as most of us live by an honorablemoral compass. Since our trust isnt grounded in self-interest, it is fragile. And, indeed, we all knowof organizations, industries, and even whole societies in which trust has given way either to adestructive free-for-all or to inflexible rules and bureaucracy. Only our individual wills, ourdetermination to do what is right, whether or not it is profitable, save us from choosing betweenchaos and stagnation.ETHICAL RESPONSESChaloupka, in "Ethical Responses: How to Influence Ones Organization," assertsthat organization members have only three choices when confronted with unethicalbehavior: exit, voice, or loyalty.Exit is the most direct response: if you cant live with behavior that does not meetyour own ethical standards, leave. However, exit is not only a direct response, it isa final one, so the personal and organizational consequences must be considered.The most important personal consequences are the costs. Where do you go fromthere? What other options are available? How marketable are you? Can you affordthe financial loss?There are specific organizational consequences as well. Will the ethics of theorganizations leaders change? Will they do business with someone else whodoesnt have the high standards you do? In leaving, one gives up the ability toinfluence the organization directly. When considering exit, one must ask, "Could Ihave had more of an impact by remaining in the organization and trying to changeit from within?"Voice. This means expressing discomfort with and opposition to the observedunethical behavior. To whom do you voice your objections? The obvious choice isyour supervisor. But what if your supervisor condones the unethical behavior, orworse, is its source? You may be jeopardizing your position, and maybe yourmembership in the organization. A second choice is to go to senior management.This also has potential risk. The senior leadership may be condoning or even
14. directing the unethical behavior. This action may bring your loyalty into question. Ifso, your objections may be covered up or ignored, and you may end up beingforced out of the organization.On the other hand, it may be that the senior leadership is unaware of the unethicalbehavior, and you may have initiated an organizational response eliminatingunethical behavior and restoring ethical standards. A third option is to go public, toengage in "whistleblowing." This is also risky, because it can lead to reprisals withnegative consequences. The level of risk depends on the commitment of theorganization to high ethical standards and on its willingness to encouragewhistleblowing in its own best interests. Many organizations have showncommitment to ferreting out unethical individuals and maintaining high ethicalstandards by establishing procedures for anonymous reporting of ethical breachesand safeguards to protect whistleblowers.Exit and voice may be combined. An individual resigns in protest and goes publicwith his or her reasons for leaving. This leaves the individual vulnerable to the labelof an employee who quit before being fired, but it also can lead to increasedcredibility as someone acting on conviction in spite of personal cost. Exit combinedwith voice is most effective if taken by someone at the upper levels of theorganization. An organization can more easily ignore the "exit + voice" of a lowerlevel employee than it can the resignation of a strategic leader, followedimmediately by a press conference. The widely publicized resignation of formerPresident Bush from the National Rifle Association over what he viewed asextreme actions is an example of exit combined with voice. It undoubtedly had amuch greater effect on the NRA than the resignation of someone less well knownand respected. The resignation of James Webb as Secretary of the Navy isanother example of effective exit combined with voice.Loyalty. The final response to unethical behavior in an organization is loyalty. Thisis the alternative to exit. Instead of leaving, the individual remains and tries tochange the organization from within. Loyalty thus discourages or delays exit.Loyalty also may discourage public voice, since being loyal to the organizationmeans trying to solve problems from within without causing public embarrassmentor damage. Loyalty can also encourage unethical behavior, particularly inorganizations which promote loyalty above all. These organizations discourage exitand voice, and basically want their members to "go along" with organizationalpractices. An interesting question is, "Can an individual be loyal to an organizationby engaging in exit or voice as a response to unethical behavior?"Chaloupka maintains that both exit and voice must exist for continuedorganizational effectiveness. Additionally, an organization cannot maintain highethical standards without mechanisms for eliminating unethical behavior. Also,loyalty is not always a virtue. Loyalty should be predicated on the organizationsethical demonstration that it is worthy of loyalty. If the organization condonesunethical behavior, it relieves the individual of any responsibility to be loyal.
15. BUILDING AN ETHICAL CLIMATEHow can the strategic leaders of an organization build an ethical climate? Andrewssuggests a number of steps that foster corporate ethics. First are the actions of thestrategic leadership and the way they deal with ethical issues. The pattern of topleaders behavior determines organizational values. A second step is to makeexplicit ethics policies. Ethical codes are one common example. The next step is toincrease awareness of how to apply those ethical codes. Training on how to dealwith situations with an ethical dimension, and how to anticipate situations thatinvolve ethical choices, can go a long way toward ethical institutional practices.Another step to increase the salience of ethics is to expand the information systemto focus on areas where ethics may come into play. Knowing what actually is goingon in the organization is essential to understanding the ethical principles whichgovern behavior. The information system should also support ethical behavior, andallow the strategic leader to know when or where there are potential ethicalbreaches so that corrective action can be taken. The real danger is that whenunethical behavior is unnoticed, or not punished, members will assume it iscondoned by the organizations leadership.CONCLUSIONEstablishing moral principles means determining the core values which shouldguide the organization. OBrien suggests four for consideration: localness, merit,openness, and leanness. By localness, he means adopting a philosophy ofpushing power down to the lowest level possible, and encouraging initiative andautonomy. By merit, he means directing actions toward the overall goals of theorganization, and what is best for all. By openness, he means being forthright andhonest in all dealings. And by leanness, he means efficient use of resources andeconomies when possible.ULTIMATELY, THE QUEST FOR ORGANIZATIONAL TRANSFORMATION MUST BEGIN WITH APERSONAL COMMITMENT WITHIN EACH INDIVIDUAL TO PURSUE MORAL EXCELLENCE.OBRIENEncouraging leaders to pursue their own moral development is critical at higherlevels because strategic leaders set the moral climate for the organization. OBrienbelieves that moral development is even more important than professionaldevelopment. "Creating a culture based on moral excellence requires acommitment among managers to embody and develop two qualities in theirleadership: virtue and wisdom." However, creating an organization characterizedby moral excellence is a lengthy process. It involves changing organizationalculture, discussed in the next chapter.(university)
16. Bibliografíacareertimes.com.hk. (22 de junio de 2007). http://archive.org/details/TrueProfessionalValues-CareerTimes. Recuperado el 12 de junio de 2013, dehttp://archive.org/details/TrueProfessionalValues-CareerTimesEnglish, N. C. (13 de agosto de 2008). NCTE Nacional Council Of Teachers of English. Recuperado el12 de junio de 2013, de http://www.ncte.org/mission/corevaluesPostema, G. (1983). Springerlink. Recuperado el 12 de junio de 2013, dehttp://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4612-5625-0_4#:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4612-5625-0_4#university, n. d. (s.f.). http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch15.html.Recuperado el 13 de 06 de 2013, de http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/ndu/strat-ldr-dm/pt4ch15.html