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Training and development practices in india since the past 30 years



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  • 1. Training and Development Practices in Different Industries in India since the past 30 years
    Presented By:
    MBA HR-3
    Roll No. 1
  • 2. Give an overview of the concept of training and development
    Discuss the evolution of Training and development
    Brief explanation of the various training and development practices in short
    Examples pertaining to each sector in the Indian industry with regards to their training and development practices each with respect to 1980’s, 1990’s, 2000’s
    Initiate a management game on team building called stock market simulation
  • 3. To help create an understanding of how training and development evolved in India
    Overall the workshop aims at helping the audience in understanding the concept and seeing the transformation with regards to training and development in different sectors in the Indian Industry.
    To help strengthen team building by way of a management game.
  • 4. Till the sixties training activity in most of the Indian Organizations was totally absent or partly present in a rudimentary form
    However in the seventies Indian Organizations started becoming aware of the need for development of managers for better management of industries
    Therefore Executive development programs came up in few educational institutes such as:
    Evolution of Training
  • 5. Administrative Staff College of India
    TISCO started own training centers and hired outside faculty
    Four decades ago the concept of Training within industry by ILO came up.
    Training Workshop Initiative programs were basically on the job training to the workers
  • 6. This program was also not successful as it was enforced by the government and was not at the wish of the employees
    The workers training was limited to on the job training for better productivity and production
  • 7. It is only after Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi’s stress on Human resource Development that training took a front seat in the economy
    A separate HRD ministry was set up in 1985
    No doubt the need for training was realized by different organizations however they concentrated mainly on management development rather than worker development
  • 8. Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills.
    Traditional Training Methods Categories
  • 9. Presentation methods -methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information
    This information may include:
    Facts or information
    Problem – solving methods
    Presentation methods include:
    Audio-visual techniques
    Presentation Methods
  • 10. Lecture involves the trainer communicating through spoken words what he/she wants the trainees to learn
    It is often used because it is one of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present a large amount of information efficiently in an organized manner
    Presentation Methods:
  • 11. Variations of the Lecture Method
    Standard Lecture
    Student Presentations
    Team Teaching
    Guest Speakers
  • 12. Audio-visual instruction includes:
    It has been used for improving:
    Communication skills
    Interviewing skills
    Customer-service skills
    Illustrating how procedures should be followed
    Presentation Methods:Audio-Visual Techniques
  • 13. Training methods that require the trainee to be actively involved in learning
    These methods include:
    Hands on Methods:
  • 14. On-the-job training (OJT) refers to new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behavior
    OJT includes:
    Self-directed learning programs
    On-the-Job Training:
  • 15. Employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning:
    when it is conducted
    who will be involved
    Trainees themselves design training content at their own pace without an instructor
    Trainers are available to evaluate learning or answer questions for the trainee
    On the Job- Self Directed Learning:
  • 16. A formal occupational training program which combines on-the-job training and related instruction and in which workers learn the practical and conceptual skills required for a skilled occupation, craft, or trade
    Can be sponsored by companies or unions
    Most programs involve skilled trades
    OJT Programs: Apprenticeship
  • 17. Replicates a real-life situation
    It is an attempt to create a realistic decision making environment for the trainee.
    Used to teach:
    Production and process skills
    Management and interpersonal skills
    Hands-on Methods: Simulations
  • 18. Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation
    Trainees are required to:
    analyze and critique actions taken
    indicate the appropriate actions
    suggest what might have been done differently
    Major assumption is that employees are most likely to recall and use knowledge and skills learned through a process of discovery
    Hand-on Methods: Case Studies
  • 19. Require trainees to gather information, analyze it, and make decisions with the help of some game
    Primarily used for management skill development
    Games mimic the competitive nature of business
    Hand-on Methods: Business Games
  • 20. Trainees act out characters assigned to them
    Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees
    Focus on interpersonal responses
    Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees
    The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity
    Hands-on Methods: Role Plays
  • 21. Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate
    Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors
    Based on the principles of learning through observation (social learning theory)
    Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills
    Hands-on Methods: Behavior Modeling
  • 22. Group building methods - training methods designed to improve team or group effectiveness
    Training directed at improving trainees’ skills as well as team effectiveness
    Group building methods involve trainees:
    sharing ideas and experiences
    building group identity
    understanding interpersonal dynamics
    learning their strengths and weaknesses and of their co-workers
    Group Building Methods
  • 23. Group techniques focus on helping teams increase their skills for effective teamwork
    Group building methods often involve experiential learning
    Group building methods include:
    Adventure Learning
    Team Training
    Action Learning
    Group Building Methods
  • 24. Focuses on the development of teamwork and leadership skills using structured outdoor activities
    Also known as wilderness training and outdoor training
    Best suited for developing skills related to group effectiveness such as:
    problem solving
    conflict management
    risk taking
    Group Building Methods:Adventure Learning
  • 25. Involves coordinating the performance of individuals who work together to achieve a common goal
    Teams that are effectively trained develop procedures to identify and resolve errors, coordinate information gathering, and reinforce each other
    Group Building Methods: Team Training
  • 26. Involves giving teams or work groups:
    an actual problem,
    having them work on solving it,
    committing to an action plan, and
    holding them accountable for carrying out the plan
    Group Building Methods: Action Learning
  • 27. Development refers to the learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.
    Management Development Programs:
  • 28. Training in the industry was done on ad hoc basis
    There was no systematic approach for training
    Long term and short term objectives were not defined
    There was no survey of training needs
    Training was basically considered as deviation from busy work life- as a relaxation program
    In 1980’s-1990’s
  • 29. Training were conducted basically for statistical purposes.
    Training was basically done with regards to specific technical skills
    Management programs were not given due importance
  • 30. Hindustan Zinc Limited: Large public sector organization which was involved in Zinc and lead, Mining and Smelting.
    Training and development was very important for them as:
    In 1980’s- Mining Sector
  • 31. Percentage wise analysis of mix of training techniques at HZL:
    Source: HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan
  • 32. Source: HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan
  • 34. Training Facilities at Voltas Limited And Seimens India, Bombay 1980’s
    Both are competitors in the field of manufacturing switch gears, switch boards, AC’S, Refrigerators etc.
    The training in this kind of industry at that time was basically Apprenticeship training given under Apprenticeship Act 1961.
    The various training programs given were:
  • 35.
  • 36. Apart from this various amenities such as
    Free transportation from station to work
    Subsidized breakfast and lunches
    Free tea
    Library and sports facilities
    Medical facilities
    The above were provided in order to motivate the trainee to be a part of the program
  • 38. Training facilities at Rashtriya Chemical and Fertilizers ltd. Bombay
    Total employees 4000
    1200 working in Managerial and supervisory category
    Non management employees: 90 percent are engaged in skilled jobs
  • 39. Training Provided:
  • 40. Modular Approach to Cross functional Training:
  • 41. In mid 1980’s and early 1990’s there was a boom for adventure based training
    excitement of a zip line and thrill of rappelling stimulated many possibilities for learning
    Some Generalized conclusions:
  • 42. Problem Diagnosis Algorithm:
    Source: HRD through In- house training by PL RAO
  • 43. In 1980’s training initiatives of Motorola were phenomenal
    They set up a Motorola Education and Training center which later on became a university in 1989
    Motorola's success was based on strong foundations of corporate wide learning practices
    In recognition of these development practices American society for Training and Development named Motorola the top training company.
    Motorola- Telecom Sector
  • 44. Companies have realized that fostering a sense of belonging among employees, right from the time of induction, pays in the long run
    National Fertilizers have training programs even for wives on holidays where company practices and culture are discussed
    By this it was found that absenteeism reduced considerably
    Innovations in training
  • 45. There are trainers who use bhajans and kirtans to convey productivity concepts in a simple manner, in a folk song style. It is novel and an enjoyable method.
  • 47. 1995: TQM Workshops to inculcate positive work culture introduced.
    1997: 5000 employees were put through three day workshop as part of visioning session.
    2000: Parivartan launched with an objective of motivating and imparting knowledge of sales function.
    2001: EVA introduced, 500 people were involved to help them make decisions pertaining to investments, trade offs etc.
    Initiatives such as Entrepreneurs Boards, Red and blue teams, Mentoring and reverse mentoring were introduced
    Training and development at Godrej in late1990’s
  • 48. In 2002:
    need for a performance driven culture felt so program called Gallop introduced( Godrej Accelerated learning Leadership Orientation Programme)
    GIL introduced Spark, training for managers to help them become effective coaches
    End of 2002: E-gyan introduced to increase learning potential of employees.
    January 2003: Special Hr programme for developing interpersonal and negotiation skills introduced
    2003: English language training for floor workers introduced
  • 49. Coca Cola in the early 1990’s developed a program called “ Maintaining Competitive Advantage” which was a management development program
    This was basically initiated so as to help in providing skilled managers to the company so as to have a competitive edge over other competitors
    They aligned the program with their corporate strategy
    Coca Cola: FMCG SECTOR
  • 50. The same strategy as followed by Coca Cola was also followed by AT&T
    Management Development Program called “ Maintaining Competitive Advantage” was developed
    AT& T: Telecom Sector
  • 51. Mahindra and Mahindra:
    In 2000’s – Manufacturing sector
  • 52.
  • 53. Pharmaceutical Sector
  • 54. Trainings may be broadly classified into:
    Training at Ranbaxy: (in 2000’s)
  • 55. There may be training which is online or instructor led training.
    Ranbaxy has a set training calendar containing details of who is to take training, when is it to be carried out and who would be doing it.
    Earlier all this was done manually, now in the changing era with so much importance to training and development.
    They have an online tracking system called learning management system in place.
  • 56. Vestibule training is conducted which is same for workers as well as supervisors.
    However if we talk about imparting behavioral training then this is done through:
    Business Games
    In basket exercises
    Training aids used include power point presentations, videos, demonstration equipment, evaluation techniques etc.
    After the training is over feedback forms are also filled suggesting whether the training was successful or not..
  • 57. Information Technology Sector
  • 58. Training and development at IBM:
  • 59. All managers at IBM use face to face instruction technology.
    The program is an expert system that provides a customized portfolio for each manager.
    The expert system guides managers through pre-work that has to be completed prior to attending learning labs.
    Learning is reinforced through the use of knowledge management system.
  • 60. Accenture: gives in 80 percent more training hours than their competitors
    12 million hours in educating people
    Spends 800 USD in training and development
    Have a global learning portal called My learning offers which has over 20000 online courses
    Vast online library , the knowledge exchange.
  • 62. In 2002: Marriot International, a widely recognized name in the lodging industry.
    It was proposed then that Marriot in the next 5 years would be hiring million employees.
    A training transformation team was struck to study the problem and find a solution.
    A front desk quest was initiated
    The trainee on an online system is presented with a series of training modules where simulation takes place.
    The trainee assumes active roles in different situations hypothetically giving it’s response to each of the situations.
    Then correct or incorrect decisions are evaluated.
  • 63. Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor today are using concepts of virtual training. They have self paced computer based training through firm’s intranet.
  • 64. In today’s global market training is becoming imperative 24/7/365 affair, cutting across geographies and time restrictions
    The changing areas of training and development today:
  • 65. Basically a computerized process for assessment of productivity and work climate profiles of all organizations
    A 400 statement questionnaire given to supervisors and 3 hours for answering those questions are given
    The Results are then compared with National Average in 11 different countries
    Supervisors Skills Level:
  • 66. Competency based training.:
    Preparation of modules for instruction
  • 67. Blake and Mouton Grid
  • 68. HRD through In- house training by PL RAO.
    Enriching human capital through training and development by PL Rao
    Effective training by P. Nick Blanchard & James W. Thacker.
    HRD in a changing Environment By YK Bhushan
    Employee training and development by Raymond A Noe