• Graphic novels are a format of literature that relies on heavy usage of
imagery instead of words to tell a story.
• Graphic novels are typically laid out with clear boxes (around 4 to 8) on
each page, which use all manner of techniques to tell the story,
including speech bubbles, onomatopoeia and expressive imagery.
• Usage of text is miniscule in graphic novels, being restricted to speech
bubbles or captions within the boxes.
• Experimental art styles tend to break away from the box format, using
different box sizes and styles, and sometimes a borderless picture for
the entire page.
• Larger boxes tend to be used to portray larger scenes, such as a bird’s
eye view or a panorama to express the scale of something.
• Children’s literature defines all forms of books that are adhered and tailored for young
children, with several specific age ranges. The most common ranges are 1-4, 5-7, and 7-11.
• 1-4 books are typically picture books or very short stories, and rely on imagery rather than
text. If words are used, the language will be extremely simple for a young child to read
carefully and pick up.
• 5-7 books are a little advanced, now incorporating much more text and doing away with huge
pictures, but many stories of this range retain pictures for the visual aspect. Here the
language remains simple but the structure is improved, with a range of punctuation used like
speech marks and commas.
• 7-11 books begin to include a chapter structure and much more advanced language, with a
wide range of punctuation and clauses now being used. Pictures are still included, but are
now quite small and usually only take up around a quarter of the page in most cases.
• Children’s books are usually printed with serif text, as serifs make it much easier to
distinguish different letters and make it easier for children to scan their eyes across words.
The Walking Dead – Graphic Novel
Two larger boxes help depict larger
scenes, whereas four smaller boxes
depict exchanges between characters
and small events.
Jagged speech bubbles indicates shouting or yelling.
Conjoined bubbles indicate continued speech
or a new idea from the character
Usage of onomatopoeia and stylized fonts can give
the effect of sounds in text.
The Very Hungry Caterpillar – Children’s Book
Simple, short text printed
inserif for easy viewing and
reader for younger readers.
Vivid, bold and colourful imagery
that dominates the page, catching
The Golden Arm
• I have chosen The Golden Arm as my story, which has a moral about avarice and respect for the dead.
• Here was once a man who travelled the land all over in search of a wife. He saw young and old, rich and
poor, pretty and plain, and could not meet with one to his mind.
• At last he found a woman, young, fair, and rich, who possessed a right arm of solid gold. He married her at
once, and thought no man so fortunate as he was. They lived happily together, but, though he wished
people to think otherwise, he was fonder of the golden arm than of all his wife's gifts besides. At last she
• The husband put on the blackest black, and pulled the longest face at the funeral; but for all that he got up
in the middle of the night, dug up the body, and cut off the golden arm. He hurried home to hide his
treasure, and thought no one would know. The following night he put the golden arm under his pillow, and
was just falling asleep, when the ghost of his dead wife glided into the room. Stalking up to the bedside it
drew the curtain, and looked at him reproachfully. Pretending not to be afraid, he spoke to the ghost, and
said: "What hast thou done with thy cheeks so red?”
• "All withered and wasted away," replied the ghost, in a hollow tone.
• "What hast thou done with thy red rosy lips?”
• "All withered and wasted away.”
• "What hast thou done with thy golden hair?”
• "All withered and wasted away.”
• "What hast thou done with thy Golden Arm?”
• "THOU HAST IT!"