Somers_Energy_Expo_2011_02_05_lifecycle

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"What goes in, must come out: Why we use a life cycle approach in sustainability services"

"What goes in, must come out: Why we use a life cycle approach in sustainability services"

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  • 1. Somers Energy Expo February 5, 2011 what goes in, must come out the cycle of material life Leo A. W. Wiegman, Mayor Village of Croton-on-Hudson, NY lwiegman@crotononhudson-ny.gov 1 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 1
  • 2. the cycle of material life sources for this slide: [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) 2 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 2
  • 3. the cycle of material life sources for this slide: [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) 2 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 2
  • 4. the cycle of material life sources for this slide: [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) 2 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 2
  • 5. the cycle of material life sources for this slide: [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) 2 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 2
  • 6. the cycle of material life “A life cycle approach is a way of thinking which helps us recognize how our selections  —such as buying electricity or a new t-shirt — are one part of a whole system of events.” –Jim Fava and Jennifer Hall, 2004 sources for this slide: [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) 2 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 2
  • 7. what is Life Cycle Management? sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 3 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 3
  • 8. what is Life Cycle Management? sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 3 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 3
  • 9. meet Connect-the-Dot T shirt Company sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 4 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 4
  • 10. meet Connect-the-Dot T shirt Company sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 4 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 4
  • 11. meet Connect-the-Dot T shirt Company sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 4 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 4
  • 12. meet Connect-the-Dot T shirt Company sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 4 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 4
  • 13. meet Connect-the-Dot T shirt Company sources for this slide: adapted from [27] Mastny 2003 and [35] Remmen 2007 4 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 4
  • 14. simple t-shirt life cycle sources for this slide: adapted from [35] Remmen 2007 5 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 5
  • 15. simple t-shirt life cycle sources for this slide: adapted from [35] Remmen 2007 5 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 5
  • 16. simple t-shirt life cycle sources for this slide: adapted from [35] Remmen 2007 5 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 5
  • 17. sources for this slide: adapted from [4] Cleveland 2008 and [15] Hall 2007 6 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 6
  • 18. sources for this slide: adapted from [4] Cleveland 2008 and [15] Hall 2007 6 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 6
  • 19. We extract 3 barrels of oil from the ground for every 1 barrel delivered to your home. + + sources for this slide: adapted from [15] Hall 2007 7 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 7
  • 20. We extract 3 barrels of oil from the ground for every 1 barrel delivered to your home. + + sources for this slide: adapted from [15] Hall 2007 7 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 7
  • 21. Can biofuels save us? No! • US Primary Energy Use exceeds total Biomass Energy Production (2003) • Some biofuels (ethanol) actually increase harmful tailpipe emissions (aldehydes, etc) How much total biomass potential does US have? units: EJ = 1 exajoule = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules 8 sources for this slide: adapted from [32] Patzek 2006 and [33] Pimentel and Patzek 2005 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 8
  • 22. Can biofuels save us? No! • US Primary Energy Use exceeds total Biomass Energy Production (2003) • Some biofuels (ethanol) actually increase harmful tailpipe emissions (aldehydes, etc) units: EJ = 1 exajoule = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules 8 sources for this slide: adapted from [32] Patzek 2006 and [33] Pimentel and Patzek 2005 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 8
  • 23. Can biofuels save us? No! • US Primary Energy Use exceeds total Biomass Energy Production (2003) • Some biofuels (ethanol) actually increase harmful tailpipe emissions (aldehydes, etc) units: EJ = 1 exajoule = 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 joules 8 sources for this slide: adapted from [32] Patzek 2006 and [33] Pimentel and Patzek 2005 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 8
  • 24. So what can save us from ourselves? 9 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 9
  • 25. So what can save us from ourselves? Conservation & Efficiency! 9 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 9
  • 26. So what can save us from ourselves? Conservation & Efficiency! How? 9 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 9
  • 27. So what can save us from ourselves? Conservation & Efficiency! How? Use simple life cycle analysis 9 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 9
  • 28. Conservation & Efficiency! 10 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 10
  • 29. Conservation & Efficiency! 10 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 10
  • 30. Conservation & Efficiency! Cheapest energy is what we do not use. Step 1: Conserve: What energy use can I do without? •Does every pole need 2 cobra-heads? •Is each bulb the right wattage? Step 2: Efficiency: How can I get same result with less energy? •Can I switch to more efficient lamps? •Do I save labor if new lamps last longer? 10 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 10
  • 31. Conservation & Efficiency! Cheapest energy is what we do not use. Step 1: Conserve: What energy use can I do without? •Does every pole need 2 cobra-heads? •Is each bulb the right wattage? Step 2: Efficiency: How can I get same result with less energy? •Can I switch to more efficient lamps? •Do I save labor if new lamps last longer? 10 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 10
  • 32. Conservation & Efficiency! Cheapest energy is what we do not use. Step 1: Conserve: What energy use can I do without? •Does every pole need 2 cobra-heads? •Is each bulb the right wattage? Step 2: Efficiency: How can I get same result with less energy? •Can I switch to more efficient lamps? •Do I save labor if new lamps last longer? 10 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 10
  • 33. some sample EROIs using LCA sources for this slide: adapted from [32: table 5.2] Patzek 2006 using data from [3, 13, 22, 33] 11 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 11
  • 34. some sample EROIs using LCA sources for this slide: adapted from [32: table 5.2] Patzek 2006 using data from [3, 13, 22, 33] 11 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 11
  • 35. some sample EROIs using LCA sources for this slide: adapted from [32: table 5.2] Patzek 2006 using data from [3, 13, 22, 33] 11 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 11
  • 36. some sample EROIs using LCA sources for this slide: adapted from [32: table 5.2] Patzek 2006 using data from [3, 13, 22, 33] 11 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 11
  • 37. life cycle meets life style: BedZed Beddington Zero Energy Development BedZed video (2:30min) is UK’s largest mixed use sustainable community. BedZED video embedded sources for this slide: adapted from [1] BedZED 2008 12 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 12
  • 38. life cycle meets life style: BedZed Beddington Zero Energy Development BedZed video (2:30min) is UK’s largest mixed use sustainable community. BedZED video embedded sources for this slide: adapted from [1] BedZED 2008 12 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 12
  • 39. What about $ costs? •Life cycle is more than units of energy flowing in and out. •What about the $ of product’s life cycle? •e.g. a building? sources for this slide: adapted from www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 13 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 13
  • 40. What about $ costs? •Life cycle is more than units of energy flowing in and out. •What about the $ of product’s life cycle? •e.g. a building? sources for this slide: adapted from www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 13 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 13
  • 41. What about $ costs? •Life cycle is more than units of energy flowing in and out. •What about the $ of product’s life cycle? •e.g. a building? sources for this slide: adapted from www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 13 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 13
  • 42. Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) sources for this slide: www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 14 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 14
  • 43. Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) sources for this slide: www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 14 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 14
  • 44. Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) • Life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) is a method for assessing the total cost of facility ownership. • It takes into account all costs of acquiring, owning, and disposing of a building or building system. • LCCA is especially useful when project alternatives that fulfill the same performance requirements, but differ with respect to initial costs and operating costs, have to be compared in order to select the one that maximizes net savings. • E.g., LCCA will help determine whether a high-performance HVAC or glazing system, which may increase initial cost, but result in dramatically reduced operating and maintenance costs, is cost-effective or not. sources for this slide: www.wbdg.org/resources/lcca.php 2010 14 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 14
  • 45. Local information = local power Lighting Croton’s Holiday Tree $541 bulbs $ electricity $ $295 40% bulbs $ savings ($246) electricity $ 800 old incand. lights 1600 new LED lights 2008 2009 Source: Croton’s GHG Inventory www.crotononhudson-ny.gov 15 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 15
  • 46. Life cycle resources The Greenhouse Gas Protocol •Life-Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) (2010), for the U.S. Public Sector Sieglinde Fuller (NIST), www.wbdg.org/ resources/lcca.php •The Greenhouse Gas Protocol for the U.S. Public Sector (2010), World Resources Interpreting the Corporate Standard for U.S. Public Sector Organizations Institute and LMI, www.wri.org/publication/ ghg-protocol-for-us-public-sector WORLD •LCA 101 (2004), Life Cycle Assessment RESOURCES INSTITUTE Research, US EPA, www.epa.gov/nrmrl/ lcaccess/ 16 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 16
  • 47. Some good books for background “Cradle to grave designs dominate modern manufacturing.” —Bill McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, www.mbdc.com, 2002 “Energy analysis is the first step to determine and compare energy consumption and production of different options. This can involve complex life-cycle net energy analysis, but often the most useful energy analysis is done by calculating simple energy consumption or conversion efficiency on the back of an envelope.” —John Randolph and Gilbert Masters, Energy for Sustainability, www.energyforsustainability.org, 2008 17 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 17
  • 48. Some good books for background “Cradle to grave designs dominate modern manufacturing.” —Bill McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, www.mbdc.com, 2002 “Energy analysis is the first step to determine and compare energy consumption and production of different options. This can involve complex life-cycle net energy analysis, but often the most useful energy analysis is done by calculating simple energy consumption or conversion efficiency on the back of an envelope.” —John Randolph and Gilbert Masters, Energy for Sustainability, www.energyforsustainability.org, 2008 17 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 17
  • 49. Some good books for background “Cradle to grave designs dominate modern manufacturing.” —Bill McDonough and Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, www.mbdc.com, 2002 “Energy analysis is the first step to determine and compare energy consumption and production of different options. This can involve complex life-cycle net energy analysis, but often the most useful energy analysis is done by calculating simple energy consumption or conversion efficiency on the back of an envelope.” —John Randolph and Gilbert Masters, Energy for Sustainability, www.energyforsustainability.org, 2008 17 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 17
  • 50. Questions? contact: Leo A. W. Wiegman, Mayor Village of Croton-on-Hudson, NY lwiegman@crotononhudson-ny.gov 18 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 18
  • 51. works cited & consulted (1 of 3) Chapter 8, Energy in the Cycle of Material, from Blockstein/Wiegman, The Climate Solutions Consensus www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_Solutions_Consensus [1] BedZED (2008) Beddington Zero Energy Development. BioRegional. South London, UK (read December 13, 2008) www.bioregional.com/ programme_projects/ecohous_prog/bedzed/bedzed_hpg.htm [2] Berst J, Ban P, Burkhalter M, Zheng A (2008) The Electricity Economy: New Opportunities from the Transformation of the Electric Power Sector. www.globalenvironmentfund.com; www.globalsmartenergy.com [3] Cleveland CJ (2005) Net energy from the extraction of oil and gas in the United States. Energy 30(5):769 – 782. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/ [4] Cleveland CJ (2008) “Energy Return on Invest--ment,” (topic ed) Constanza R, in Encyclopedia of Earth, (ed) Cleveland CJ. (Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington, DC). www.eoearth.org/article/ Energy_return_on_investment_(EROI) [5] Epstein P (2007) “Climate Change: Healthy Solutions.” Guest Editorial. Environmental Health Perspectives, April 115(4):A 180. http:// chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/ccf/ [6] Epstein P (2008) Healthy Solutions for the Low Carbon Economy: Guidelines for Investors, Insurers and Policy Makers. The Center for Health and the Global Environment. Harvard Medical School. http://chge.med.harvard.edu/programs/ccf/ [7] Ewing R, Kreutzer R (2006) Understanding the Relationship between Public Health and the Built Environment. US Green Building Council. New York. www.usgbc.org [8] Fava J, Hall J (2004) Why Take a Life Cycle Approach? UNEP Life Cycle Initiative. United Nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics, Paris. www.unep.fr/scp/lcinitiative/publications [9] Fisk WJ (2000) Health and productivity gains from better indoor environments and their relationship with building energy efficiency. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 25:537–566. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/loi/energy [10] Friedman T (2008) Hot, Flat and Crowded: Why We Need a New Green Revolution and How It Can Renew America, 410. (Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York). www.thomaslfriedman.com [11] Frumkin H, Frank L, Jackson RJ (2004) Urban Sprawl and Public Health: Designing, Planning, and Building for Healthy Communities. (Island Press, Washington, DC). http://islandpress.org [12] Gabbard A (2008) Coal Combustion: Nuclear Resource or Danger. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Oak Ridge, TN (read December 22, 2008). www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/rev26-34/text/colmain.html [13] Gagnon L, Bélanger C, Uchiyama Y (2002) Life-cycle assessment of electricity generation options: the status of research in year 2001. Energy Policy 30(14):1267–1278. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com ... 19 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 19
  • 52. works cited & consulted (2 of 3) Chapter 8, Energy in the Cycle of Material, from Blockstein/Wiegman, The Climate Solutions Consensus www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_Solutions_Consensus [14] Graedel TE (1996) On the concept of industrial ecology. Annual Review of Energy and the Environment 21:69–98. http:// arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev.energy.21.1.69 [15] Hall C, Balog S, Murphy DJR (2009) What Is the Minimum EROI That a Sustainable Society Must Have? Energies 2:25–47. http:// web.mac.com/biophysicalecon/iWeb/Site/Downloads.html [16] IAEA (2008) Nuclear´s Great Expectation: Projections Continue to Rise for Nuclear Power, but Relative Generation Share Declines. International Atomic Energy Agency. September 11, 2008 (read October 20, 2008). www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/News/2008/np2008.html [17] Jones V (2008) The Green Collar Economy. (HarperCollins Publishers, New York). www.greenforall.org [18] Kammen D (2007) The Low-Carbon Imperative and Economic Opportunity. US House of Representatives Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony for the November 8, 2007, Hearing on: Opportunities for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions. http:// socrates.berkeley.edu/~kammen/ [19] Kammen D, Farrell AE, Plevin RJ, Jones AD, Delucchi MA, Nemet GF (2007) Energy and Greenhouse Impacts of Biofuels: A Framework for Analysis, in OECD Research Round Table: Biofuels: Linking Support to Performance, (ed) Perkins S. (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris). www.internationaltransportforum.org/jtrc/RoundTables/BiofuelsOutline.pdf [20] Kats G (2006) Greening America’s Schools: Costs and Benefits. http://dsforgau.ozstaging.com/downloads/greening_americas_schools.pdf [21] Kellert SR, Heerwagen J, Mador M (2008) Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life. www.wiley.com/ WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470163348.html [22] Knapp K, Jester T (2001) Empirical investigation of the energy payback time for photovoltaic modules. Solar Energy 71(3):165–172. http:// linkinghub.elsevier.com/ [23] Koeppel S, Ürge-Vorsatz D (2007) Assessment of Policy Instruments for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Buildings. (UNEP, Central European University, Budapest). www.unepsbci.org [24] Krauss C (2008) “An Export in Solid Supply.” New York Times, March 19, 2008. www.nytimes.com [25] Kurz W (2008) Making the paper: mountain pine beetles contribute to carbon release and climate change. Nature 452:987 – 990. www.nature.com/nature/ [26] Lovins A, Sheikh I (2008) The nuclear illusion. Ambio, in November 2008 preprint. www.rmi.org/sitepages/pid257.php#E08-01 [27] Mastny L (2003) Purchasing Power: Harnessing Institutional Procurement for People and the Planet. Worldwatch Paper #166. www.worldwatch.org ... 20 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 20
  • 53. works cited & consulted (3 of 3) Chapter 8, Energy in the Cycle of Material, from Blockstein/Wiegman, The Climate Solutions Consensus www.eoearth.org/article/Climate_Solutions_Consensus [28] McDonough W, Braungart M (2002) Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. (North Point Press/FSG, New York). www.mbdc.com [29a] MIT (2003) the Future of Nuclear Power. http://web.mit.edu/nuclearpower [29b] MIT (2007) MIT Study on the Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World. http://web.mit.edu/coal/ [30] NIOSH (2008) Faces of Black Lung. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. August 18, 2008 (read September 4, 2008). www.cdc.gov/niosh/blog/ [31] NIRS (2007) Report on Earthquake Damage to Japan’s Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Facility. Nuclear Information and Resource Service (read September 12, 2008). www.nirs.org [32] Patzek TW (2006) The Earth, Energy, and Agriculture. Paper presented at Climate Change and the Future of the American West: Exploring the Legal and Policy Dimensions. http://petroleum.berkeley .edu/ papers/Biofuels/BiofuelsTop.htm [33] Pimentel D, Patzek TW (2005) Ethanol production using corn, switchgrass and wood; biodiesel production using soybean and sunflower. Natural Resources Research 14:65–76. www.springerlink.com [34] Randolph J, Masters GM (2008) Energy for Sustainability: Technology, Planning, and Policy. (Island Press, Washington, DC). www.energyforsustainability.org [35] Remmen A, Jensen AA, Frydendal J (2007) Life Cycle Management: A Business Guide to Sustainability. (Life Cycle Initiative, United Nations Environment Programme). www.unep.fr/scp/lcinitiative/publications/ [36] REN21 (2008) Renewables 2007 Global Status Report. (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, Worldwatch Institute, Paris: REN21 Secretariat and Washington, DC:Worldwatch Institute). www.ren21.net [37] Renner M (2008) Working for People and the Environment. Worldwatch Report #177. www.worldwatch.org [38] US EIA (2008) Annual Energy Review 2007. DOE/EIA-0384(2007). www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/aer/ [39] USGS (1997) Radioactive Elements in Coal and Fly Ash: Abundance, Forms, and Environmental Significance. Fact Sheet FS-163-97. US Geological Survey. Denver, CO. http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/1997/fs163-97/FS-163-97.html [40] Wald ML (2008) “As Nuclear Waste Languishes, Expense to US Rises.” New York Times, February 19, 2008. www.nytimes.com [41] Weber CL, Matthews HS (2008) Food-miles and the relative climate impacts of food choices in the United States. Environmental Science and Technology. http://pubs.acs.org/cgi-bin/abstract.cgi/esthag/asap/abs/es702969f.html [42] WHO (2003) National Healthy Cities Networks: A Powerful Force for Health and Sustainable Development in Europe. www.euro.who.int 21 Life Cycle Analysis Primer, Wiegman, Feb. 2011Tuesday, February 1, 2011 21