Classification of stone masonry(interior design student work)
CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY
&DRESSING OF STONE
Dezyne E’cloe College
Dezyne E’cloe College
The Partial Fulfilment
Bachelor of Science
Mrs. Yasmeen. S
Dezyne E’cole College 106/10
CIVIL LINES, AJMER
The project CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF
STONE has enlightened me about the various aspects of Construction of
building Masonry is basically a wall material. Whereas dressing means to trim
the stones in a particular shape and size in an order to use for any particular
I give my sincere thanks to Dezyne E’cole College, to my mentors who gave me
the opportunity to learn about the various aspects of CLASSIFICATION OF
STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE and at last but not the least
my Spouse and my dear Kids whose time I have taken to complete this project.
Hereby I am preparing this project
CLASSIFICATION OF STONE MASONRY &DRESSING OF STONE
MASONRY: Construction of building units bonded together, Masonry is basically a wall
material. Masonry walls are divided into three categories, they are
1. Load bearing walls
2. Non-load bearing walls
3. Retaining walls
Depending upon the type of material used, Masonry can be broadly classified into following
1. Stone masonry
2. Brick masonry
3. Reinforced brick masonry
4. Composite masonry
5. Hallow concrete block masonry
6. Load bearing wall tile masonry
STONE MASONRY: From times immemorial, stone has been used both for residential as
well as public buildings. Historical buildings that stand today are the living examples of the
strength, durability and the excellent weather resisting qualities of stone masonry.
Because of high crushing strength, stone is used in the construction of piers, docks, dams and
other marine structures.
But dressing and placing of stone requires a great deal of time and extra labour.
Depending upon the degree of refinement used in shaping the stone, the finishing adopted
and the arrangement of the stone in the construction, stone masonry can be broadly classified
in the following two types:
1. Rubble masonry
2. Ashlar masonry
RUBBLE MASONRY: It is further sub-divided in the following categories
1. Uncoursed rubble masonry
2. Random rubble masonry
3. Coursed rubble masonry
4. Dry rubble masonry
UNCOURSED RUBBLE MASONRY: This is the poorest form of stone masonry. The
stones to be used are directly obtained from quarry, after merely knocking off weak corner
With the masons hammer. The Face stones selected from the heap should have uniform
colour, uniform bed and greater size.
RANDOM RUBBLE MASONRY: This form is slightly superior to uncoursed rubble
masonry in this form the stones used in the work are hammer or chisel dressed. The stone are
not suitably shaped or finished and as such the elevation of this type masonry show irregular
shape stones with non uniform joints. In good work the face stones are of uniform colour and
COURSED RUBBLE MASONRY: This is the form of masonry which is commonly
adopted in residential building, public building, piers and abutments for ordinary bridges.
Considering the dressing and finishing of stones it is further subdivided into 1st
class and 3rd
class. In first class masonry, generally all the courses are of the same height and
the minimum height of the course is limited to 15 cm. The face stones are hammer dressed.
The beds of the face stone or hammer or chisel dressed and rendered true and square.
DRY RUBBLE MASONRY: The construction of this form is similar to that of ordinary
rubble masonry without mortar.
ASHLAR MASONRY: The work built from carefully dressed stones with accurate bedding
and jointing is termed as ashlars masonry. This construction is further subdivided into various
types they are
1. Ashlar fine
2. Ashlar rough tool
3. Ashlar chamfered
4. Ashlar facing
ASHLAR FINE: In this type of masonry, all the stones are fine tooled; all bed and side joint
faces are rendered perfectly true to pattern desired.
The height of the courses is never less than 30 cm. The bed and the side joint in this type of
work should never exceed 3mm in thickness.
ASHLAR ROUGH TOOL: In this type of masonry the exposed faces of stone generally
have a fine dressed chisel drafting all round the edges. The portion the face stone enclosed by
the chisel draft is rough tooled. The thickness should never exceed 6mm.
ASHLAR CHAMFERED: This type masonry is similar to the one described above with the
only difference that the edges around the exposed faces of stone are bevelled off at an angle
for depth of 25mm or more
ASHLAR FACING: In this type of masonry the faces of stone are rough tooled, and
chamfered and the stones are provided in face work only. The backing may be made in brick,
concrete, or rubble as desired.
The composite construction reduces the cost of work appreciably the height of the course is
never kept less than 20cm.
SELECTION OF STONE FOR MASONRY
Recommended Use of Common Types of Stone
S. No Situation Types of Stones Used
1. For face work of building. Marble, granite and close-grained
2. For curved or ornamental works. Soft sand stone and marble.
3. For masonry work in industrial town exposed
to smoke and chemical fumes.
Granite, compact sandstone and
4. For road metal. Basalt and coarse-grained granite.
5. For railway ballast. Sand stone, granite and quartzite.
6. For paving’s, door sills and steps. Marble, slates and sand stones.
7. For bridges, piers, docks and other marine
Fine-grained granite and gneisses.
8. For fire resistant masonry Compact sand stone.
DRESSING OF STONES
Building stones has to quarried out from the rock formation before it can be put into use
quarry of the stone may be done either by hand tool or with the help explosives. In large
quarries, a machine has to be used for the purpose. Rough block of stone are obtained from
quarry are irregular in shape and non uniform in size and as such they cannot be used in
without proper dressing and cutting.
The commonly used tools and implements for the cutting and dressing of stone blocks are
2. Face hammer
3. Scabbling hammer
6. Mash hammer
7. Spalling hammer
8. Pitching tool
11. Toothed chisel
12. Claw chisel
15. Saw for soft stone
16. Crosscut saw
(1).HAMMER DRESSED OR QUARRY-FACED SURFACE
This is the roughest form of surface finish. Stone as removed from the quarry has large
projections which are knocked off with the quarry hammer and it is finally broken up into
blocks of suitable size and shape such as khandi, quoin, or rectangular blocks.
(2). ROUGH TOOLED SURFACE.
In this type of surface finish, the projection of the stone block is removed by means of chisels
and the surface is nearly dressed true.
(3). TOOLED SURFACE
In this type of surface finish continuous parallel chisel marks are produced throughout the
width of the stone. The parallel corrugations or chisel marks are made at closer intervals
rendering the surface truly planned.
(4). CUT STONE SURFACE
In this type of surface finish the surface is dressed by using a sharp chisel so that the chisel
marks are practically imperceptible.
(5). RUBBED SURFACE
This type of surface finish is obtained by grinding or rubbing a cut stone surface by hand or
machine until it gets perfectly smooth
(6). POLISHED SURFACE
The Rubbed surfaces of granite, marble of lime stones are polished to enhance their texture.
Polishing may be done by manual labour using sand and water, pumice stone etc. Or by
The project would not have been successful without the guidance of my mentors
and reference books:
1. Text book of Building Construction By Sushil Kumar
2. Building Construction By Dr. B.C. Punmia