Tracing Networks: Ontology-based Software in a Nutshell
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Tracing Networks: Ontology-based Software in a Nutshell Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Tracing Networks
    Ontology-based software application in a Nutshell
    Yi Hong
    Department of Computer Science
    University of Leicester
  • 2. Semantic Web
    2
    Tracing Networks programme
    “Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and provide new information representation feature.”
    • Current web
    • 3. Document-centric
    • 4. Human readers
    • 5. Syntax (Schema)
    • 6. HTML, XML etc.
    • 7. Semantic web
    • 8. Knowledge representation
    • 9. Machine readable
    • 10. Semantics (Ontology)
    • 11. RDF, OWL etc
  • Ontology
    3
    What is an ontology?
    “An ontology is a formal specification of a conceptualization”
    -Thomas Gruber
    Describes
    Specified by
    Ontology
    Concepts
    Domain
    Modelled by
    Domain ontology
    e.g. (CIDOC-CRM for archaeology, Gene, GXO for Genetics)
  • 12. Ontology-based database
    What is an ontology-based database.
    How it is different from a relational database.
    Why use ontology? What can you do with an ontology-based database.
    How to query an ontology-based database.
    4
  • 13. Relational database vs Ontology-based database
    Image on a ceramic vessel found at Sopron-Várhely
    5
    Example : Image tagging and search for human representation database
    (provided by Katharina)
  • 14. 6
    Relational database vs Ontology-based database
    Data structure
    Object ID: 15
    Inventory number: 443
    Excavation site: Sopron-Várhely(N47.66519, E16.518044 Hungary)
    Human figure (individuals)
    rider
    wagon guide
    wagon rider
    Animal
    2 horses
    1 horse
    Material:
    ceramic
    Technology:
    Incised
    `
    etc.
    ……….
    (60+ attributes)
  • 15. 7
    Relational database vs Ontology-based database
    Relational database (MS Access 2007)
    tables, fields (columns)
    primary-foreign
    key pairs
    Database schema
    Entity-relationship diagram
    Data
    Data
  • 16. Relational vs Ontology-based database
    Data storage
    Ontology
    (class, property, individual)
    Data Structure
    Database Schema
    (table, field, key)
    records
    triples (RDF graph)
    Basic elements
    Ontology-based Database (Triple store)
    Relational Database
    Database
    products
    MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server,
    MS Access etc
    Jena SDB, virtuoso universal server, RDF/OWL document
    8
  • 17. Ontology
    Semantics
    Class
    Property
    Individual
    9
    individual
    has value for
    is instance of
    class
    property
    restrict
  • 18. Ontology
    Ontology example:
    Class
    Person
    Archaeologist
    Property
    Is a friend of
    subClassOf
    instanceOf
    Individual
    Alex
    John
    10
  • 19. Ontology
    A Triple is:
    Basic element in the ontology world.
    contains three parts: subject, predicate and object.
    Predicate
    Subject
    Object
  • 20. Ontology
    A Triple is:
    Basic element in the ontology world.
    contains three parts: subject, predicate and object.
    was found in
    Leicester
    Ceramic pot
  • 21. Ontology
    RDF Graph
    A set of triples become a graph
    An ontology-based database is a graph
    was found in
    Leicester
    Ceramic pot
  • 22. Relational database vs Ontology-based database
    Ontology
    (Protégé Ontology Editor)
    Country
    Material
    …….
    isLocatedIn
    wasMadeFrom
    wasFoundAt
    Site
    ……s.
    …….
    Object
    Appears On
    Animal
    hasScene
    contains
    …….
    subClassOf
    Appears On
    Scene
    Horse
    Appears On
    IndividualFigure
    http://protege.stanford.edu/
    14
  • 23. Relational vs Ontology-based database
    Search
    Graph pattern
    Text-based keywords+ options
    Query
    Interface
    generate
    generate
    Query
    language
    SPARQL
    SQL
    query
    query
    Ontology-based Database (Triple store)
    Relational Database
    Database
    15
  • 24. Why use ontology?
    16
    • Problem with traditional keyword search
    Tags: cat , mouse,
  • 25. Why use ontology?
    17
    • Problem with traditional keyword search
    • 26. Ambiguous semantics
    What you are looking for …..
    A tag is normally a freely-chosen, non-hierarchical keyword or term.
    The tag can be the identical but it might have different interpretation.
    Tags: cat , mouse,
  • 27. Why use ontology?
    18
    • Problem with traditional keyword search
    • 28. Ambiguous semantics
    The meaning of the keyword is unclear
    What you actually get…
    Tags: cat , mouse,
    (Can not tell what it is about by only looking at the tags… )
  • 29. Why use ontology?
    19
    • Problem with traditional keyword search
    • 30. Labelling objects rather than relationship
    the keyword approach is more focus on
    labeling objects rather than the relationship
    Not way to describe the links (chasing)
    between them.
    Describing the link between objects is as
    important as tagging the objects themselves
    Tags: cat , mouse,
  • 31. Why use ontology?
    20
    • Problem with traditional keyword search
    • 32. Labelling objects rather than relationship
    Additional tags will not be sufficient to
    describe the links. By adding the third
    tag “chase”.
    The question remains :
    Who is chasing who?
    Tags: cat , mouse, chase
  • 33. Why use ontology?
    21
    Problem with traditional keyword search
    Difficult to describe complex and arbitrary query
    rider
    Query:
    “Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"
    horse
  • 34. Why use ontology?
    22
    Query: “Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"
    How to describe this search in a query
    interface?
    What else?
    Library style?
    Native SQL?
    Google style?
    Textbox with drop
    down list or check box
    SQL syntax
    single textbox
    • Learn complex syntax
    • 35. Knowledge of DB schema
    • 36. Difficult to write
    Not expressive enough
    Not flexible enough
  • 37. Why use ontology?
    23
    Problem with traditional keyword search
    Unable to perform automatic reasoning
    Problems 1
    Ask for : person, animal
    Actual tags: rider, horse
    Traditional search engine is based on keyword match. the tags we have here are rider and horse, if it does not contain any keywords we entered, the search engine will not return anything
    It needs background knowledge to understand a rider is a person riding a horse and a horse is in fact an animal.
    rider
    horse
  • 38. Why use ontology?
    Single user Mode vs Collaborative Mode
    Degree of uncertainty
    User credibility and expertise
    Degree of uncertainty = CF
    Domain-specific expertise index = E(d)
    probably a fox ?
    definitely a horse!
    Is a
    zoologist
    5 year kid
    horse
    Tagged area
    95%
    24
  • 39. Query results visualisation-Geo-mapping
    • Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ)
    • 40. http://code.google.co m/apis/kml/documentation/
    XML-based language.
    Supports place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions
    Compatibility
    Google Map
    Google Maps for Mobile
    Google Earth
    ESRI ArcGIS Explorer,
    25
  • 41. Query results visualisation- Statistical charts
    Google Chart API
    http://code.google.com/apis/chart/
    Interactive Flash
    Javascript arrays or XML files
    Compatibility
    Most mainstream browsers
    Internet Explorer
    Firefox
    Safari
    Chrome
    26
  • 42. 27
    Ontology-based software demo
    Semantic tagging
    Query by graph pattern
    Integration with Google earth
    Statistical charts
  • 43. System Architecture
    28
  • 44. Links
    A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology
    By Stanford University
    http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology-tutorial-noy-mcguinness-abstract.html
    Protégé Ontology editor
    http://protege.stanford.edu/
    Protégé tutorial http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/
    CIDOC-CRM ontology
    An ontology for culture and heritage domain
    http://www.cidoc-crm.org/
    KML guide and tutorial
    http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html
    29