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Tracing Networks<br />Ontology-based software application in a Nutshell<br />Yi Hong<br />Department of Computer Science<b...
Semantic Web<br />2<br />Tracing Networks programme<br />“Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and provide new ...
Document-centric
Human readers
Syntax (Schema)
HTML, XML  etc.
Semantic web
Knowledge representation
Machine readable
Semantics (Ontology)
RDF, OWL  etc </li></li></ul><li>Ontology<br />3<br />What is an ontology?<br />“An ontology is a formal specification of ...
Ontology-based database<br />What is an ontology-based database.<br />How it is different from a relational database.<br /...
Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />	Image on a ceramic vessel  found at Sopron-Várhely<br />5<br />Exampl...
6<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Data structure<br />Object ID: 15  <br />Inventory number:  443...
7<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Relational database (MS Access 2007)<br />tables, fields (colum...
Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Data storage<br />Ontology<br />(class, property, individual)<br />Data Structu...
Ontology<br />Semantics<br />Class <br />Property <br />Individual<br />9<br />individual<br />has value for<br />is insta...
Ontology<br />Ontology example: <br />Class<br />Person<br />Archaeologist<br />Property<br />Is a friend of<br />subClass...
Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br />	Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and ob...
Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br />	Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and ob...
Ontology<br />RDF Graph<br />         A set of triples become a graph<br />         An ontology-based database is a graph<...
Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Ontology<br />(Protégé Ontology Editor)<br />Country<br />Material<br ...
Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Search<br />Graph pattern<br />Text-based keywords+ options<br />Query <br />In...
Why use ontology?<br />16<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search</li></ul>Tags:  cat , mouse,<br />
Why use ontology?<br />17<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
Ambiguous semantics</li></ul>What you are looking for …..<br />A tag is normally a freely-chosen, non-hierarchical keyword...
Why use ontology?<br />18<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
Ambiguous semantics</li></ul>The meaning of the keyword is unclear <br />What you actually get…<br />Tags:  cat , mouse,<b...
Why use ontology?<br />19<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
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Tracing Networks: Ontology-based Software in a Nutshell

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Transcript of "Tracing Networks: Ontology-based Software in a Nutshell"

  1. 1. Tracing Networks<br />Ontology-based software application in a Nutshell<br />Yi Hong<br />Department of Computer Science<br />University of Leicester<br />
  2. 2. Semantic Web<br />2<br />Tracing Networks programme<br />“Semantic web is an evolution to the current web and provide new information representation feature.”<br /><ul><li>Current web
  3. 3. Document-centric
  4. 4. Human readers
  5. 5. Syntax (Schema)
  6. 6. HTML, XML etc.
  7. 7. Semantic web
  8. 8. Knowledge representation
  9. 9. Machine readable
  10. 10. Semantics (Ontology)
  11. 11. RDF, OWL etc </li></li></ul><li>Ontology<br />3<br />What is an ontology?<br />“An ontology is a formal specification of a conceptualization” <br /> -Thomas Gruber <br />Describes<br />Specified by<br />Ontology<br />Concepts<br />Domain<br />Modelled by <br />Domain ontology <br />e.g. (CIDOC-CRM for archaeology, Gene, GXO for Genetics)<br />
  12. 12. Ontology-based database<br />What is an ontology-based database.<br />How it is different from a relational database.<br />Why use ontology? What can you do with an ontology-based database.<br />How to query an ontology-based database.<br />4<br />
  13. 13. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br /> Image on a ceramic vessel found at Sopron-Várhely<br />5<br />Example : Image tagging and search for human representation database<br />(provided by Katharina)<br />
  14. 14. 6<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Data structure<br />Object ID: 15 <br />Inventory number: 443<br />Excavation site: Sopron-Várhely(N47.66519, E16.518044 Hungary)<br />Human figure (individuals) <br />rider<br />wagon guide<br />wagon rider<br />Animal<br />2 horses<br />1 horse<br />Material:<br />ceramic<br />Technology:<br />Incised<br />`<br />etc.<br />……….<br />(60+ attributes)<br />
  15. 15. 7<br />Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Relational database (MS Access 2007)<br />tables, fields (columns)<br />primary-foreign <br />key pairs<br />Database schema <br />Entity-relationship diagram <br />Data<br />Data<br />
  16. 16. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Data storage<br />Ontology<br />(class, property, individual)<br />Data Structure <br />Database Schema <br />(table, field, key)<br />records<br />triples (RDF graph)<br />Basic elements<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database <br />products<br />MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, <br />MS Access etc<br />Jena SDB, virtuoso universal server, RDF/OWL document<br />8<br />
  17. 17. Ontology<br />Semantics<br />Class <br />Property <br />Individual<br />9<br />individual<br />has value for<br />is instance of<br />class<br />property<br />restrict<br />
  18. 18. Ontology<br />Ontology example: <br />Class<br />Person<br />Archaeologist<br />Property<br />Is a friend of<br />subClassOf<br />instanceOf<br />Individual<br />Alex<br />John<br />10<br />
  19. 19. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />Predicate<br />Subject<br />Object<br />
  20. 20. Ontology<br />A Triple is:<br /> Basic element in the ontology world.<br />contains three parts: subject, predicate and object. <br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  21. 21. Ontology<br />RDF Graph<br /> A set of triples become a graph<br /> An ontology-based database is a graph<br />was found in<br />Leicester<br />Ceramic pot<br />
  22. 22. Relational database vs Ontology-based database<br />Ontology<br />(Protégé Ontology Editor)<br />Country<br />Material<br />…….<br />isLocatedIn<br />wasMadeFrom<br />wasFoundAt<br />Site<br />……s.<br />…….<br />Object<br />Appears On<br />Animal<br />hasScene<br />contains<br />…….<br />subClassOf<br />Appears On<br />Scene<br />Horse<br />Appears On<br />IndividualFigure<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/<br />14<br />
  23. 23. Relational vs Ontology-based database<br />Search<br />Graph pattern<br />Text-based keywords+ options<br />Query <br />Interface<br />generate<br />generate<br />Query <br />language<br />SPARQL<br />SQL<br />query<br />query<br />Ontology-based Database (Triple store) <br />Relational Database<br />Database<br />15<br />
  24. 24. Why use ontology?<br />16<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search</li></ul>Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  25. 25. Why use ontology?<br />17<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  26. 26. Ambiguous semantics</li></ul>What you are looking for …..<br />A tag is normally a freely-chosen, non-hierarchical keyword or term. <br />The tag can be the identical but it might have different interpretation.<br />Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  27. 27. Why use ontology?<br />18<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  28. 28. Ambiguous semantics</li></ul>The meaning of the keyword is unclear <br />What you actually get…<br />Tags: cat , mouse,<br />(Can not tell what it is about by only looking at the tags… )<br />
  29. 29. Why use ontology?<br />19<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  30. 30. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>the keyword approach is more focus on <br />labeling objects rather than the relationship<br />Not way to describe the links (chasing) <br />between them.<br />Describing the link between objects is as <br />important as tagging the objects themselves<br />Tags: cat , mouse,<br />
  31. 31. Why use ontology?<br />20<br /><ul><li>Problem with traditional keyword search
  32. 32. Labelling objects rather than relationship</li></ul>Additional tags will not be sufficient to <br /> describe the links. By adding the third <br />tag “chase”.<br />The question remains :<br />Who is chasing who?<br />Tags: cat , mouse, chase<br />
  33. 33. Why use ontology?<br />21<br />Problem with traditional keyword search<br />Difficult to describe complex and arbitrary query<br />rider<br />Query: <br />“Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"<br />horse<br />
  34. 34. Why use ontology?<br />22<br />Query: “Display images with an animal and a person on them, along with what is happening between them"<br />How to describe this search in a query <br />interface?<br />What else?<br />Library style?<br />Native SQL?<br />Google style?<br />Textbox with drop <br />down list or check box <br />SQL syntax<br />single textbox<br /><ul><li>Learn complex syntax
  35. 35. Knowledge of DB schema
  36. 36. Difficult to write</li></ul>Not expressive enough<br />Not flexible enough<br />
  37. 37. Why use ontology?<br />23<br />Problem with traditional keyword search<br />Unable to perform automatic reasoning<br />Problems 1<br />Ask for : person, animal<br />Actual tags: rider, horse<br />Traditional search engine is based on keyword match. the tags we have here are rider and horse, if it does not contain any keywords we entered, the search engine will not return anything<br />It needs background knowledge to understand a rider is a person riding a horse and a horse is in fact an animal. <br />rider<br />horse<br />
  38. 38. Why use ontology?<br />Single user Mode vs Collaborative Mode <br />Degree of uncertainty <br />User credibility and expertise<br />Degree of uncertainty = CF<br />Domain-specific expertise index = E(d)<br />probably a fox ?<br />definitely a horse!<br />Is a <br />zoologist<br />5 year kid<br />horse<br />Tagged area<br />95%<br />24<br />
  39. 39. Query results visualisation-Geo-mapping<br /><ul><li>Keyhole Markup Language (KML/KMZ)
  40. 40. http://code.google.co m/apis/kml/documentation/</li></ul>XML-based language.<br />Supports place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions<br />Compatibility<br />Google Map<br />Google Maps for Mobile <br />Google Earth<br />ESRI ArcGIS Explorer,<br />25<br />
  41. 41. Query results visualisation- Statistical charts<br />Google Chart API<br />http://code.google.com/apis/chart/<br />Interactive Flash<br />Javascript arrays or XML files<br />Compatibility<br />Most mainstream browsers<br />Internet Explorer<br />Firefox<br />Safari<br />Chrome<br />26<br />
  42. 42. 27<br />Ontology-based software demo<br />Semantic tagging<br />Query by graph pattern<br />Integration with Google earth <br />Statistical charts<br />
  43. 43. System Architecture<br />28<br />
  44. 44. Links<br />A Guide to Creating Your First Ontology <br />By Stanford University<br />http://www.ksl.stanford.edu/people/dlm/papers/ontology-tutorial-noy-mcguinness-abstract.html<br />Protégé Ontology editor<br />http://protege.stanford.edu/<br />Protégé tutorial http://owl.cs.manchester.ac.uk/tutorials/protegeowltutorial/<br />CIDOC-CRM ontology<br />An ontology for culture and heritage domain<br />http://www.cidoc-crm.org/<br />KML guide and tutorial<br />http://code.google.com/apis/kml/documentation/kml_tut.html<br />29<br />
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