From Data Structures to Databases Prof. Alvarado MDST 3703 5 February 2013
Business• Quiz 1 – To be posted this evening – Due Thursday evening – Covers content before Databases – End-of-week reflections still due• Blogging – Please remember to be timely• Safari Resources – If you can‟t access, try going through the Library page
Review• Building as knowing – Ramsay‟s point in “On Building”• DH as cultural reverse engineering – Finding the rules in the patterns – Texts and images are the patterns in question• Reverse engineering is like building – Same process in reverse (deconstruction) – Also requires building other things – like databases to store stuff
For example, in Studio on Thursday we began to reverseengineer Plato’s Republic. The next step in our exercisewas to parse the text into “words” and organize them in alist using an array
Not really – we were find substrings, letter patterns that could also exist within words (e.g. “cavern”) Also, these patterns did not matchsynonyms or pronouns (e.g. “this”) thatstand for the same thing as the word in questionThis is the difference between SYNTAX and SEMANTICS
Syntax = sequences of signs Semantics = meanings of signsSemantics is much harder for computers to grasp than syntax In fact, some think that semantics isbeyond the capacity of any computer …
Getting back to PHPWe can use arrays to model the text. So,within a FOREACH loop iterating throughthe lines of a text and parsing each line for“words,” we could do the following: $words[$word]++; $words = $word; $lines[$lineNumber] = $word;Each method suggests a different model
More about PHP Arrays• Arrays can be added to like so: $myArray = $newItem;• Arrays can also use strings instead of number as indices, e.g. $myArray = „foo‟; $myArray[„person‟] = „Bob‟;• Array items may also point to arrays, creating multidimensional arrays $myArray[„person‟] = array(); $myArray[„person‟][„Bob‟] = $something;
Arrays with string indices are called “associative arrays” in PHPArrays of arrays can be used to create data structures like trees and grids
Read Chapter 5 of PHP: TheGood Parts to learn moreabout arrays (see link inResources on the course blog)Also, the PHP manual is alwaysa good place to lookhttp://php.net/manual/en/language.types.array.php
Arrays as Data Structures• PHP arrays can be used to create data structures to model things, like texts, e.g. $words[$word]++; $words = $word; $lines[$lineNumber] = $word;• These three create the following 1. A simple list of word types (and their counts) 2. A list of each word in order (position and word) 3. A grid of line numbers and words
Here is an example of how we would createthe third kind of data structure. This wouldstore a grid of words.
These numbers are the first dimension of the array (Y) These horizontal numbers are the second dimension of the array (Y)And it would store the text in grid somethinglike this one …
In this model, a text is a grid of words, each with an X and Y coordinateIs this the only way to represent a text? Is it the most accurate?
Tree of Logic (and a primitive computer)". . . the tree of nature and logic by thethirteenth-century poet, philosopher, andmissionary Ramon Lull. The main trunk supportsa version of the tree of Porphyry, whichillustrates Aristotles categories. The ten leaveson the right represent ten types of questions,and the ten leaves on the left are keyed to asystem of rotating disks for generating answers.Such diagrams and disks comprise Lulls ArsMagna (Great Art), which was the first attemptto develop mechanical aids to reasoning. Itserved as an inspiration to the pioneer insymbolic logic, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz.”John Sowa, explaining the cover art forKnowledge Representation
A KR is a model that comprises1. A set of categories (aka Ontology) Names and relationships between names2. A set of inference rules (aka Logic) A method of traversing names and relations3. A medium for computation A medium for producing inferences4. A language for expressing these things Such as a programming or markup language
Ontologies are systems ofcategories rooted in worldviews
Ontologies consist ofcategories and theirrelationshipsThese are often mappedonto physical things – thehuman body, or trees – aspart of our cognitive model
The tree as body as society among the Umeda of New Guinea
Logic is a name for the systematicunpacking ontologies in discourse …
Here is a sampleontology, onevery similar toAristotle’s
And this is a syllogism, the basic unit ofreasoning in classical logic How is it related to the tree?
The sentences in thesyllogism stand forthe traversal of thetree that representsan implicit ontology
Reasoning always implies an ontology Ontologies are often unexpressedOntologies often conflict with each other(Digital) Humanists excavate or reverse engineer these ontologies
Now, a KR for a computer has to be an operationalized KRHow would we express a syllogism in PHP?
But, given such an array, how can we find out if Socrates is mortal? How do we find if the following is set:0 1 2 3 4
We’d have to some some complicated nested looping tofind the answer …
So, PHP gives us tools to create an ontology, but not a way to reason efficiently with themTo create more effective KRs, we need the services of a database
A database is a “a system that allows for the efficient storage and retrieval of information” But beyond this, it also allows us to “represent knowledge”Given Unsworth‟s definition, how must it do this?
Databases provide a language to define ontologies (schema) and to “unpack”these ontologies – via a query language that lets us efficiently search and retrieve data organized schema
In this course, we are going to use arelational database to store and access information Relational databases use a language known as SQL(pronounced S-Q-L, although some say “sequel”)
SQL• SQL stands for “Structured Query Language” – NOT invented by Microsoft• Invented in the 1970s and commercialized in the 1980s – Probably responsible for new business models like JIT inventories• Built on Codd‟s relational model (1970) – Implements set theory and formal logic – Around the time of SGML
SQL• A language used by relational databases – Oracle, SQL Server, Access, etc.
MySQL• A very fast, simplified, and easy to use relational database• A client/server app – Runs on the internet – Not a desktop app like Access• Created by Monty Widenius in the mid 1990s – Open Source – A Finn living in Sweden – Same time as PHP• Powered the Web 2.0 revolution
phpMyAdmin• A PHP interface to MySQL• Relatively easy to use – No need to know SQL• Great to manage databases that your PHP programs will use• Today you will get started using UVA‟s free MySQL server