Green economy and sustainable development


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Green economy and sustainable development

  1. 1. GREEN ECONOMY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Presented by, Tanya Mukherjee 2011BPLN005
  2. 2. In the industrial world, it is defined as resources efficient, technology driven activity that increases investments and growth while substantially reducing carbon footprints; thus fast and clean masstransport systems and motor fuel hybridisation; cradle-to-cradle production and consumption patterns; advanced waste management on the 3Rs pattern; controls on chemicals use and management; careful mining practices and action plans to make these investments and activities sustainable, characterise one type of green economy. Practically, it can be thought of as an economy whose growth in income and employment is driven by public and private investments that reduce carbon emissions and pollution, enhance energy and resource efficiency, and prevent the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services. This is achieved through targeted public expenditure, policy reforms and regulation changes. The concept of green economy emphasises on the intersection between environment and economy.
  3. 3.  Green-Economy is essentially an inclusive concept comprising economic, social and the environmental pillars of growth. It’s goal is shared prosperity with societal resilience against future shocks and surprises. It aims at:  Well-being; measured not merely on the Happiness Index but in the context of pursuing and achieving the development goals. It promotes :  Equity; for diversified sustainable development. It provides :  A win-win economic-environmental model; Projects and programmes are co-beneficial, bringing in revenues from both environmental and economic investments.
  4. 4. Sustainable/ Clean Transportation Water Management Waste Management and Disposal Green Buildings Renewable Energy Green Economy Land Management
  5. 5.  The confluence of the global economic crisis, ecological crises and the second wave of urbanisation in cities makes them important spaces for unfolding transitions. Demand for energy and materials is increasing, and the bulk of production and consumption takes place in cities.  Exhaustion of resources in near future triggers rise in cost of resources; examples being oil, staple food, onion, etc. this will affect the global economic growth profoundly.
  6. 6.  The global economy's production and consumption are dependent on the urban infrastructures of the cities (energy, water, sanitation, solid waste, mobility, food). The urban infrastructure must be planned and configured with a sustainable resource use approach.
  7. 7.  Checking urban sprawl and implementing land-use regulations to promote redevelopment of city areas over green field sites.  Checking and regulating population density for a city-wide sustainability programme.  Providing improved planning powers and resources (human and material) to the development corporations.
  8. 8.  Strict vehicle and traffic laws.  Maximum parking standards.  Discouraging use of private motor vehicles.  Encouraging concepts like car pooling, etc.  Bus Rapid Transport (BRT) system, cable car system, etc.
  9. 9. Urban patterns for Sustainable Development:  Cities play a crucial role in creation of green economy by bringing about fair and healthy economic competitiveness, by being strategic in spatial planning and planning around landscape ecologies.  Carbon emissions along the urban population increases resulting in climate change.  The cost of renewable energy resources has decreased and that of the conventional non renewable resources has increased.
  10. 10. Urban patterns for Sustainable Development: Ways to implement green economy in cities:  Large green patches and more sustainable development  Promotion of compact cities (show minimal wastage of space) and planned extension of cities (curtailing urban sprawl)  Balancing facilities with diverse local economic opportunities
  11. 11. Urban patterns for Sustainable Development:  Development of network infrastructure like the development of BRT system  Building greener environment that use water and energy efficiently  Protection of valuable ecosystems and biodiversity hotspots  Industries must be inspired to convert to green industries.
  12. 12. Urban patterns for Sustainable Development: Cities can develop green structures by improving transport efficiency, by homogenous population distribution, by improving energy efficiency, by making more productive use of services and promoting sustainable lifestyles that are less material intensive. To develop structural capacity for sustainable cities, it is necessary to adopt an integrated approach to planning at all levels of government and all focus areas.
  13. 13. Approaches for low-carbon green city  The master plan should have the principles of green design in the city's expansion. A green transportation system should be established that encourages public transport, pedestrian and bicycle routes, electric and bio fuel powered vehicles and a regular check on the age and emission quantity of the vehicles running on the roads.  Coal should be replaced by other renewable energy sources as it is prone to exhaustion and yet used most widely for powering the various industries.
  14. 14.  Strengths  Weaknesses  Opportunities  Threats
  15. 15.  Strengths • Broadly popular concept, yet ignored. • Has high impact on economic transformation as it emphasises on eco-friendly measures of development. • Uses indigenous practises and knowledge resources.  Opportunities • Opens doors for many green jobs. • Offers a stage to show off knowledge and to get better job prospects(in better designed cities)
  16. 16.  Weaknesses • No global definition, although UNEP defines it as, “improved human well-being and social equity, while significantly reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities.“ • Situational concept and characteristics vary according to the area under consideration. • It cannot grow completely due to private interest of the people and the contradicting ideas of the city’s leaders. • Game of wealth versus prosperity, where the former is generally more preferable.
  17. 17.  Threats • Poses threat to the conventional definition of urbanism by challenging the characteristic way of interaction of inhabitants of towns and cities (urban areas) with the built environment. • Changes the way resources are utilised and the way city is run.
  18. 18.  Cape Town is the second most populous city of South Africa, after Johannesburg and is the provincial capital and major primate city of the country.  Cape town is a centre for sustainability thinking, yet complex socio-institutional dynamics and politics are constraining it's transition toward becoming a sustainable city.  It has a good track record conservation of biodiversity. in the
  19. 19.  Although recognised and accepted in national discourses, green economy is treated as an annex to the main economy by the South African government, it is appreciated at provincial level.  The City of Cape Town has identified the green economy as a growth area, but the economic rationale for its interest runs the risk of overlooking the major structural changes that are required in order to put the city on a more sustainable path.
  20. 20.  Major energy resource of the city is coal, making the country one of the most carbon dioxide intensive economies in the world. Thus, it's development plans are strongly biased towards coal ad nuclear energy sources, rather than renewable resources.  Spatial distribution of land use is uneven. High densities of residential clusters are found to be located far from the CBD and other economic activities.
  21. 21.  Cape Town is situated on the coast of Table Bay so, a number of low-lying areas are vulnerable to sea level rise.  The city faces water scarce future due to climate change. Water quality is detoriating and there are no alternative options for building new dams. Desalination is an option but with adverse affects like cost ineffectiveness and threat to marine ecosystems.
  22. 22. The City of Cape Town has formed an Energy and Climate Change Sub-Committee dedicated to the advancement of energy security, carbon mitigation, climate change adaptation, climate resilience, communication and education.  This process is challenged by social and political fragmentation (as the city is managed by a different political party to the rest of the country), fiscal conservatism (as energy sales are a source of municipal revenue), a resistance to the signing of power purchase agreements with renewable energy suppliers at a national level, and lingering perceptions of the environment as an optional luxury rather than a necessity for human survival. 
  23. 23. A Climate Change Think Tank representing a number of high-profile institutions and thought-leaders has been formed, and is working on a number of strategies to integrate sustainable thinking into city growth plans and translate theories into action.
  24. 24. Zero Emission Neighbourhoods
  25. 25. Project Benefits  Carbon emissions* zero  Zero waste* zero  Water consumption 50%* reduction  Water recycling 80%*  Mobility A fossil-fuel-free, solar-powered personal rapid transit system* (*Development targets) Location  Masdar City is being constructed 17 kilometers from the city of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. Overall size  Masdar City will cover 6 square kilometers and will be home to 50,000 people and 1,500 businesses. An expected 40,000 workers will commute to the city daily. Project partners  It is an initiative by the Government of Abu Dhabi through Mubadala Development Company together with BioRegional, Foster & Partners and World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) UAE. Project status  Initiated in 2008, it will take around eight years to build, with the first phase scheduled to be complete and habitable in 2009.
  26. 26.   Abu Dhabi is mostly desert. However, by 2009 Masdar City, a carbon-neutral city of 6 square kilometres housing 50,000 people will be built. The city will have net zero greenhouse gas emissions, with no oil or gas burnt on-site. The first phase of the development, initiated by the Government of Abu Dhabi through Mubdala Development Company in cooperation with BioRegional, Foster & Partners and WWF UAE, is scheduled to be habitable in 2009.
  27. 27.    Around 80% of water will be recycled on-site through different mechanisms. The intention is to reuse water as many times as possible. For instance, leftovers from watering crops will be captured through irrigation recovery. This mechanism works by collecting leftover water from the top soil, after irrigation through an underground collection system. The collected water can then be used for other purposes. Landscaping within the site will be irrigated with grey water and treated waste water produced by the city’s water treatment plant. Through these different mechanisms, water consumption will be reduced by over 50%, in comparison to the Abu Dhabi baseline.
  28. 28. Solar panels and solar collectors on roofs and elsewhere will generate enough electricity to meet most of Masdar City’s needs. Additionally, narrow streets and shaded walks will reduce the need for air-conditioning and the city will be oriented north-east to minimise the amount of direct sunlight on buildings’ sides and windows.  As much of the construction equipments is powered by gas, some carbon dioxide will be released into the atmosphere during the construction phase. This emission will be offset by planting trees or putting surplus solar energy back into Abu Dhabi’s national power grid. 
  29. 29.  All waste in Masdar will be recycled, reused or converted to energy.  No  All waste will go to landfill. organic waste will be re-used as fertilisers for landscaping or converted into energy through digesters.
  30. 30.  Private vehicles will not be allowed in the city.  Designers envision an emission-free transport system called a personal rapid transit (PRT) system. Solar-powered cars will run under the city like a subway system.  The cars won’t run on fixed routes but will take their passengers directly to their destination. PRTs represent an energyefficient way of moving people among roughly 1,500 stations.
  31. 31.  Material needed for construction, such as recyclable plastic, will be re-used or recycled.  Preliminary plans are being made for recycling the concrete used in city buildings when the city is ultimately torn down some time in the future.
  32. 32.  The project is supported by the global conservation charity WWF and the sustainability group BioRegional. In response to the project’s commitment to zero carbon, zero waste and other environmentally friendly goals, WWF and BioRegional have endorsed Masdar City as an official ’One Planet Living®’ Community.
  33. 33. The 10 ‘One Planet Living®’ principles are: 1. Zero Carbon 2. Zero Waste 3. Sustainable Transport 4. Local and Sustainable Materials 5. Local and Sustainable Food 6. Sustainable Water 7. Natural Habitats and Wildlife 8. Culture and Heritage 9. Equity and Fair Trade 10. Health and Happiness
  34. 34.  Green economy is not about slowing economic growth.  Involves local resources  Cost efficient and can also be included in existing city plans and paradigms.  Green growth can be viable model for economic growth that can trigger healthy competition as it focuses on improving resource productivity rather than money making.
  35. 35.    "Green City Transition: Enabling urban areas for a green economy" by Philipp Rode "Sustainability in Austerity: Enhancing city resilience and boosting the green economy by making the cuts that really matter" by Philip Monaghan "Urban Patterns for Sustainable Development: Towards a Green Economy and Growing Greener Cities" from Source material for case study: Cape Town, South Africa  Presentation by Anton Cartwright, African Centre for Cities Source material for case study: Abu Dhabi, UAE       