Water Security for Texas:the Role of Science & Technology                    Neal Wilkins     Director, Texas Water Resour...
Water Security – capacity to efficiently access anadequate water resource, and the ability tobalance competing demands.
Freshwater Resources• ~190,000 miles of rivers & streams    • 20% perennial flow.• >200 major reservoirs ~1.2 million ac.•...
Texas Water Withdrawals• Total Water withdrawals of 26,770 million  gallons per day.• Freshwater withdrawals are 88% of to...
How Much Freshwater Consumed?• Total Withdrawal.   – 26,770 Mgal/d – 11% Saline• Total Freshwater   – 23,620 Mgal/d – 40% ...
2010 Existing SuppliesAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and existing infrastructure du...
2060 ScenarioAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and existing infrastructure during drou...
2060 Existing Supplies vs. Projected DemandsAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and exis...
2060 Recommended Water Mgmt. Strategies                                                           1,505,465               ...
Water ConservationAbout 25% of future unmet water demandsare anticipated from implementingconservation technologies for wa...
Water Reuse10% of future unmet water demands areprojected to come from reuse systems.1 million acre-feet/year of new suppl...
New Reservoirs    “The 2012 State Water Plan Recommends    26 reservoirs that would provide 1.5    million acre-feet of wa...
26 New Reservoirs – 2012 Water PlanArea = 152,314 Surface AcresSupply = 1,412,938 Ac-Ft/YrCost = $12 Billion
10 Largest New ReservoirsArea = 115,633 Surface AcresSupply = 1,102,176 Ac-Ft/YrCost = $9 Billion
Brackish Groundwater – A new source?   Brackish groundwater in TX ~ 2.7 billion acre-feet           – Not all is accessibl...
Brackish Groundwater – Challenges   • Issues with brackish groundwater desal.:           – Costs / Energy requirements ($1...
Challenges–Conflicting Objectives–Climate Uncertainty–Energy : Water Nexus–Sustaining Freshwater Ecosystems–Loss of rural ...
Climate Uncertainty                Source: John Nielson-Gammon
Climate Uncertainty                Source: John Nielson-Gammon
Climate Uncertainty
Energy : Water NexusIt takes energy to produce water.It takes water to produce energy.
Maintaining Freshwater Ecosystems• 250 species of fish and rich aquatic life – supporting the state’s wildlife resource.• ...
Loss of Agricultural Lands               1997-2007     •2.1 Million Acres Converted     •40% of conversion in the top 25  ...
Areas of Recommitment1. support advances in water conservation and   technology development required to implement the   Te...
Areas of Recommitment4. develop and assess new technologies for meeting   wastewater standards and water use efficiency   ...
Policy Innovations–Standardize water accounting (e.g. footprinting).–Develop pricing approaches that reflect the full cost...
http://twri.tamu.edu/
Backup Slides
Recently Petitioned SpeciesTexas fatmucket – E.P.       Smooth pimpleback – P.O.S.False spike – E.P.           Texas fawns...
Golden orbKnown range:Guadalupe, SanAntonio, Colorado,Brazos, and Nueces-Frio River systems
Triangle pigtoeKnown range:Neches and SanJacinto River basins
Range Overlap of Petitioned Mussels
1997-200722% Population GrowthIncrease of 4.3 MillionForecasts for 202030.25 Million6.5 Million added.
1997-200785% of Population Growth in25 High-growth Counties.  40% of Rural Land Loss  occurred in 25 High-growth  Counties...
Land “Consumption” Rates270 acres per 1000 newresidents.
Neal Wilkins, Water Security for Texas: the Role of Science & Technology
Neal Wilkins, Water Security for Texas: the Role of Science & Technology
Neal Wilkins, Water Security for Texas: the Role of Science & Technology
Neal Wilkins, Water Security for Texas: the Role of Science & Technology
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Neal Wilkins, Water Security for Texas: the Role of Science & Technology

  1. 1. Water Security for Texas:the Role of Science & Technology Neal Wilkins Director, Texas Water Resources Institute
  2. 2. Water Security – capacity to efficiently access anadequate water resource, and the ability tobalance competing demands.
  3. 3. Freshwater Resources• ~190,000 miles of rivers & streams • 20% perennial flow.• >200 major reservoirs ~1.2 million ac.• 5 million acres of freshwater wetlands.• 9 major aquifers & 21 minor aquifers.• 1,292 named springs (~3,000 total).
  4. 4. Texas Water Withdrawals• Total Water withdrawals of 26,770 million gallons per day.• Freshwater withdrawals are 88% of total.• Surface water supplies 68% of all withdrawals.• Thermoelectric power withdrawals were 11,536 million gallons per day. Source: USGS. 2005. Estimated use of water in the United States.
  5. 5. How Much Freshwater Consumed?• Total Withdrawal. – 26,770 Mgal/d – 11% Saline• Total Freshwater – 23,620 Mgal/d – 40% Thermoelectric Power 13,944 Mgal/d About 14 billion gallons per day Source: USGS. 2005. Estimated use of water in the United States.
  6. 6. 2010 Existing SuppliesAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and existing infrastructure during drought Municipal 4,851,201 Surface 8,427,432 Manufacturing 1,727,808 Mining 296,230 Existing Projected Supplies Demand 16,983,205 Steam/Electric 18,010,599 733,179 Ground 8,073,609 Livestock 322,966 Reuse 482,164 Irrigation 10,079,215Note: all values reported in acre-feet/yearSource: Texas Water Development Board 2012 State Water Plan (Draft)
  7. 7. 2060 ScenarioAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and existing infrastructure during drought Municipal 8,414,492 Surface 8,968,541 Manufacturing 2,882,524 Existing Projected Supplies Demand Mining 15,270,535 21,952,198 292,294 Ground 5,688,293 Steam/Electric 1,620,411 Livestock 371,923 Reuse 613,701 Irrigation 8,370,554Note: all values reported in acre-feet/yearSource: Texas Water Development Board 2012 State Water Plan (Draft)
  8. 8. 2060 Existing Supplies vs. Projected DemandsAmount of water that can be produced with current permits, contracts, and existing infrastructure during drought Municipal 8,414,492 Surface 8,968,541 Manufacturing 2,882,524 Existing Projected Supplies Mining Demand 15,270,535 292,294 21,952,198 Ground Steam/Electric 5,688,293 1,620,411 Livestock 371,923 Reuse 613,701 Irrigation 8,370,554* Dashed line denotes values from 2010.Note: all values reported in acre-feet/yearSource: Texas Water Development Board 2012 State Water Plan (Draft)
  9. 9. 2060 Recommended Water Mgmt. Strategies 1,505,465 Irrigation 2,176,258 (24%) Conservation 2,323,176 647,361 Municipal 23,432 Other 1,499,671 New Reservoirs Projected Supply 3,050,049 5,350,515 (59%) with New Strategies New Sources Other Surface Water Projected 9,004,839 Shortfall $53 Billion 6,681,663 800,795 Ground Water 309,782 (4%) Desalination Sea, Ground, Surface Water 915,589 1,168,284 (13%) ReuseOther Strategies Conjunctive, Aquifer Storage, & Other 252,695 Note: all values reported in acre-feet/year
  10. 10. Water ConservationAbout 25% of future unmet water demandsare anticipated from implementingconservation technologies for water useefficiency and programs resulting indecreased demands on existing supplies.
  11. 11. Water Reuse10% of future unmet water demands areprojected to come from reuse systems.1 million acre-feet/year of new supply By2060.
  12. 12. New Reservoirs “The 2012 State Water Plan Recommends 26 reservoirs that would provide 1.5 million acre-feet of water during a repeat of drought of record…” “In the absence of these reservoirs, other water management strategies would simply not be enough to meet the needs of Texans during a severe drought.”Texas Water Development Board. 2011. Water for Texas 2012 State Water Plan – DRAFT.
  13. 13. 26 New Reservoirs – 2012 Water PlanArea = 152,314 Surface AcresSupply = 1,412,938 Ac-Ft/YrCost = $12 Billion
  14. 14. 10 Largest New ReservoirsArea = 115,633 Surface AcresSupply = 1,102,176 Ac-Ft/YrCost = $9 Billion
  15. 15. Brackish Groundwater – A new source? Brackish groundwater in TX ~ 2.7 billion acre-feet – Not all is accessible – 56% in South and West Texas [Regions L (15%), M (15%), F (14%), and N (12%)] – 2/3 is slightly brackish (1,000-3,000 ppm TDS) & ideal for desal.Sources:LBG-Guyton Associates, 2003, Brackish groundwater manual for Texas regional water planning groups: Contract report prepared for the Texas WaterDevelopment Board, Austin, Texas, 188 p. Available at (http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/2001483395.pdf).NRS Consulting Engineers, 2008, Guidance Manual For Brackish Groundwater Desalination in Texas: Contract report prepared for the Texas WaterDevelopment Board, Austin, Texas. Available at (http://www.desal.org/desaldemo/Desal%20PDFs%20for%20Site/GM%20-%20Full.pdf).Texas Living Waters Project, 2009, Brackish Groundwater Desalination, Issue Paper 2: Prepared by National Wildlife Federation, Sierra Club, andEnvironmental Defense Fund. Available at: (http://www.texaswatermatters.org/pdfs/issure_no2_brack.pdf)
  16. 16. Brackish Groundwater – Challenges • Issues with brackish groundwater desal.: – Costs / Energy requirements ($1.50/Kgal to $2.75/Kgal; $410-847/acre-ft) – Potential impacts to interconnected water resources (i.e. freshwater portions of aquifers) – Regulatory framework for management (i.e. GWCDs) – Brine disposalSources:LBG-Guyton Associates, 2003, Brackish groundwater manual for Texas regional water planning groups: Contract report prepared for the Texas WaterDevelopment Board, Austin, Texas, 188 p. Available at (http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/RWPG/rpgm_rpts/2001483395.pdf).NRS Consulting Engineers, 2008, Guidance Manual For Brackish Groundwater Desalination in Texas: Contract report prepared for the Texas WaterDevelopment Board, Austin, Texas. Available at (http://www.desal.org/desaldemo/Desal%20PDFs%20for%20Site/GM%20-%20Full.pdf).Texas Living Waters Project, 2009, Brackish Groundwater Desalination, Issue Paper 2: Prepared by National Wildlife Federation, Sierra Club, andEnvironmental Defense Fund. Available at: (http://www.texaswatermatters.org/pdfs/issure_no2_brack.pdf)
  17. 17. Challenges–Conflicting Objectives–Climate Uncertainty–Energy : Water Nexus–Sustaining Freshwater Ecosystems–Loss of rural lands
  18. 18. Climate Uncertainty Source: John Nielson-Gammon
  19. 19. Climate Uncertainty Source: John Nielson-Gammon
  20. 20. Climate Uncertainty
  21. 21. Energy : Water NexusIt takes energy to produce water.It takes water to produce energy.
  22. 22. Maintaining Freshwater Ecosystems• 250 species of fish and rich aquatic life – supporting the state’s wildlife resource.• Multi-billion dollar recreational resource.• Valuable (but yet to be priced) ecosystem services.
  23. 23. Loss of Agricultural Lands 1997-2007 •2.1 Million Acres Converted •40% of conversion in the top 25 high-growth counties.Land “Consumption” Rates270 acres per 1000 new residents.
  24. 24. Areas of Recommitment1. support advances in water conservation and technology development required to implement the Texas State Water Plan;2. assess new technologies to improve efficiency of water use for agriculture and municipal irrigation;3. provide research and development of best management practices for water reuse, desalination, rainwater capture, and other advances for optimizing water use;
  25. 25. Areas of Recommitment4. develop and assess new technologies for meeting wastewater standards and water use efficiency associated with energy development;5. provide resources for outreach, extension, for innovations in water conservation and emerging technologies; and6. conduct economic and policy analyses directed at adoption of new technologies.
  26. 26. Policy Innovations–Standardize water accounting (e.g. footprinting).–Develop pricing approaches that reflect the full cost-of-service.–Clear & secure ownership rights.–Support markets that assign value to freshwater ecosystems.–Incentivise Land & Water Stewardship
  27. 27. http://twri.tamu.edu/
  28. 28. Backup Slides
  29. 29. Recently Petitioned SpeciesTexas fatmucket – E.P. Smooth pimpleback – P.O.S.False spike – E.P. Texas fawnsfoot – C.T.Golden orb – E.P. Texas heelsplitter – P.W.Texas pimpleback – E.P. Louisiana pigtoe – P.W.Salina mucket – S.T.P. Triangle pigtoe – P.W.Mexican fawnsfoot – S.T.P. Golden orb Triangle pigtoe
  30. 30. Golden orbKnown range:Guadalupe, SanAntonio, Colorado,Brazos, and Nueces-Frio River systems
  31. 31. Triangle pigtoeKnown range:Neches and SanJacinto River basins
  32. 32. Range Overlap of Petitioned Mussels
  33. 33. 1997-200722% Population GrowthIncrease of 4.3 MillionForecasts for 202030.25 Million6.5 Million added.
  34. 34. 1997-200785% of Population Growth in25 High-growth Counties. 40% of Rural Land Loss occurred in 25 High-growth Counties. 861,765 ac lost
  35. 35. Land “Consumption” Rates270 acres per 1000 newresidents.

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