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Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal
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Study on assessment on improvement of industrial environment in nepal

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Study on assessment on improvement of Industrial environment in Nepal from Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal, (2009)

Study on assessment on improvement of Industrial environment in Nepal from Ministry of Industry, Government of Nepal, (2009)

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  • 1. GOVERNMENT OF NEPAL MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY Study Report onAssessment on Improvement of Industrial Environment in Nepal Jointly submitted by: Cemeca Human Resources Pvt. Ltd. Solar Energy Foundation Anam Nagar, Kathmandu, (SEF Nepal) Nepal Kathmandu, Nepal JULY 2009
  • 2. Table of ContentsContents  1  BACKGROUND ......................................................................................................................................... 2  2  OBJECTIVE ............................................................................................................................................... 3  3  METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 3  4  OVERVIEW OF MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDS ....................... 4  5  OVERALL SCENARIOS OF NEPALESE INDUSTRIES................................................................... 11  6  FINDINGS OF INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENT ..................................................................................... 18  7  CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS .................................................................................... 19  8  ANNEXES ................................................................................................................................................. 21 Industrial Environment Study 1
  • 3. 1 BACKGROUND1.1 PreambleThis document aims to provide a policy study to address the industrial environment and energy usepattern of Nepalese industries.Industrialization is a cornerstone of socio-economic progress and a crucial prime-mover ofeconomic growth, especially country like Nepal. In the past, the selection of technologies andindustry components was based mainly on financial conditions with a view to maximizing economicoutput and practically little, if no, inputs are regards environmental issues was included in theplanning process. This lack of concern for environmental matters has led to serious pollution andunsustainable production practices in many countries.Nepal is not an industrialized country and nor does it have the vast number of industries that cancause serious environmental damage, as do the industrialized countries elsewhere in the world. Butlocalized pollution is causing problems everywhere in the country and it is also one of the majorfactors responsible for the high levels of various respiratory diseases and pollutions of river andland. Owing to factors like resource constraints, short-term profit oriented practices, lack ofexpertise to conduct tests and energy efficiency measures, there are many industries yet to beinvestigated for their environmental problems.The government has been trying to solve the problems of environmental pollution by applyingvarious methods. Nepalese industries and institutions will not be able to combat pollution byinstalling equipment which is very costly and which demands highly skilled experts.On the other hand Nepalese industries have been facing problem of unreliable sources of energysupply for production process. The load shedding of at least 16 hours have almost diminishedindustrial productivity. Although by initiation of Ministry of Industry the power supply has beenguaranteed for industrial districts. This applies only industries that are situated in industrial districts.But, no efforts have been made for searching new and renewable energy sources of supply forapplication of industrial process in Nepal.This discussion reveals that still there is a need of environmental measures to be followed by manyindustries and search for sustainable energy supply system. Therefore, the CEMECA HumanResources Pvt. Ltd., Kathmandu, Nepal jointly with the Solar Energy Foundation (SEF Nepal),Industrial Environment Study 2
  • 4. Nepal have been assigned to conduct an assessment study on Improvement of IndustrialEnvironment in Nepal and submitted to the Government of Nepal, Ministry of Industry. The studyhas conducted the study and has submitted the report.2 OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this proposed study were as follows. • To study the industrial pollution condition in Nepal • To study the energy supply system in industries • To study the needs of industrial pollution reduction activities in Nepal3 METHODOLOGY:Varieties of methods were employed to gather the information required for this study. Thesemethods included: a) The study was mainly based on the desk study by reviewing relevant literatures. However a number of walkthrough filed visits have been conducted for selected corridor of industries. Literature review has been carried out through reports, journals, data book, books and also electronic media. This desk study was mainly focused to formulate the study. b) Walks through field works have been carried out including interview type survey of selected industries, such as Hetauda, Butwal, Bhairahawa, Patan Industrial District and Balaju Industrial District. The field works was mainly consists of application of cleaner production methods, reduction of environmental pollution measures and type of energy supplies. c) After field work the data have been complied and analysis has been carried out.Industrial Environment Study 3
  • 5. 4 OVERVIEW OF MAJOR ENVIRONMENTAL DEVELOPMENTS AND TRENDSNepal has an area of 147,181 sq. km and an average north-south width of 193 km and east-westlength of 850 km. It consists of three main physiographic regions, viz., Mountains, Hills, and Terai(plains). Of the country’s total area, the mountain and hill regions together account for nearly 77%while the Terai region accounts for the remaining 23% of the area. But in terms of population, theTerai region had nearly 47% of the country’s estimated total population of 22.37 million in 1999 andthe Mountains and Hills the rest.The overview of the general environmental conditions of the country is given under two headings:environmental resources and social and economic driving forces. The country has diverseenvironmental resources: water, forests, land, climate and weather, and biodiversity. The country hasenormous hydropower potential. Forests still occupy the largest proportion of the land area. Thediverse climatic condition makes it possible to grow a wide variety of agricultural crops. With thediverse climatic conditions, together with the forests, the country is rich in biodiversity. Due to thelack of capital and human resources, commitment on the part of the government, and awarenessamong the general mass of the people, the country has not been able to utilize these vast resourcesto the extent desired. The resources are deteriorating instead. Landslides, soil erosion, deforestation,forest fires, and so on have caused the land to deteriorate, water sources to dwindle away, rivers toflood, biodiversity to deplete, and people to migrate into urban areas and elsewhere.Urban areas have developed haphazardly creating acute problems of solid waste, water pollution, airpollution, noise pollution, and others. The country has a broad-based population structure,indicating a high fertility rate. The gainful population is increasing, and is quite large compared to theavailability of employment opportunities. Roads, the backbone of industrial 4 develpment and social,economic, political, and spatial integration, have not yet reached all 75 district headquarters and,therefore, most of the human settlements cannot be reached by road. The existing infrastructuralfacilities, including roads, electricity, health, schools, and water are inadequate, not only for the needsof the people but also in terms of use of existing resources.Industrial Environment Study 4
  • 6. 4.1 Key National Environmental IssuesThe key environmental issues of Nepal are related to forests, soil, solid waste, water, and air. Theseenvironmental resource bases are described in terms of a pressure-state-impact-response framework.4.1.1 Forest depletionThe forests, a major resource base of Nepal, cover an area of 42,682 sq.km, 29% of the total landarea, and shrub covers 15,601 sq.km or 10.6% of the total area. Forest depletion is one of the majorenvironmental issues in the country. The forests have decreased in both area coverage and densityover previous decades. Landslides, soil erosion, floods, encroachment of forests by cultivated landand people for settlement, among others, have been responsible for this.Out of the total land area in the country, the forest area, according to the Land Resources MappingProject (LRMP) accounted for 38% in 1978/79; in 1994 the area had declined to 29%. The shrubarea increased during the same period from 4.7 to 10.6%. This has been mainly due to uncontrolledcutting of trees for fuelwood and forest clearance for agricultural land. Between 1978/79 and 1994,the estimated rate of annual deforestation in the Hills was 2.3% compared to 1.3% in the Terai,while for the country as a whole it was 1.7%. During the same period, the annual decrease in forestand shrub together was 0.5%. In terms of area, the forests of the country decreased by 24%, whileshrub area increased 126%.The agricultural area increased from 235,900 ha in 1980 to 2,968,000 ha in 1985 and then remainedconstant up to 1999. This increment was mainly due to the encroachment on forest areas. The forestwas also encroached by development works and human settlements. In easternNepal, the forest areadecreased as a result of construction of Bhutanese refugee camps in and around the forests.There has been a decrease in the growing stock rate of the trees. In 1985, the total growing stockwas 522 million cubic metres of bark up to 10 cm top diameter, and this dwindled down to 387.5million cubic metres in 1999. The growing stock for sal (Shorea robusta) in the Terai forests declinedfrom 101 m3/ha to 72 m3/ha and for other hardwood forests the decline was from 76 m3/ha to 58m3/ha.Fuelwood constitutes 78% of the total fuel consumption and its use is one of the main causes offorest depletion. This is basically due to the lack of alternative fuel to wood. As a result, distancesIndustrial Environment Study 5
  • 7. from the villages to the forests have increased. The forest has also been under great pressure fromthe ever-increasing demand of the livestock population for grazing and fodder. Species of flora andfauna have also declined due to forest depletion. In 1996, 47 endemic plant species were found to beunder immense threat. The country’s threatened animal species, including mammals and birds, hadshares of 3.8 and 2.3% respectively of the world’s endangered species. Landslides, soil erosion, andfloods have occurred as a result of the clearing of forests, particularly in the hills. Whilesedimentation has taken place in downstream areas, the occurrence of floods and landslides has alsoaffected human life and property.Some government policies have appeared to contribute to forest depletion. For instance, the ‘PrivateForest Nationalization Act 1957’, which was implemented to consolidate the protection andmanagement of the forests, rather led to degradation of the forests by providing people withuncontrolled access to forest areas. Similarly, the Land Tax Act 1977 encouraged people to cut treesstanding around their farms, as the act defined land with forest as government land.Nepal has tried to mitigate forest depletion by passing legislation such as the Forest Protection Act(1967), National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act (1973), National Forestry Plan (1976), MasterPlan for the Forestry Sector (1989-2010), Nepal Environmental Policy and Action Plan(1993),Buffer Zone Regulation (1996), and Plant Protection Act (1997) and introduction of programmeslike the community forestry programme. The government has adopted an appropriate technologyfor alternative energy to fuelwood. The Alternative Energy Promotion Centre (AEPC) has prepareda twenty-year master plan to provide alternative energy sources such as biogas, improved cookingstoves (ICS), and solar energy from photovoltaic systems.4.2.1 Soil degradationNepal’s mountains and hills are inherently vulnerable to landslides and soil erosion. The rapidgrowth of human and livestock population is putting severe pressure on Nepal’s natural resources,especially soil. Deforestation, degradation of grasslands, encroachment of steep slopes, and intensiveagriculture are leading to soil degradation. Unbalanced use of chemical fertilizers is also causing soildegradation through change in soil structure and acidification.Development works, particularly the construction of mountain roads without adequate conservationmeasures, have also contributed to landslides and soil erosion. Studies have shown that 60–80% ofIndustrial Environment Study 6
  • 8. the total annual soil loss from cultivated terraces occurs during the pre-monsoon season. Thedeclining soil fertility has resulted in stagnancy in the production of major food crops. The one-wayflow of nutrients from forest to farmland has resulted in rapid depletion of nutrients in forest soils.The Ninth Plan (1997–2002) realized that the decline in crop production is mainly due to soildegradation.The policy responses of the government in terms of addressing the problem of soil degradation arethe establishment of the Department of Soil Conservation and Watershed Management; formulationof the Soil and Watershed Conservation Act 1982 and its Regulations 1984; Forestry Master Plan;Community Forestry Programme; and Agricultural Perspective Plan.4.2.2 Solid waste managementSolid waste management problems are caused by the introduction of plastic materials and changingconsumption patterns, especially in urban areas, and these have resulted in an increase in the volumeof solid waste. The urban population makes up about 15% of the country’s total population.However, the rapid growth in urban population by over 5% per annum in Nepal has exertedtremendous pressure on the urban environment. One consequence of this is an increasing amountof garbage, which is often seen littering city streets or in dumps on the river banks and in otherpublic places.Urbanization in Nepal is characterized by haphazard and unplanned urban growth, inviting manyenvironmental problems such as encroachment of public areas and river banks, air pollution, waterpollution, and solid waste. Among these, solid waste seems to be the most visible problem.Households are the main sources of solid waste in Nepal. The per capita waste generation isestimated to be 0.48 kg per day. In 1999, about three million urban residents in Nepal’s 58municipalities generated a total of 426,486 tones of waste, to which the city of Kathmandu alonecontributed 29%. Of the total waste generation in the country, solid waste made up about 83%,agricultural waste constituted 11%, and industrial waste accounted for 6%.The major types of hazardous waste generated in the country are medical waste, battery wastes,pesticides, and a few types of industrial waste. An estimated 500 tones of hazardous waste is 6generated per year from hospitals and 235 tones from dry cell batteries including factory waste. Mostof these wastes are either dumped with the rest of the garbage or burned in ordinary kilns. The totalIndustrial Environment Study 7
  • 9. consumption of pesticides in the country is approximately 55 tones of active ingredients per year.BHC, aldrin, and endosulfan are commonly used pesticides. Most unused pesticides are thrown onto open dumps. Obsolete pesticides are classified as hazardous waste. Currently, about 67 tones ofobsolete pesticides are stockpiled in unsafe conditions at various locations in the country.In 1980 solid waste management was introduced by establishing the Solid Waste Management andResource Mobilisation Centre (SWMRMC) and a landfill site for solid waste in Kathmandu. Otherpolicy responses include the Solid Waste Management National Policy (1996), Local Self-Governance Act (1999), and the involvement of the private sector in waste management inKathmandu and Biratnagar.4.2.3 Water qualityRivers and groundwater are major sources of drinking water in Nepal. Over time, the country’srequirements for water for drinking and personal hygiene, agriculture, religious activities, industrialproduction, and hydropower generation have increased. Major towns and cities in the Hills haveacute problems of water availability. In the Kathmandu Valley, water supply meets only 79% of thetotal urban demand of 145 million litres/day during the rainy season. The carpet industries aloneconsume about 6.1 million litres of water per day and generate 5.5 million litres of waste water daily.In 1998, the total annual withdrawal of water for consumptive uses was 16.70 billion m3/year,which accounted for 7.4% of the total capacity. In 1994, it was 5.8%. In other words, the annual percapita withdrawal of water was 760 m3 in 1998, an increase from 650 m3 in 1994. Nepal’s ruralsettlements and the majority of urban areas do not have access to sewerage networks. The domesticwaste water generated by these areas is discharged into local rivers without treatment. Forty per centof Nepal’s total industrial units (4,271) in 1992 were related to water pollution. In KathmanduValley, this accounted for 57% of total industrial units (2,174). All industrial wastes in most cases aredirectly discharged into local water bodies without treatment. The use of chemical fertilisers (NPK)per hectare increased tremendously from 7.6 kg in 1975 to 26.6 kg in 1998. The decline in forest areareduced the water recharge capacity of groundwater sources. The water quality of rivers and lakesflowing through the large urban areas is deteriorating. The water quality of rivers flowing in remoteareas is still acceptable. The quantity of water for household uses is severely limited and the qualityof drinking water is poor in most cases, mainly due to the lack of treatment plants. The rivers arealso major places for disposal of urban solid waste and industrial effluents. Patient visits to hospitalsIndustrial Environment Study 8
  • 10. because of diarrhoeal problems have increased tremendously. A report obtained from a localhospital in Kathmandu showed that 16.5% of all deaths were due to water-borne diseases. Rivers,ponds, and lakes, particularly in the major urban areas, have been greatly affected by dumping anddischarging of household waste, sewerage, and industrial affluents into them. The aesthetic value andbiodiversity of water bodies have also been affected. The policy measures for water resourceconservation include the Water Aquatic Animals Protection Act (1965), Solid Waste Act (1987),Solid Waste Regulations (1989), Water Resources Act (1992), and Resources Regulations (1993).4.2.4 Air pollutionAir quality, particularly in the large urban areas of Nepal, has deteriorated. Several factors areresponsible for this. • The energy supply in Nepal comes largely from traditional sources such as fuelwood, agricultural residues, and animal waste. These sources make up nearly 90% of the total energy consumption. Other sources like petroleum fuel, coal, and electricity share the remaining 10%. • The number of vehicles is rising rapidly, particularly in the major urban areas. The total number of vehicles in the country increased from 75,159 in 1990 to 220,000 in 1998. The two- wheeler was the largest, accounting for nearly 51% of the total vehicles. As a consequence, the consumption of petrol and diesel increased from 31,056,000 litres and 195,689,000 litres in 1993 to 49,994,000 litres and 315,780,000 litres in 1998. All the vehicles (four wheels and two wheels) are responsible for emitting pollutants such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide, suspended particulate matter, smoke, and soot. • In 1994, Nepal’s total industries numbered 4,487, of which 74% were classified as air polluting industries. Of the total air polluting industries, Kathmandu alone had 33%. • Emission of carbon dioxide was estimated to be 15.45 x 10 tones in 1999. Annual emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from petroleum products was estimated at 72,000 tones of carbon and 1790 tones of nitrogen from 1970-1990. Methane production was 1.2 million tones in 1997. Due to deforestation and burning of fuel wood, the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere has increased. It is estimated that the annual deforestation of 26,602 hectares of land has emitted 7.77 million tones of CO2 into the atmosphere.Industrial Environment Study 9
  • 11. • The 1996 survey identified CFC-12 and HCFC-22 as the only ODS consumed in Nepal, about 29.058 tones and 23.04 tones per annum respectively. There is no production of ODS substances in Nepal. • The impacts of air pollution in Nepal are as follow. - Air pollution has had a direct impact on human health. Respiratory diseases increased from 10.9% of the total outpatient visits (5,167,378) in 1996 to 11.6% of the total outpatient visits (7,115,981) in 1998. - The inhabitants of Nepal’s mountain region are much more vulnerable to respiratory diseases because of the burning of fuel wood in poorly ventilated houses. Hospital records show that a greater number of respiratory diseases occurred in the urban population than in the rural population; and this may be due to the smoke and dust emitted from vehicles and industries. Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) accounted for more than 30% of total deaths in children under five years of age. A significant proportion of the population, in both rural and urban areas, is affected by bronchitis caused by domestic smoke. - The air quality in Nepal’s major urban areas has deteriorated because of the emission of smoke from vehicular traffic. Dust particles emitted by cement factories have caused an adverse impact on vegetation growth, as well as low visibility and low degree of incoming sunlight. • The measures undertaken by His Majesty’s Government of Nepal to mitigate air pollution are the Industrial Enterprises Act (1992), Vehicles and Transport Management Act (1993), Nepal Petroleum Products Act (1993), Nepal Mines Act (1996), Environmental Protection Act (1996), and Nepal Vehicle Mass Emission Standard (2000). Restriction of the registration of two-stroke Engine vehicles in important tourist towns are an important measure for mitigating air pollution in Nepal. Nepal had ratified the Montreal Protocol in 1996 and, accordingly, the Ministry of Industry has introduced activities to phase out ODS by 2010.Industrial Environment Study 10
  • 12. 5 OVERALL SCENARIOS OF NEPALESE INDUSTRIESIndustrial development in Nepal is still in primal phase. Contribution the gross domestic product ofthis sector is estimated to be around 10 percent. Altogether, industrial sector utilizes only about 3.4percent of total energy consumption 270.9 million Giga joules. The Industrial Census of 1992indicated that total number of manufacturing establishments in Nepal was 4271 and that for theKathmandu valley was 2174, with employment of 224000 and 130000 persons, respectively.According to census, these manufacturing units employ either 10 or more persons.Industries like carpet, garment and printing are more centralized in the Kathmandu valley than inother parts of the country. It should be noted that the valley alone accommodates about 50 percentof total industries in Nepal. But exact situation of small scale industries, i.e., less than 10 peopleemployed in per unit, is still unclear. Nevertheless, Central Bureau of Statistics has projected around46418 numbers of small units in operation through out the country on the basis of sample survey of1991.5.1 Industrial discharges scenarios5.1.1 Air PollutionThe main sources of airborne pollutants from industrial sector are combustion of fossil fuels forheating and power, and waste gases and dust from industrial processes and sites. Either the averageproduction capacity or fuel utilization patterns of Nepalese industries compel to say that emission ofdifferent type of pollutants may cause a localized air pollution problem. In Nepal total number of airpolluting units is estimated about 3156 and that for the Kathmandu valley alone is around 47.5percent. But, all of these manufacturing units are identified for the emission of TSP, CO, VOC,NO2, and SO2. Meanwhile, present emission inventory is limited to TSP and SO2 only.5.1.1.1 Total suspended particulates (TSP)5.1.1.2 Central Development Region5.1.1.2.1 Kathmandu valleyThis primal finding reveals that TSP release at the Central Development Region is the highest,57800 tons in the country. Similarly, other significant aspect within the CDR is the TSP release inthe Kathmandu valley which is around 65 percent (37800 tons). Moreover, industrial TSP dischargesat the Kathmandu valley is approximately 50 per cent of total TSP release in Nepal (76390 tons).Industrial Environment Study 11
  • 13. In general, TSP load in the valley atmosphere from medium and large size industrial sectors isestimated at 104 ton per day out of which, contribution of brick kilns and Himal cement factory is77 and 20 percent, respectively. But it should be noted that operation of brick kilns is seasonalwhich start from November/December to May/June as well as energy utilization by brick kilns isalso inconsistent, while the Himal cement factory runs throughout the year. Likewise, TSP emissionfrom other industrial miscellaneous sources is about 3 ton per day.The ambient air quality monitored during 1993 at different industrial areas and traffic zones in theKathmandu valley evidenced that major air polluting parameters like TSP and SO2 were more orless comparable between the heavy traffic centers such as Singha Durbar and GPO complex, andindustrial areas like the vicinity of Himal cement factory and Bhaktapur industrial district. In case ofother industrial areas such as Patan and Balaju, ambient air quality was relatively clean than the heavytraffic centers (Devkota, 1993).5.1.1.3 Central Developing Region excluding the valleyIndustrial TSP release at the Central Development Region excluding the Kathmandu valley isestimated at 19950 tons which is about 26 percent of total industrial TSP scenario. Bricks, cement,sugar mills and iron and steel allied industries are key air polluting industries in this area.5.1.1.4 Eastern Development RegionIt has been estimated that the TSP release at this region is about 9 percent (6600 tons) of totalindustrial TSP discharges. Major air polluters have been identified as bricks (5400 tons), soap anddetergents (550 tons), iron and steel basic industries (440 tons), and cement and allied (178 tons).5.1.1.5 Western Development RegionIndustries responsible for TSP release at the Western Development Region are perceived asstructural clay products (4700 tons) and cement (700 tons). Altogether, different types ofmanufacturing units contribute about 5500 tons of TSP in this region.5.1.1.6 Mid and Far Western Development RegionsThe Mid and Far Western development regions contribute only 2600 and 3800 tons TSP,respectively. The only notable air polluting industrial source in both regions is structural clayproducts. It has been incurred that this sector alone contributes about 99 percent of TSP.5.1.1.7 National ContextIn the national context, structural clay products, and cement and allied units contribute 70 and 27percent of TSP load in ambient air, respectively out of total TSP 76390 tons. In general, major typesIndustrial Environment Study 12
  • 14. of industries responsible for air pollution in Nepal are brick kilns, cement factories, metal castingand allied works, boilers of paper, sugar and distillery as well as other utilities, which have bothoutdoor and indoor health significance. But for immediate action brick, cement and other major coaland boiler utilizing industries need to prioritize first.5.1.2 Water PollutionWater pollution from industrial sector is much dependent on adequate supply of water. The quantityof water used by industry varies widely. An industrial process whereby water is used ultimatelygenerates waste-water which may result as pollution in the nearby aquatic systems because some ofthe products or almost all of the byproducts are discharged into them. Pollution of the waterway isoften caused by single or combination of the different natures of industrial discharges such asoxygen demanding wastes, disease causing agents, synthetic organic compounds, plant nutrients,inorganic chemical and minerals, sediments, thermal discharges and oil. Regional distribution ofleading water polluting industries in Nepal in 1992 is depicted in Table 6. A general scenario ofwater pollution load as parameter and development region wise in Nepal is presented in Figures 6, 7and 8 and discussed in following subunits. I. Central development region A. Kathmandu valleyIn general, industrial effluent load in the Kathmandu valley is alarming. It has been estimated thattotal industrial waste water volume in the Kathmandu valley is approximately 2.1 million cubicmeters. To which, nearly 76 present is contributed by carpet factories (1.6 million m3), followed bydairy product 162 thousand m3, finishing textile 66700 m3, leather and leather product 62700 m3,soft drinks and carbonated water 52000 m3, beer manufacturing 51000 m3 and distillery, rectifyingand blending spirit 50000 m3. Similarly, total BOD load of different industrial sectors is about 1150ton, out of which sectorial contribution is as 355 ton from carpet industry, 288 ton from vegetableand animal oil fat and 170 ton from dairy products. Likewise, total TSS effluent load has beenincurred about 1417 ton and sectorial contribution is as carpet factories 750 tons, followed by 280tons of vegetable and animal oil and fat and 114 tons. Total industrial effluent load in the valleycould be insignificant if it is compared with that of total urban dwellers contribution. Assuming onemillion people residing in the valley, annual human wastes generation rate would be as 30 millionIndustrial Environment Study 13
  • 15. cubic meter of waste water volume, 16400 ton of BOD, 25500 ton of TSS and 250 thousand ton ofsolid waste. Correspondingly, if these figures are compared with total industrial discharges in thevalley, industrial total waste water volume is only 7 percent, 7 percent of BOD, 5.5 percent of TSSand 0.5 percent of solid waste. B. Central Development Region excluding the valleyThe number of industries in the Central Development Region except the Kathmandu valley is 573out of 2747. Only one fifth of this number seems to be accountable for water pollution. Industrialeffluent scenario out side the valley is different because of the nature of industries. At this region,total waste water volume of different industries has been estimated at 2.16 million cubic meter. Theleading water polluting industries and their contribution have been assessed as 757000 m3 by ironand steel basic industries, 454000 m3 from sugar factories and refineries, 399000 m3 from paper andpaper product, 277000 m3 of leather and leather product and 89900 m3 of vegetable and animal oiland fats. Altogether, five different sectors are responsible for BOD discharge (1284 tons) in thisterritory such as vegetable and animal oil and fat (400 tons), distilleries and allied (355 tons), leatherand leather products (308 tons) and beer brewing (95 tons) . Similarly, total TSS load at this region isapproximately 2317 tons and major industries responsible for this facet of pollution are vegetableand animal oil and fat (840 tons), iron and steel basic industries (613 tons), leather and leatherproducts (506 tons) and sugar factories (128 ton) and distillery, rectify and blending industries (127ton). II. Eastern Development RegionThe Eastern Development Region comprises about 17.5 percent of total number of industries inNepal (4271). Industrial waste water volume at the Eastern Development Region nearly 39 percentmore than that of the Kathmandu Valley. In this region, total waste water volume of industriesapproximately 3.45 million cubic meter . Major water polluting sector and their contribution havebeen estimated at 2.6 million from iron and steel basic industries, leather and leather products (0.42million m3), and 93 thousand m3 of canning/preserving fruits and vegetables. But, in terms of BODcontribution this region also slightly exceeds either the Valley or CDR excluding the valley with totalBOD load of 1424 tons . Major industries liable for BOD contribution are leather and leatherproducts (463 tons), vegetable animal oil and fat (346 tons), distill, rectify and blending spirit (205tons) and canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables (176 ton). Likewise, altogether 3615 tonsof TSS generating industries in this region are 2139 tons by iron and steel basic industries, leatherIndustrial Environment Study 14
  • 16. and leather products (763 tons), vegetable and animal oil and fat (394 tons) and canning, preservingfruits and vegetables (145 tons) (Fig. 21). III. Western Development RegionIndustrial total effluent load has been estimated as 0.7 million cubic meter of waste water volume,1054 tons of BOD and 1350 tons of TSS. From the effluent load parameters, five industrial sectorsnamely vegetable oil, sugar, distillery, leather and iron and steel are major blameworthy of waterpollution in this region. Industries responsible for conspicuous generation of waste water volume areiron and steel industries (0.3 million m3), leather and leather product (101000 m3,), sugar factories(97500 m3, 27%) and distillery (55000 m3). Similarly, out of 1054 tons of BOD, sectorialcontribution of industries has been incurred as 328 tons from sugar factories, 318 tons fromdistillery, rectify and blending spirit, 215 tons from vegetable and animal oil and fat and 113 tonsfrom leather factories. IV. Mid Western Development RegionThe Mid-Western Development Region comprises major six industrial sectors are accountable forwater pollution. But total industrial effluent load of this region is the lowest by volume in nationalcomparison. Total waste water volume of industry at this region is estimated at 43000 m3 and 85percent of this amount is of distillery, rectify and blending spirit sector. Vegetable and animal oil andfat discharges nearly 3500 m3 and paper factory contribute 1600 m3 of total waste water volume(Fig. 25). 7 Out of total 336 tons of BOD in the region, 198 tons from distillery and 137 ton fromvegetable oil (Fig.26). Likewise, total TSS generation is about 300 ton and approximately 76 percent(228 ton) is contributed by vegetable, animal oil and fat, followed by distillery and allied unit 70 ton(Fig. 27). Hence forth, only two sectors i.e., distillery, rectify and blending spirit andvegetable/animal oil and fats are the primary areas interest for water pollution in this region. V. Far Western Development RegionThe Far Western Development Region comprises the lowest number of industries (159), incomparison with regional distribution of industries in Nepal. Subsequently, industrial effluent load atthis region will be relatively insignificant, if is compared with either Central or Eastern DevelopmentRegions. Out of total 45 different industrial sector in operation, the Far-Western DevelopmentRegion inhabits only three sector chargeable for water pollution, namely vegetable/animal oil andfat, sugar factories and distillery, rectify and blending spirit with total waste water generation ofIndustrial Environment Study 15
  • 17. 10500 m3 (Fig. 28). Sugar industries discharge 83000 m3 and followed by distillery 17500 m3 andvegetable/animal oil and fat 4000 m3. Similarly, total BOD and TSS load of these industries areestimated as 493 and 593 ton, respectively (Fig. 29 & 30). Sugar factories are leading polluters, 45percent of BOD (223 ton) and 52 percent of TSS (306 ton) and vegetable/animal oil and fatcontribute 34 percent of BOD (168 ton) and 42 percent of TSS (250 ton).In general, industrial unitssuch as leather, paper, dairy, vegetable and animal oil and fat, beer, distillery and allied retains highproportion of BOD and TSS than total waste water volume because of optimum concentrations oforganic compounds.5.1.3 Solid WastesAt present, majority of industries seem they do not care about solid waste generated in theproduction process. The present habitual practices are; either to through away from outside thefactory perimeter or mix with other municipal garbages or dump on near by open place or riverbank or open burning. Even though, solid waste contribution percentage of industrial sector isrelatively lower, say 99 percent lower than municipal or domestic garbages in case of the Kathmanduvalley, but, in future, tendency may increase with creating a much difficulty regarding the bettermanagement of industrial solid waste. A total solid waste generation by different industrial sector isestimated to be 21900 tons. In case of Kathmandu Valley, important solid waste contributing sectorsare 495 tons by leather, 417 tons by distilleries and 173 tons by canning and preserving of fruits andvegetables out of total generation 1421 tons. But, situation outside the valley within the CentralDevelopment Region is different. Out of total 8622 tons solid waste, about 5200 tons are from sugarfactories, 2200 tons from leather and 500 tons from distilleries. In the Eastern Development Regionfour sectors are the leading solid waste generating sectors out of total 9560 tons. Sectorialcontribution is estimated at 3300 tons from leather and leather products, 2800 tons from canningand preserving of fruits and vegetables, 1150 tons from iron and steel basic industries and 1100 tonsfrom wine factories. In Western Development Region, leather and leather products accounted about800 tons and 450 tons from distillery, rectifying and blending spirit out of total 1615 tons ofindustrial solid wastes. Sugar and distilleries are the only significant land polluting sources in the midand Far Western Development Regions with total contribution of 287 and 378 tons, respectively. Ingeneral, leather, canning, sugar, distillery, wine, plastic and rubber are the principal solid wastecontributing industries in Nepal. It seems that according to the nature of solid waste generated bysuch industries, maximum percentage of waste are biodegradable, with exception of plastic, rubberIndustrial Environment Study 16
  • 18. and bottles, which can be either recycled or utilized for other industries by introduction of wasteexchange system among the industries.5.1.4 Cleaner production & energy conservationCleaner production is the continuous application of an integrated environmental strategy toprocesses, products and services to increase efficiency and reduce risks to humans and theenvironment. It aims at minimizing the waste and emissions and maximizing the product output byanalysing the flow of materials and energy inside a system. Improvements in technology help toreduce or suggest better choices in use of materials and energy, and to avoid solid waste, waste watereffluents, and gaseous emissions, and also waste heat and noise. In the past, polluting companiesconcentrated on treating the waste generated by an industrial process in an attempt to reduce itsimpact on the environment, but often there was no attempt at source to reduce the overall level ofwaste. With cleaner production, industrial processes can often be improved so that not only theamount of waste, and consequently the pollution, is reduced, but money is also saved or generatedfor the company, which in other words becomes a winwin situation for the company. Cleanerproduction is most often applied to manufacturing processes, but it is also relevant to other sectorsof the economy, including agriculture, mining and the provision of services. Whichever is the sector,the underlying principle is the same. Instead of relying on penalties that force companies to treattheir waste, cleaner production offers rewards in the form of increased profits and an enhancedenvironmental image to those who can reduce their overall level of waste.Cleaner Production has been pursued in many countries for several years under various names suchas pollution prevention, waste minimization, clean technology, environmental management,materials productivity, global competitiveness, natural resource conservation, green productivity etc.However, all these approaches represent different facets of Cleaner Production and collectively theyaddress the triple objectives of sustainable development, namely, economy, environment andsociety.Increasing energy demand exerts pressure on the energy producers to over exploitation of thelimited natural sources for producing more energy. In developing countries, larger part ofmechanical and electrical power is generated by burning of coal and petroleum products, whichdramatically gives birth to the second major problem, i.e. pollution. In this way, it is much significantto sound Energy Conservation and Cleaner Production together as the balancing parts of a singleIndustrial Environment Study 17
  • 19. combo-solution. Energy conservation is an important element of energy planning and policy as itleads to reduction in energy consumption and energy demand per capita and offsets the growth inenergy supply needed to keep up with population growth. This strategy reduces up to some extentthe rise in energy costs and also the need for new power plants and energy imports. The reducedenergy demand can provide more flexibility in choosing the most preferred methods of energyproduction.Energy conservation facilitates the replacement of non-renewable resources with renewable energy.It is often the most economical solution to energy shortages, and is a more environmentally benignalternative to increased energy production. It represents a cost-effective approach to raisingprofitability, enhancing competitiveness and improving environmental performance ensuring asustainable development. The possibilities range from relatively simple and low cost processmodifications to sophisticated and more costly investments in pollution prevention technologies.6 FINDINGS OF INDUSTRIAL ASSESSMENTUpon the walkthrough filed visits in different industrial corridors and detailed interview of fifteenindustries representing various manufacturing industries, following findings are drawn: 1. Almost all industries use electricity as primary fuel. Realizing huge potential of hydroelectricity in Nepal, these industries must have taken electricity as long term primary fuel. But due to current energy crisis, these industries are facing hard time. On this global competition era, our industries are facing choking energy crisis. 2. 50% of the industry used Diesel Generator Set for Captive power during loadshedding. Cost of this alternate is very expensive hampering the finance of the industries. Small industries which cannot afford diesel generator set had to stop their production during the loadshedding hours. 3. Almost all of the industries raised concern for the load-shedding as the worse problem they faced. The cost of the electricity was dependent on the industrial state. 4. Most of the industries do not carryout the waste management and recycling. 5. Majority of the industries have no idea of CDM and renewable energy and energy management concepts. Few of them hold some knowhow but getting benefit from CDM byIndustrial Environment Study 18
  • 20. any particular industry of their scale seems impractical. 6. Majority of the industries use machines which are older than 30 years. Those machines consume more energy and are polluting too. 7. However few industries have upheld their responsibility in waste management and pollution control, which is commendable.7 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONSBased on this policy study with various methods following conclusions and recommendations havebeen drawn. 1. Loadshedding is considered as the worst barrier in the industrial development. On the other hand, energy efficiency measures are blatantly underestimated for the reduction of the crisis. Hence government must come forward with some mechanisms for energy efficiency in domestic industries. Some of the measures can be: Short term strategy • Awareness program for simple energy saving options in the industries • Training of energy auditors • Provision of certified energy auditors programs • Submission of annual energy report by all the industries to Ministry of industry showing energy intensity Mid term strategy • Data collection and categorization of energy intensity in different industries according to type, scale, energy used etc • Industries with energy intensity higher than the national standard must either improve or close the industry • Provision of mandatory energy auditing on the intervals of 2-3 years • Preparation of manuals and handbooks on increasing energy efficiency on each type of industries • Institutional mechanism in Ministry to monitor the programs.Industrial Environment Study 19
  • 21. Long Term strategy • Decrease the energy intensity standard regularly and force the industry to comply 2. Its usually impossible for medium scale industry to opt for a complete waste management facility, hence a central facility should be developed by the industrial state. Never the less, industries must try to develop simple mechanism to at least reduce and reuse their waste. Industrial state with diverse industries may have problems in waste management. Hence the corridor must have orientation towards developing group of similar type of industries. 3. Strong policy and monitoring mechanism must be developed by the government to control the industrial pollution. 4. Industries can crater lots of benefit from CDM through use of renewable energy and increasing energy efficiency. But single industry of their scale cannot proceed through the cumbersome and expensive process of CDM. Hence a combined effort or project must be launched to incorporate renewable energy, energy management to the industries and apply for the CDM. 5. During the interview, industries strongly recommended the government for o Discourage politics in labour, o proper management of industrial state, o training for skilled manpower, o Easy and low interest financing, o Reduction in the cost of electricity and o VAT relaxation 6. There is a strong possibility of application of solar thermal energy in process industries; such as diary industries, noodle industries, brewery industries, hotels and etc. where hot water is primary requirement. Using solar thermal energy can reduce their energy demand in one hand and in other hand it is clean and freely available. 7. The investment of application of new and renewable energy technology in industries may be through soft loan and third party investment. 8. Many industrial fuel needs can be replaced by renewable energy and the carbon saved from this fuel replacement can be trade as CDM in international market.Industrial Environment Study 20
  • 22. 8 ANNEXES 1. Semi structured questionnaire used for survey 2. Name of respondents of survey 3. Summary Chart of Survey ResultsIndustrial Environment Study 21
  • 23. 1. Semi structured questionnaire used for survey
  • 24. Government of Nepal Ministry of Industry Singha Durbar, Kathmandu Questionnaire Survey for Assessment on Improvement of Industrial Environment in Nepal Conducted by:CEMECA Human Resources Pvt. Ltd. and Solar Energy Foundation (SEF Nepal) A. Basic Information • Name of Industry/Company: …………………………………………………………. • Address: ……………………………………………………. • Name of Owner: ……………………………………… • Respondent’s Name: …………………………………………………………. • Type of product: ………………………………………………………….. B. Technical Information 1. Type of plant: ……………………………………………………………….. a. Equipment/Plant used: …………………………………………………… b. Machine bought date: ……………………………………………………. c. Recommended life time of the machine : ……………………………………… 2. Fuel used a. Type of the fuel being used in the industry: ……………………………….. b. Cost of fuel per unit (kWh): ……………………………………….. c. Is the fuel locally available or must be imported: …………………………….. d. Fuel consumption rate of the industry (annually / monthly/weekly/daily) : 3. Is the source of fuel reliable for your purpose : ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………
  • 25. 4. Do you think if there is any possibilities of replacement of fuel presently being used? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………..5. Is the Industry under trouble due to load shedding? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………….6. Do you have any Self power plant (if yes then which type of power plant do you have) : ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………..7. Do you have any idea about using renewable energy technology in your industry? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………..8. Do you any idea about the Clean-energy Development Mechanism (CDM)? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………….9. If yes then do you have any system under such mechanism? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………10. What provision do you have for the emission test for your industrial emission? ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………..11. Mention these test parameters a) co : b) co2 : c) so2 : d) PM10 : e) TSP :12. Are these all parameters under the emission standard or not : a) Yes b) No13. Do you have any pollution control mechanism?
  • 26. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …14. Do you have treatment plants for waste management? a. For the solid waste: b. For the waste water: c. For the air pollution:15. If there is any re - use or re-cycling technology mention below: …………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………16. Is there any energy production system from solid waste? (if yes then mention its type and efficiency): ………………………………………………………………………………………… … ………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………….17. Are you looking for any suitable industrial pollution reduction mechanism? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………..18. What are the barriers of development of your industry? ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………….19. Do you feel any change is required on Industrial policy of Government of Nepal? ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………..20. Which kind of assistance you need from Government for your efficient use of your industry? .......................................................................................................................................... .............................................................................21. In your opinion, what should be done by the Government for reduction of industrial pollution?
  • 27. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………..22. If you have any specific comments or suggestion, please write: ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………. Thank you very much. ++++++++++++++++++CEMECA Human Resources Pvt. Ltd. Solar Energy Foundation (SEF) Kathmandu, Nepal Kathmandu, Nepal Tel./Fax 4228024 Tel. No. (01) 4277404 Email: cemecahra@mos.com.np Email: info.sefnepal@gmail.com
  • 28. Annex 2: Name of Respondents1. Power Tech Nepal Patan, Industrial Estate Lagankhel, Lalipur Nepal2. Yeti Paints Pvt. Ltd. Hetauda Industrial Estate Hetauda, Nepal3. Garika Textile Hetauda Industrial Estate Hetauda, Nepal4. Sun Fitting Pvt. Ltd. Butwal Industrial Area Butwal, Nepal5. Lumbini Milk Supply Scheme Butwal Industrial Estate Butwal, Nepal6. Kohinoor Metal Udhyog Butwal Industrial Estate Butwal, Nepal7. Lumbini Bidyut Udhyog Butwal Industrial Area Butwal, Nepal8. Panchakanya Steel Pvt. Ltd. Kotihawa, Bhairahawa Nepal9. Shiva Shakti Soap Industries Butawal Industrial Area Butawal, Nepal10. Asian Pharmaceuticals Parasi-9, Rupandehi Nepal
  • 29. 11. Agro FRP Industries Pvt. Ltd. Butawal Indstrial District Butawal, Nepal12. Sajib Plastic Butawal Industrial Area Butawal, Nepal13. Nebico Pvt. Ltd. Balaju Industrial District Kathmandu, Nepal14. Nakasu Engineering Pvt. Ltd. Balaju Industrial District Balaju, Nepal15. Himali Bakery Pvt. Ltd. Balaju, Kathmandu Nepal
  • 30. Annex 3: Summary Chart of Survey results for Assessment on Improvement of Industrial Environment in Nepal    Renewable/Industry/company  Alternate  Problems in  emission  Alternative  waste  Machines Name  type  Primary Fuel   fuel  Fuel  test  CDM?  Energy  reuse/recylcling Condition  Sheet  Diesel Gen  Yes/ no  Very Old Power Tech Nepal  Metal  Electricity  Set  loadshedding No  benefit  No  limited  (>30 yrs)  NBSM Panchakanya  Diesel Gen  (CO2 Steels Pvt. Ltd.  rolling mill  furnace oil  Set  loadshedding and O2)  No  No  limited  N/M Lumbini Vidyut  Wire  Diesel Gen  Intermediate Udyog  drawing  Electricity  Set  loadshedding no  No  No  limited  (20‐10)  Fabrication  & Kohinoor Metal  Assembly Udyog  plant  Electricity  ‐  loadshedding no  No  No  No  N/M  Std.  Diesel  Solar Water Lumbini Milk  Emission  Heater for  Old(>20 Supply Scheme  Dairy  Electricity  Diesel/Wood loadshedding Test  no  CIP  No  years) Sun Fittings Pvt.  Diesel Gen Ltd.  Casting  furnace oil/Coal  Set  No  No  No  No  New(<5 )  Waste Water Gasika Textiles  Textiles  Electricity  ‐  loadshedding No  No  No  Treatment  New  Intermediate Yeti Paints  Paints  Electricity  ‐  NO  NO  NO  ‐  limited  (20‐10) 
  • 31. Siva Sakti Soap  Diesel Gen  Yes/ no  Intermediate Industry  detergents  Electricity  Set  No  No  benefit  No  No  (20‐10) Asian  Diesel Gen  Full Fleged  Intermediate Pharmaceuticals  medicine  Electricity  Set  loadshedding no  no  no  (NBSM)  (20‐10) Agro Engineering FRP Industries Pvt.  Stray Ltd.  Moulding  Electricity  no  loadshedding Heat  no  no  limited  New  Recycling Sajib Plastics  plant  Electricity  no  loadshedding no  NO  NO  limited  n/m  Diesel Gen  Yes/ no  Very Old Nebico Pvt. Ltd.  biscuits  Electricity  Set  loadshedding no  application no  limited  (>30 yrs) Nakasu Engineering Pvt. Ltd.  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐  ‐ Himali Bakery Pvt.  Light  Diesel Gen  Very Old Ltd.  Bakery  Diesel/Electricity Set  loadshedding no  yes  no  limited  (>30 yrs) 

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