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  1. 1. Workshop on sharing best practices with conducting TNAs Bangkok, Thailand, 27-29 June 2007 The lessons learned and best practices with conducting the TNA of Viet Nam Mr. Nguyen Mong Cuong Research Center for Climate Change and Sustainable Development
  2. 2. Outlines <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technology needs assessment processes </li></ul><ul><li>Some lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1. Introduction <ul><li>Viet Nam ( 8 º 27-23 º 23 N and 102 º 08-109 º 30 E ) with the land area of 330,990 km2 located in Southeast Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>Three quarters of the land is mountainous and hills with the elevation mostly from 100 to 1000m. </li></ul><ul><li>The population of Viet Nam was 77,6 million (2000) with average annual growth rate of 1.36% </li></ul><ul><li>It is predominantly an agricultural country with 74% of its population are involved in agriculture, 7.4 million ha of agricultural lands. </li></ul><ul><li>The forest areas are 9.3 million ha, forest coverage increases from 27% in 1991 to 33.2% in 2000. </li></ul><ul><li> The average annual GDP growth rate was 7.5% during 1990-2004. GDP per capita (2004) 560 USD </li></ul><ul><li> Sectoral contribution to GDP (2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry: 36.7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Services: 38.7% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing: 24.5% </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. 1. Introduction (Cont’.) <ul><li> Viet Nam ratified UNFCCC on 16 November 1994 and Kyoto Protocol on 25 September 2002. </li></ul><ul><li>MONRE was assigned by the GOV as a national authority for implementation of the UNFCCC & KP. </li></ul><ul><li>INC has been submitted to UNFCCC on 2003; under phase II of INC project “The technical report on identification and assessment of technology needs for GHG emission reduction and climte change adaptation in Viet Nam“ has been submitted on 2005 </li></ul>
  5. 5. 2. Technology Needs Assessment processes <ul><li>The Project “Expedited financing for measures for capacity building in priority areas in Viet Nam (Phase II)” </li></ul><ul><li>This project is a follow-up to the Initial National Communication project </li></ul><ul><li>The Implementing Organization: International Cooperation Department (ICD) of the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MONRE) </li></ul><ul><li>Duration: July 2004 – September 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>The objective of the project: enhance capacity and maintain the efforts to access and disseminate information related to climate change technologies. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Three types of activity are required for effective TNA <ul><li>1. Institutional arrangements for stakeholder engagement </li></ul><ul><li>2. TNA assessment processes </li></ul><ul><li>3. Implementation actions </li></ul>
  7. 7. The institutional arrangement of INC Phase II project management Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment International Cooperation Department (ICD) Climate Change Country Team Climate Change Project Managers Secretariat Staff Technical Expert Team GHG inventory Group Mitigation Group V &A Group
  8. 8. Identified a list of stakeholders who will sustain the implementation process Local management Provinces and cities Gases pollution control of transport means Vietnam Register Environment management in transport Dept. of Science &Tech nology MOT Agriculture, forestry and rural development Dept. of Agriculture Dept. of Forestry MARD Financing policies, fund, finance incentives Dept. of International Cooperation MOF Focal Point of foreign policies Dept. of International organizations MOFA Project validation Dept. of Science, Technology, Education and Environment MPI Science&Technology development in Agriculture &Forestry Dept. of Science&Technology of Agriculture & forestry Science&Technology development in Industry Dept. of Science&Technology of industry MOST EE & ES management Dept. of Science&Technology Energy, RE management Dept. of Energy & Petroleum MOI Climate change monitoring National HMS Hydrometeorology management Dept. of Hydrometeorology Environment management Environment Dept. Environment monitoring National Environment Agency National Focal Point Agency International Cooperation Dept. MONRE Role Sub - bodies Organization
  9. 9. Identified sector industries, associations, and distributors involved End users Paper & pulp Mills New tech. introduction Dept. of Science&Technology VINA Paper End users Petro companies New tech. introduction Dept. of Science&Technology PetroVietnam End users Coal mines New tech. introduction Dept. of Science&Technology VINACoal End users Steels plants New tech. introduction Dept. of Science&Technology VINA Steel End users Cement plants New tech. introduction Dept. of Science&Technology Cement Corporation End users Power plants Data Dispatching Center Elec. Transmission and distribution Regional Companies New tech. introduction Dept. of Science& Technology ENV State owned at National level Role Sub bodies Enterprises
  10. 10. Identified sector industries, associations, and distributors involved (cont’) Co-project developers - Carbon funds - Investors - Carbon buyers Foreign counterparts Financing - State banks - Private and foreign banks - Funds Finance End users - Domestic companies - Foreign invested companies - Joint venture companies Private sectors End users Companies Provincial level Other Entities Role Sub bodies Enterprises
  11. 11. Criteria for technology needs assessment Easy apply and dissemination D3. Up scaling tech. Effective deployment, O&M, exploitation D2. Appropriate tech ( but established) Mature commercialization. No second hand and high adaptability D1 . Advanced but established tech. Technology Development D Better tech. transfer, localization, manpower development. C3 . Contributions to science & technology capacity Good public acceptance and participation C2 . Less barrier on prevalence practice, psychology Improving local education, health care, job creation, poverty reduction, etc. C1 . Good impacts to socioeconomic- development of locals Good social impacts C National circumstance B3 . Low O&M cost and intensive High IRR B2 . Payback period Specific investment - Low investment per product B1 . Initial investment Economic development B Mineral, water, land, forest and bio- resources A3. Biodiversity and resource conservation Reduction of solid waste, liquid waster and air pollution A2 . Local environment quality The study is specialized in GHG reduction technologies A1 . GHG reduction potential Environment protection A Criteria content Sub- criteria Key criteria Code
  12. 12. Key priorities sectors for technology needs 1. Reforestation; 2. Afforestation 6. Forestry 1. Rice cultivasion; 2. Manure management; 3. Residues 5. Agriculture Usage of electrical energy and heat 4. Household & Service Road; Railways; Water transport 3. Transport 1. Ferric and non-ferric metallurgy; 2. Building materials production; 3. Ore-free mineral products; 4. Chemical industry; 5. Food industry; 6. Textile 2. Industry 1. Energy production; 2. Energy transmission and distribution; 3. Production, refining, storage and transportation of oil and gas; 4. Fugitive gas and gas recover; 5. Renewable energy application 1. Energy production and refining of fuel ( including power generation) Sub-sector’s activities Sectors
  13. 13. N o of Technologies reduction GHG emissions have been analyzed 10 14 1. Agriculture 2. Forestry Non-energy 23 20 9 9 1.Electricity generation 2.Industry 3.Household and Services 4.Transportation Energy No. of technologies Sectors Items
  14. 14. Priority Technologies identified in the project <ul><li>Energy </li></ul><ul><li>1.Solar heating technology </li></ul><ul><li>2.Small and medium hydropower </li></ul><ul><li>3.Grid-connected biomass-fired for electricity generation </li></ul><ul><li>4.High efficiency fire - chamber technologies for coal - fired thermal power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Combined cycle gas turbines </li></ul><ul><li>6.Switching from oil, coal fired to gas in the thermal power plants. </li></ul><ul><li>7.Clean Coal technology </li></ul><ul><li>8.Oil field associated gas recovery and utilization </li></ul><ul><li>9.Reduction the electricity loss in transmission and distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>1. Change from west to dry process in cement production </li></ul><ul><li>2. In brick production: Vertical shaft brick kiln; and Dry cellar and tunnel fire one uninterrupted channel in brick production </li></ul><ul><li>3. BOF exhaust gas recovery device; BOF: basic Oxygen Furnace </li></ul><ul><li>4. Raw material preheated for electric arc furnace </li></ul>
  15. 15. Household and services <ul><li>1.Compact lighting technology using compact lamp </li></ul><ul><li>2.High energy efficiency air conditioner, EER>10BTU/W </li></ul><ul><li>3.Using central air conditioning systems </li></ul><ul><li>4. Biogas for cooking and electric generation </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Implementing the road map of exhaust gases standards for road transport means </li></ul><ul><li>2. Constructing and operating the public railway system </li></ul><ul><li>3. Developing the public transport system (bus), limiting the number of motto-scooter/motorcycle in the big cities </li></ul><ul><li>4. Using LPG for the transport means in Vietnam </li></ul>
  16. 16. Agriculture <ul><li>1. Water management from rice field </li></ul><ul><li>2. Livestock feed processing and modification </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rational application of fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Forestry </li></ul><ul><li>1. Forest conservation, reforestation, afforestation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mechanization of timber processing and logging </li></ul><ul><li>3. Forest fire reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Some adaptation technologies to Climate change on sectors of Agriculture, Water resources, Coastal zone management has been analyzed, however it is primary and has not comprehensive due to lack of data, information and expertise's. </li></ul>
  17. 17. One Example : GHG reduction technologies in steel production Identification of technologies 1980 Data not avail. 13% 8. Energy saving operating electric arc furnace 1990 1.2MUS$ 56% 7. Ladle heating apparatus with regenerative burners 1990 0.25MUS$/pair 10-30% 6. Heating furnace with regenerative burners 1981 8MU$ 150T/shief 70Mcal/T 5. Raw material preheated for electric arc furnace 1962 18MUS$ 250T/hr 250Mcal/Tsteel 4. BOF exhaust gas recovery device BOF: Basic Oxygen Furnace 1983 18MUS$ 3.2MT/year While reduction 1% humidity, saving 18,000Kcal/Tcoal 3. Drying and humidity control equipment for refine coke oven 1979 1MUS$ 1000kg/hr 12-13% 2. High frequency melting furnace 1990 Data not avail. 5-10% electricity 40-50% electrodes 1. DC arc furnace use water to cool the furnace wall Age Investment Saving Technology
  18. 18. One Example : GHG reduction technologies in steel production Technology needs Assessment 8.6 0.157 18 MUSD/ 3Mt/year 306 MCal/t coal 4. Drying and humidity control equipment for refine coke oven - 44.4 0.638 8MUSD/ 150t per batch 70Mcal/t 3. Raw material preheated for electric arc furnace 312.7 1.084 1MUSD/ 1t per hour 12.5% 2. High frequency melting furnace - 48.6 0.991 18 MUSD/ 200t per hour 80kWh/t 1. BOF exhaust gas recovery device. BOF: basic Oxygen Furnace Refurbishment Refurbishment Cost Energy saving Reduction cost USD/tCO2 2005-25 accumulated CO2 reduction of whole sector, MtCO2 eq. Tech. parameters Technology
  19. 19. The barriers identified in TNA processes <ul><li>Undeveloped system of environmental funds. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of financial, tax and tariff policies on EST transfer project. Deficiency of capital for updating technologies and environmental measures. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of involvement of national banks in EST technology transfer. </li></ul>Financial <ul><li>Inadequate legal, regulatory and institutional frameworks. </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient support at the local level for encouraging energy efficient projects, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of joint stakeholder networking and planning </li></ul><ul><li>Poor coordination among donors and within the country </li></ul>Institutional <ul><li>Lack and absent of technology market on GHG reduction and CC adaptation. </li></ul>Market <ul><li>Inadequate infrastructure, lack of technical standards and supporting institutions, low technical capabilities and technology knowledge base... </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of technological maintenance. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of human resources that can provide consultancy on TNA and technology transfer of climate change adaptation. </li></ul>Technological <ul><li>Inadequate access to technical and financial information and poor dissemination of information to technology users. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty for small and medium firms to access technology information </li></ul><ul><li>Insufficient level of public awareness for intensive activities on CC technology for GHG emission reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of information about potential market of technologies for investors </li></ul>Information Barriers analysis Items
  20. 20. 3.Some lessons learned <ul><li>+ TNA will be most successful when they focus on technologies and actions that meet national development goals while also responding to climate change concerns, and when implementation actions complement existing development programs. </li></ul><ul><li>+ Effective TNA should actively engaged all key stakeholders, including government agencies, businesses, technical institutions, and international partners in the selection of technology priorities and design of actions to overcome barriers to technology implementation . </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>+ It is necessary to build or strengthen the human, scientific, technical and institutional capacity for identifying, designing, developing, monitoring, evaluating and hosting technological projects, including targeted research projects, for bilateral and multilateral funding </li></ul><ul><li>+ The main outputs of the TNA project will be the good and important input of Viet Nam’s SNC project, as expected result a draft action plan framework for the transfer and adoption of ESTs will be prepared during the implementation of SNC </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusions <ul><li>+ TNA help Viet Nam to identify their climate change adaptation technology transfer priorities and develop effective strategies to address them. It can be powerful instruments for focusing the attention of government agencies, the international donor community and private sector investors on a well-defined set of priority activities. </li></ul><ul><li>+ Strengthening the technical and financial support on TDT for reducing GHG emission and adaptation to CC from International and donor countries is necessary; and should be as part of commitments by developed countries. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Thank you for your attention ! For more information please contact: Climate Change Project Office No.45 Tue Tinh Street, Ha Noi, Viet Nam Tel: 844 – 9743195; Fax: 844 – 9743200 Email: [email_address] or [email_address] Website: