Run-Time EnvironmentsRun Time Environments
TCS-502
Compiler Design
P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-1
Run-Time Environments
• How do we allocate the space for the generated target code and the data 
object of our source prog...
Procedure Activations
• An execution of a procedure starts at the beginning of the procedure body; 
• When the procedure i...
Activation Tree
• We can use a tree (called activation tree) to show the way control 
enters and leaves activations.
• In ...
Activation Tree (cont.)
program main; enter main
procedure s; enter pp p
begin ... end; enter q
procedure p; exit q
dproce...
Activation Tree (cont.)
mainmain
p sp s
q sq
P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-6
Procedure Activations
program sort(input, output)
var a : array [0..10] of integer;
procedure readarray;
var i : integer;
...
Activation TreesActivation Trees
ss
q(1,9)r
q(1,3)
p(1,3) q(1,0) q(2,3)
p(1,9) q(5,9)
p(5,9) q(5,5) q(7,9)
q(2,1)p(2,3) q(...
Control Stack
• The flow of the control in a program corresponds to a depth‐• The flow of the control in a program corresp...
Control Stack
Activations:ControlActivation tree:
s
(1 9)r
Activations:
begin sort
enter readarray
leave readarray
Control...
Variable Scopes
• The same variable name can be used in the different parts of the 
program.
• The scope rules of the lang...
Run-Time Storage Organization
Code
Memory locations for code are 
determined at compile time.
Static Data Locations of sta...
Activation Records
• Information needed by a single execution of a procedure is 
managed using a contiguous block of stora...
Activation Records (cont.)
return value
The returned value of the called procedure is returned 
in this field to the calli...
Activation Records (Ex1)
program main;
procedure p;
main
stack
procedure p;
var a:real;
procedure q;
var b:integer;
pbegin...
Activation Records for Recursive Procedures
program main;
procedure p;
function q(a:integer):integer;
main
function q(a:in...
Creation of An Activation Record
• Who allocates an activation record of a procedure?
– Some part of the activation record...
Creation of An Activation Record (cont.)
return value
actual parameters
ti l t l li k
Caller’s Activation Record
optional ...
Variable Length Data
return value
actual parameters
ti l t l li k
Variable length data is allocated after
optional control...
Dangling Reference
• Whenever a storage is de-allocated, the problem of dangling references
may accur.y
main () {
i *int *...
Access to Nonlocal Names
• Scope rules of a language determine the treatment of references to 
nonlocal names.
• Scope Rul...
Lexical Scope
• The scope of a declaration in a block‐structured language is given 
by the mostly closed rule.y y
• Each p...
Access Links
program main;
var a:int;
procedure p;
main
access link
p p;
var d:int;
begin a:=1; end;
procedure q(i:int);
a...
Access Links
s s s s
a x
q(1,9)
a x
q(1,9)
a x
q(1,9)
a x
q(1,9)q(1,9)
access
k v
q(1,9)
access
k v
q(1 3)
q(1,9)
access
k...
Procedure Parameters
program main;
procedure p(procedure a);
main
access link
procedure p(procedure a);
begin a; end;
proc...
Displays
• An array of pointers to activation records can be used to access
activation recordsactivation records.
• This a...
Accessing Nonlocal Variables
program main;
var a:int;
main
access link
addrC := offsetC(currAR)
t := *currARvar a:int;
pro...
Accessing Nonlocal Variables using Display
program main;
var a:int;
main
access link
addrC := offsetC(D[3])
addrB := offse...
Parameter Passing Methods
• Call-by-value
• Call-by-referenceCall by reference
• Call-by-name (used by Algol)
P K Singh M ...
Parameter Passing Methods
• Call-by-value: evaluate actual parameters and enter r-values
in activation record
• Call-by-re...
SOME OTHER ISSUES
• Symbol Tables hold scope information.
• Dynamic Scope:
– uses control link (similar to access links)
•...
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  1. 1. Run-Time EnvironmentsRun Time Environments TCS-502 Compiler Design P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-1
  2. 2. Run-Time Environments • How do we allocate the space for the generated target code and the data  object of our source programs? • The places of the data objects that can be determined at compile time will beThe places  of the data objects that can be determined at compile time will be  allocated statically. • But the places for the some of data objects will be allocated at run‐time. • The allocation of de‐allocation of the data objects is managed by the run‐time  support package. – run‐time support package is loaded together with the generate target code. – the structure of the run‐time support package depends on the semantics of the  programming language (especially the semantics of procedures in that language). • Each execution of a procedure is called as activation of that procedure.p f p P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-2
  3. 3. Procedure Activations • An execution of a procedure starts at the beginning of the procedure body;  • When the procedure is completed, it returns the control to the point immediately  after the place where that procedure is called. • Each execution of a procedure is called as its activation. Lif ti f ti ti f d i th f th t b t th• Lifetime of an activation of a procedure is the sequence of the steps between the  first and the last steps in the execution of that procedure  (including the other  procedures called by that procedure). • If a and b are procedure activations, then their lifetimes are either non‐overlapping  or are nested. • If a procedure is recursive a new activation can begin before an earlier activation of• If a procedure is recursive,  a new activation can begin before an earlier activation of  the same procedure has ended. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-3
  4. 4. Activation Tree • We can use a tree (called activation tree) to show the way control  enters and leaves activations. • In an activation tree: – Each node represents an activation of a procedure. – The root represents the activation of the main program. h d i f h d b iff h l fl f– The node a is a parent of the node b iff the control flows from a  to b. – The node a is left to to the node b iff the lifetime of a occursThe node a is left to to the node b iff the lifetime of a occurs  before the lifetime of b. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-4
  5. 5. Activation Tree (cont.) program main; enter main procedure s; enter pp p begin ... end; enter q procedure p; exit q dprocedure q; enter s begin ... end; exit s begin q; s; end; exit pbegin q; s; end; exit p begin p; s; end; enter s exit s exit main A Nested Structure P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-5 A Nested Structure
  6. 6. Activation Tree (cont.) mainmain p sp s q sq P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-6
  7. 7. Procedure Activations program sort(input, output) var a : array [0..10] of integer; procedure readarray; var i : integer; b i Activations: begin sortbegin for i := 1 to 9 do read(a[i]) end; function partition(y, z : integer) : integer var i, j, x, v : integer; begin sort enter readarray leave readarray enter quicksort(1,9) enter partition(1,9) begin … end procedure quicksort(m, n : integer); var i : integer; begin e te pa t t o ( ,9) leave partition(1,9) enter quicksort(1,3) … leave quicksort(1,3)begin if (n > m) then begin i := partition(m, n); quicksort(m, i - 1); quicksort(i + 1, n) q ( , ) enter quicksort(5,9) … leave quicksort(5,9) leave quicksort(1,9) end end; begin a[0] := -9999; a[10] := 9999; readarray; q ( , ) end sort. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-7 readarray; quicksort(1, 9) end.
  8. 8. Activation TreesActivation Trees ss q(1,9)r q(1,3) p(1,3) q(1,0) q(2,3) p(1,9) q(5,9) p(5,9) q(5,5) q(7,9) q(2,1)p(2,3) q(3,3) q(7,7)p(7,9) q(9,9) P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-8
  9. 9. Control Stack • The flow of the control in a program corresponds to a depth‐• The flow of the control in a program corresponds to a depth‐ first traversal of the activation tree that: – starts at the root, , – visits a node before  its children, and  – recursively visits children at each node an a left‐to‐right order. • A stack (called control stack) can be used to keep track of  live procedure activations. – An activation record is pushed onto the control stack as the  activation starts. That activation record is popped when that activation ends– That activation record is popped when that activation ends. • When node n is at the top of the control stack, the stack  contains the nodes along the path from n to the root P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-9 contains the nodes along the path from n to the root.
  10. 10. Control Stack Activations:ControlActivation tree: s (1 9)r Activations: begin sort enter readarray leave readarray Control stack: Activation tree: s q(1,9) q(1,3)p(1,9) r enter quicksort(1,9) enter partition(1,9) leave partition(1,9) enter quicksort(1,3) q(1,9) q(1,3) q(2,3) p(1,3) q(1,0) q(2,3) enter partition(1,3) leave partition(1,3) enter quicksort(1,0) leave quicksort(1,0) (2 3)enter quicksort(2,3) … P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-10
  11. 11. Variable Scopes • The same variable name can be used in the different parts of the  program. • The scope rules of the language determine which declaration of a• The scope rules of the language determine which declaration of a  name applies when the name appears in the program. • An occurrence of a variable (a name) is: – local: If that occurrence is in the same procedure in which that name is declared. – non‐local: Otherwise (ie. it is declared outside of that procedure) procedure p; var b:real; procedure p;procedure p; var a: integer; a is local begin a := 1; b := 2; end; b is non-local begin end; P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-11 begin ... end;
  12. 12. Run-Time Storage Organization Code Memory locations for code are  determined at compile time. Static Data Locations of static data can also be  determined at compile time. Stack Data objects allocated at run‐time. (Activation Records)(Activation Records) Other dynamically allocated data Heap Other dynamically allocated data objects at run‐time. (For example, malloc area in C). P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-12
  13. 13. Activation Records • Information needed by a single execution of a procedure is  managed using a contiguous block of storage called  i i dactivation record. • An activation record is allocated when a procedure is  entered, and it is de‐allocated when that procedure exited. • Size of each field can be determined at compile timeSize of each field can be determined at compile time  (Although actual location of the activation record is  determined at run‐time).) – Except that if the procedure has a local variable and its size depends  on a parameter, its size is determined at the run time. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-13 p
  14. 14. Activation Records (cont.) return value The returned value of the called procedure is returned  in this field to the calling procedure. In practice, we may use a machine register for the return value. actual parameters optional control link g The field for actual parameters is used by the calling  procedure to supply parameters to the called procedure. Th i l l li k i h i i doptional control link optional access link The optional control link points to the activation record  of the caller. The optional access link is used to refer to nonlocal data h ld i h i i d saved machine status local data held in other activation records. The field for saved machine status holds information about  the state of the machine before the procedure is called. temporaries The field of local data holds data that local to an execution of a procedure.. Temporay variables is stored in the field of temporaries. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-14 Temporay variables is stored in the field of temporaries.
  15. 15. Activation Records (Ex1) program main; procedure p; main stack procedure p; var a:real; procedure q; var b:integer; pbegin ... end; begin q; end; procedure s; var c:integer; p a: var c:integer; begin ... end; begin p; s; end; q main p b: p q s P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-15 q
  16. 16. Activation Records for Recursive Procedures program main; procedure p; function q(a:integer):integer; main function q(a:integer):integer; begin if (a=1) then q:=1; else q:=a+q(a-1); p end; begin q(3); end; begin p; end; q(3) a: 3 q(2) a:2 q(1) a:1 P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-16
  17. 17. Creation of An Activation Record • Who allocates an activation record of a procedure? – Some part of the activation record of a procedure is created bySome part of the activation record of a procedure is created by  that procedure immediately after that procedure is entered. – Some part is created by the caller of that procedure before that  procedure is entered. • Who deallocates?• Who deallocates? – Callee de‐allocates the part allocated by Callee. – Caller de‐allocates the part allocated by Caller.Caller de allocates the part allocated by Caller.  P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-17
  18. 18. Creation of An Activation Record (cont.) return value actual parameters ti l t l li k Caller’s Activation Record optional control link optional access link saved machine status local data temporaries return value Caller’s Responsibility C ll ’ A i i R dreturn value actual parameters optional control link Callee’s Activation Record optional access link saved machine status local data Callee’s Responsibility P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-18 temporaries
  19. 19. Variable Length Data return value actual parameters ti l t l li k Variable length data is allocated after optional control link optional access link saved machine status temporaries, and there is a link to from local data to that array. local data pointer a pointer b temporaries array a array b P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-19
  20. 20. Dangling Reference • Whenever a storage is de-allocated, the problem of dangling references may accur.y main () { i *int *p; p = dangle(); } int *dangle*() { int i=2; return &i;return &i; } P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-20
  21. 21. Access to Nonlocal Names • Scope rules of a language determine the treatment of references to  nonlocal names. • Scope Rules: – Lexical Scope (Static Scope) • Determines the declaration that applies to a name by examining  the program text alone at compile‐time. • Most closely nested rule is used• Most‐closely nested rule is used. • Pascal, C, .. – Dynamic ScopeDynamic Scope • Determines the declaration that applies to a name at run‐time. • Lisp, APL, ... P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-21
  22. 22. Lexical Scope • The scope of a declaration in a block‐structured language is given  by the mostly closed rule.y y • Each procedure (block) will have its own activation record. – procedure begin end blocks– begin‐end blocks  • (treated same as procedure without creating most part of its activation record) • A procedure may access to a nonlocal name using: – access links in activation records, or – displays (an efficient way to access to nonlocal names) P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-22
  23. 23. Access Links program main; var a:int; procedure p; main access link p p; var d:int; begin a:=1; end; procedure q(i:int); a: q(1) access link var b:int; procedure s; var c:int; i,b: q(0) access link Access Links begin p; end; begin if (i<>0) then q(i-1) else s; i,b: s access linkelse s; end; begin q(1); end; c: p access link P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-23 access link d:
  24. 24. Access Links s s s s a x q(1,9) a x q(1,9) a x q(1,9) a x q(1,9)q(1,9) access k v q(1,9) access k v q(1 3) q(1,9) access k v q(1 3) q(1,9) access k v q(1 3)q(1,3) access k v q(1,3) access k v p(1 3) q(1,3) access k v p(1 3)p(1,3) access i j p(1,3) access i j e(1 3) 24 e(1,3) access
  25. 25. Procedure Parameters program main; procedure p(procedure a); main access link procedure p(procedure a); begin a; end; procedure q; procedure s; q access linkprocedure s; begin ... end; begin p(s) end; begin q; end; access link p li k g q access link sAccess links must be passed with access link p procedure parameters. P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-25
  26. 26. Displays • An array of pointers to activation records can be used to access activation recordsactivation records. • This array is called as displays. • For each level, there will be an array entry. 1: 2 Current activation record at level 1 C t ti ti d t l l 22: 3: Current activation record at level 2 Current activation record at level 3 P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-26
  27. 27. Accessing Nonlocal Variables program main; var a:int; main access link addrC := offsetC(currAR) t := *currARvar a:int; procedure p; var b:int; begin q; end; a: p addrB := offsetB(t) t := *t addrA := offsetA(t)begin q; end; procedure q(); var c:int; begin p access link b: ADD addrA,addrB,addrC g c:=a+b; end; begin p; end; q access link c: P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-27
  28. 28. Accessing Nonlocal Variables using Display program main; var a:int; main access link addrC := offsetC(D[3]) addrB := offsetB(D[2]) D[1] var a:int; procedure p; var b:int; begin q; end; a: p addrB : offsetB(D[2]) addrA := offsetA(D[1]) ADD addrA,addrB,addrC begin q; end; procedure q(); var c:int; begin p access link b: D[2] g c:=a+b; end; begin p; end; q access link D[3] c: P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-28
  29. 29. Parameter Passing Methods • Call-by-value • Call-by-referenceCall by reference • Call-by-name (used by Algol) P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-29
  30. 30. Parameter Passing Methods • Call-by-value: evaluate actual parameters and enter r-values in activation record • Call-by-reference: enter pointer to the storage of the actual parameter • Copy-restore (value-result): evaluate actual parameters and enter r-values, after the call copy r-values of formal parameters into actualsparameters into actuals • Call-by-name: use a form of in-line code expansion (thunk) to evaluate parameterseva uate pa a ete s 30
  31. 31. SOME OTHER ISSUES • Symbol Tables hold scope information. • Dynamic Scope: – uses control link (similar to access links) • Dynamic Storage Allocation (Heap Management) different allocation techniques– different allocation techniques P K Singh M M M E C GKP RTSM-31
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