KM2.0: Knowledge, Creativity and Innovation


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Broad view of the new decade and the new paradigm of Innovation and Knowledge Management. Argues that KM happens at three levels, individual, organizational, societal and we need to focus on all the three levels

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KM2.0: Knowledge, Creativity and Innovation

  1. 1. Knowledge|Creativity|Innovation In the New Decade Shalini Urs International School of Information Management University of Mysore, Mysore, India [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>If you were asked to name the most transformative development of the past decade, what would be your choice ? </li></ul>Internet
  3. 3. Noughties Decade <ul><ul><li>Information overload – expanding digital universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dominance of technology ( BBC and other studies of the highlights of the past decade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How data is everything – data redefining scientific theories (Chris Anderson of Wired Magazine, Author of Long Tail) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Expanding Digital Universe <ul><ul><li>Information overload – size of the digital universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EMC had estimated that in the year 2006, the world had created 167 exabytes of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>According to the study by EMC and IDG - The digital universe in 2007 was 281 exabytes (281 billion gigabytes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This was 10% bigger than estimated. The resizing comes as a result of faster growth in cameras, digital TV shipments, and better understanding of information replication. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. That is the amount of digital information created in the year 2006 alone Expanding Digital Universe
  6. 7. How much is 167 exa bytes? <ul><li>2 billion…80 GB iPods! </li></ul><ul><li>It is more than 200,000,000 crores of books </li></ul><ul><li>More than the collections of 15,000 largest libraries in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>It is nearly 1,000,000 miles of shelves of books. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Expanding Digital Universe <ul><ul><li>By 2011, the digital universe will be 10 times the size it was in 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 70% of the digital universe is created by individuals, but enterprises are responsible for the security, privacy, reliability, and compliance of 85%. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Source - IDC White Paper - sponsored by EMC, 2010
  9. 10. What is the state of Internet ? <ul><li>Hear this ….. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Internet subscribers: <ul><li>45.1 million (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>420 million (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>1.08 billion (2005) </li></ul><ul><li>1.73 billion (Sep 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Asia  738,257,230 </li></ul><ul><li>Africa  67,371,700 </li></ul><ul><li>Oceania/Australia  20,970,490 </li></ul><ul><li>Europe  418,029,796 </li></ul><ul><li>North America  252,908,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America/ </li></ul><ul><li>Caribbean  179,031,479 </li></ul>Global Region wise
  11. 12. How active is the Internet ? <ul><li>90 Trillion  E-mails sent on the internet in 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>257 billion  The average number of E-mails per day </li></ul><ul><li>200 billion  The average number of SPAM E-mails per day </li></ul><ul><li>1.4 billion  The number of E-mail users worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>81%  The percentage of E-mails that were SPAM </li></ul><ul><li>234 million  Number of websites (as of December 2009) </li></ul>
  12. 13. How active … <ul><li>126 million  Number of blogs (tracked by BlogPulse) </li></ul><ul><li>84%  The percentage of social networking sites with more women than men </li></ul><ul><li>27.3 million  Number of tweets on twitter per day (November 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>4.63 million (and growing!)  Number of people following Ashton Kutcher (Twitter ’s most followed user) </li></ul>
  13. 14. Facebooking phenomenon <ul><li>260 billion  Number of page views Facebook serves per month </li></ul><ul><li>This accounts for more than 6 million page views per minute Or, 37.4 trillion page views in a year!! </li></ul><ul><li>Page views per month: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facebook  260 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MySpace  24 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twitter  4.4 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LinkedIn  1.9 billion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facebook needs as many as 30,000 servers , and still growing! </li></ul><ul><li>400 million people on Facebook </li></ul>
  14. 15. More on … <ul><li>2.5 billion  Number of photos uploaded to Facebook each month </li></ul><ul><li>4 billion  Number of photos hosted by Flickr (October 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>At this rate, the number of photos uploaded to Facebook per year will be 30 billion </li></ul><ul><li>1 billion  The total number of videos YouTube serves in one day </li></ul><ul><li>12.2 billion  Videos viewed per month on YouTube in the US (November, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>924 million  Videos viewed per month on Hulu in the US (November 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>182  The number of online videos an average internet user watches in a month (USA) </li></ul><ul><li>82%  The percentage of internet users who view videos online (USA) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Internet in India – a glimpse <ul><li>81 million Internet users as of Nov/08 ( Internetworldstats) </li></ul><ul><li>7.0% penetration ( as per ITU) </li></ul><ul><li>5,280,000 broadband Internet connections as of June/09 ( as per TRAI) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Internet users in India <ul><li>45.3 million active internet users </li></ul><ul><li>Urban users continue to dominate internet - 42 million of the 45 million odd users. </li></ul><ul><li>Indians go online for a number of activities including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail and IM (98 percent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>job search (51 percent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>banking (32 percent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bill payment (18 percent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stock trading (15 percent) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and matrimonial search (15 percent). </li></ul></ul>Source : I-Cube [Internet in India] Study by IMRB for International and Internet and Mobile Association of India [IAMAI]. September 2008
  17. 18. Mobile Internet Users 2 million Active Users
  18. 19. How and Who <ul><li>70% are college going kids </li></ul>2% for eCommerce
  19. 20. <ul><li>Dominance of Information Technology and Internet …. </li></ul>
  20. 21. BBC News: a portrait of a decade <ul><li>This has been the decade in which the internet has become an the second* most everyday (and for many an every hour) experience for large parts of the globe. Many of the pioneers of this 'personal' computing and the world wide web make the list. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these, most notably Bill Gates and Larry Page and Sergi Brin, have also become the Carnegies and Rockefellers of our age: as notable for their income and philanthropy as for the origin of their wealth (Richard G Whitman, Royal Institute of International Affairs ) </li></ul><ul><li>* First is politics </li></ul>
  21. 22. BBC News – An artists impression of the noughties
  22. 23. Data is the mantra <ul><li>Data is everything … </li></ul>
  23. 24. The end of Theory …a new theory <ul><li>The End of Theory: The Data Deluge Makes the Scientific Method Obsolete by Chris Anderson. </li></ul><ul><li>Sixty years ago, digital computers made information readable. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty years ago, the Internet made it reachable. </li></ul><ul><li>Ten years ago, the first search engine crawlers made it a single database. </li></ul><ul><li>Now Google and others are sifting through the most measured age in history, treating this massive corpus as a laboratory of the human condition. This is the Petabyte Age. </li></ul>
  24. 25. New ideas and tools
  25. 26. Dealing with the information deluge <ul><li>To deal with this explosion of the digital universe in size an complexity, individuals, organizations, and societies will face three main imperatives: </li></ul><ul><li>No more silos </li></ul><ul><li>Information governance: information security, information retention, data access, and compliance. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on data analytics </li></ul>
  26. 27. IBM ’s Smart Planet campaign.
  27. 28. Intelligence—not intuition—drives innovation <ul><li>From Data commotion to symphony </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smarter analytics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smarter predictions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smarter insights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smarter contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smarter systems </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Data Matters because of analytics <ul><li>Data is being captured today as never before. It reveals everything from large and systemic patterns—of global markets, workflows, national infrastructures and natural systems—to the location, temperature, security and condition of every item in a global supply chain. And then there's the growing torrent of information from billions of individuals using social media. They are customers, citizens, students and patients. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Why Data Matters
  30. 31. The Smart decade - Be smart, Build Smart <ul><li>A smarter planet will require a profound shift in management and governance toward far more collaborative approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>The planet has grown a central nervous system - intelligence is being infused into the systems and processes that make the world work—into things no one would recognize as computers: cars, appliances, roadways, power grids, clothes, even natural systems such as agriculture and waterways </li></ul>
  31. 32. KDD and Informatics <ul><li>Information is at the heart of business operations and that decision-makers could make use of the data stored to gain valuable insight into the business. </li></ul><ul><li>Database Management systems gave access to the data stored but this was only a small part of what could be gained from the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional OLTP systems are good at putting data into databases quickly, safely and efficiently but are not good at delivering meaningful analysis in return. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing data can provide further knowledge about a business by going beyond the data explicitly stored to derive knowledge about the business. This is where Knowledge Discovery in Database (KDD) has obvious benefits for any enterprise </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>As Jim Grey of Microsoft says today we need Tools and systems that </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy to capture & present ; </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy to store & organize & access ; </li></ul><ul><li>Make it easy to analyze & summarize </li></ul><ul><li>INFORMATION </li></ul>
  33. 35. What do Management ‘Gurus’ say ? <ul><li>Joe Tucci , Chairman of EMC 2 says </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Everything in the world is either energy or information’ . </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Drucker, the renowned Management Guru, said, ‘the emphasis will shift from the “T” in IT to the “I’” in the next information revolution’ </li></ul><ul><li>Tim Berners Lee, the father of the Internet says, information management is the way forward in this age of information overload. </li></ul>
  34. 36. Collective Intelligence - the New Paradigm <ul><li>Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow </li></ul><ul><li>The Open Community Governance – the community take control of quality and development. </li></ul><ul><li>Self organization principle </li></ul><ul><li>Today, it has become the only scalable model ( if you look around, we will find more cases to prove this point…) </li></ul>
  35. 37. CatB <ul><li>The Cathedral and the Bazaar (abbreviated CatB ) is an essay by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail </li></ul>
  36. 38. Crowd sourcing <ul><li>The word was coined by Jeff Howe in a June 2006 Wired magazine article. </li></ul><ul><li>Projects which make use of group intelligence such as the LazyWeb predate that word coinage by several years. Recently, the Internet has been used to publicize and manage crowd sourcing projects. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Crowd sourcing model. <ul><li>Crowdsourcing is a distributed problem-solving and production model. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems are broadcast to an unknown group of solvers in the form of an open call for solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>Users--also known as the crowd--typically form into online communities, and the crowd submits solutions. </li></ul><ul><li>The crowd also sorts through the solutions, finding the best ones. These best solutions are then owned by the entity that broadcast the problem in the first place--the crowdsourcer--and the winning individuals in the crowd are sometimes rewarded. </li></ul>
  38. 40. Crowd sourcing model… <ul><li>In some cases, this labor is well compensated, either monetarily, with prizes, or with recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>In other cases, the only rewards may be kudos or intellectual satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>It may produce solutions from amateurs or volunteers working in their spare time, or from experts or small businesses which were unknown to the initiating organization. </li></ul>
  39. 41. Benefits of crowd sourcing <ul><li>Problems can be explored at comparatively little cost, and often very quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>The organization can tap a wider range of talent than might be present in its own organization. </li></ul><ul><li>By listening to the crowd, organizations gain first-hand insight on customer desires. </li></ul><ul><li>The community may feel a brand-building kinship with the crowd sourcing organization, which is result of an earned sense of ownership through contribution and collaboration </li></ul>
  40. 42. Co Creation model (C.K.Prahalad) <ul><li>Knowledgeable, web-empowered consumers will usher in &quot;a new industrial system&quot; characterized by &quot;co-creating value through personalized experiences unique to the individual consumer.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Under the new regime, consumers will &quot;seek to exercise their influence in every part of the business system,&quot; and companies will accommodate them by allowing them to design their own individualized products </li></ul>
  41. 43. Wisdom of the crowds <ul><li>While our culture generally trusts experts and distrusts the wisdom of the masses, New Yorker business columnist Surowiecki argues that &quot;under the right circumstances, groups are remarkably intelligent, and are often smarter than the smartest people in them.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>He says we're all trying to identify a correct answer, and through coordination (we need to synchronize our individual activities with others) and cooperation (we have to act together despite our self-interest). </li></ul>
  42. 44. Criteria for “wise crowds” <ul><li>Diversity of opinion. The diversity brings in different information </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of members from one another. Independence keeps people from being swayed by a single opinion leader </li></ul><ul><li>Decentralization. People's errors balance each other out; </li></ul><ul><li>A good method for aggregating opinions. Including all opinions guarantees that the results are &quot;smarter&quot; than if a single expert had been in charge. </li></ul><ul><li>If four basic conditions are met, a crowd's &quot;collective intelligence&quot; will produce better outcomes than a small group of experts, Surowiecki says, even if members of the crowd don't know all the facts or choose, individually, to act irrationally. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Wikinomics model <ul><li>The word &quot;wiki&quot; means &quot;quick&quot; in Hawaiian </li></ul><ul><li>Author Tapscott along with research director Williams, paint in vibrant colors the quickly changing world of Internet togetherness, also known as mass or global collaboration, and what those changes mean for business and technology. </li></ul>
  44. 46. Wikipedia Example <ul><li>Wikipedia, the online encyclopedia written, compiled, edited and re-edited by &quot;ordinary people&quot; is the most ubiquitous example, and its history makes remarkable reading. </li></ul><ul><li>But also considered are lesser-known success stories of global collaboration that star Procter & Gamble, BMW, Lego and a host of software and niche companies. </li></ul>
  45. 47. Mass Collaboration <ul><li>&quot;this may be the birth of a new era, perhaps even a golden one, on par with the Italian renaissance, or the rise of Athenian democracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Methods for exploiting the power of collaborative production are outlined throughout, an alluring compendium of ways to throw open previously guarded intellectual property and to invite in previously unavailable ideas that hide within the populace at large. </li></ul><ul><li>This model gives business leaders big leg up on mass collaboration possibilities </li></ul>
  46. 48. Tom Peter ’s Circle of Innovation <ul><li>Distance is Dead </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction is cool </li></ul><ul><li>You can ’t live without an eraser </li></ul><ul><li>We are all Michelangelos ( Relentless Architect of human possibilities) </li></ul><ul><li>The system is the solution </li></ul><ul><li>Connoisseur of talent ( Recruit Diversity) </li></ul>You Can't Shrink Your Way to Greatness
  47. 49. KM – Knowledge Creativity Innovation <ul><li>KM happens at three planes – Individual, Organizational, Societal </li></ul><ul><li>To be efficient and enduring, we need to focus at all the three levels of KM </li></ul>
  48. 50. KM at the Individual Plane <ul><ul><li>Attitudes, aptitudes and approaches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Higher Cognitive abilities /capabilities of analytical abilities, critical thinking, and problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral thinking – blending left and right brain, multidisciplinary approach. Avoiding the ‘silos’ of knowledge. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking out of the box. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 53. Education and Learning <ul><li>Curricula and pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Management </li></ul>
  50. 54. Service Education is Interdisciplinary Need more T-shaped people – both deep and broad (IBM) Business and Management Science and Engineering Economics and Social Sciences Math and Operations Research Computer Science & Info. Systems Industrial and Systems Engineering Business Anthropology Organizational Change & Learning
  51. 55. ISiM
  52. 56. Thank you