Shalini Urs Executive Director and ProfessorInternational School of Information Management University of Mysore, Mysore
Agenda• What is eGovernance ?• Why eGovernance?• Challenges of eGovernance• Where do we stand today ?• What is Open Governance ?• Open Data and Open Governance ?
eGovernance• So what is new ? It is not about the “e”, it is about Governance• It is not about computers, it is about citizens• It is about change of paradigm. It is about new ways of looking at the scenario• It is about Changing Mindset• It is about efficiency, convenience, and transparency of access to information• It is about changing the process and design and institutionalizing the processes and systems
eGovernance• "e-governance, however, is not really the use of IT in governance but as a tool to ensure good governance. e-governance does not mean proliferation of computers and accessories; it is basically a political decision which calls for discipline, attitudinal change in officers and employees, and massive government process re-engineering,
eGovernance• Everyone agrees that the biggest challenge of deploying e-governance is not technology but managing change.• Change management is in terms of cultural change and also about changing operations and processes workflow that the automated environment will introduce• It is about bringing about a change in the organizational set up and the shift from power to empowering
eGovernance Challenges• Redefining rules and procedures• Reducing information asymmetry• Developing the Legal frameworks• Infrastructure, Skill and awareness• Access to right information to the right person at the right time• Interdepartmental collaboration• Resistance and Reluctance to change
eGovernance Challenges for India• Assessment of local needs and customizing e- Governance solutions to meet those needs• Connectivity• Content (local content based on local language)• Building Human Capacities• e-Commerce• Sustainability
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Information Asymmetry• In economics, information asymmetry deals with the study of decisions in transactions where one party has more or better information than the other creating an imbalance of power in transactions, which can sometimes cause the transactions to go awry, a kind of market failure in the worst case.• In 2001, the Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to George Akerlof, Michael Spence, and Joseph E. Stiglitz for their "analyses of markets with asymmetric information."
What is eGoverance ?• Technology driven Governance• The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) for delivering : – government services – exchange of information communication transactions – integration of various stand-one systems and services
Five basic levels• G2C (Government to Citizens)• G2B (Government to Businesses)• G2E (Government to Employees)• G2G (Government to Governments)• C2G (Citizens to Governments)E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the governed
Stages of eGovernance ( UN)• Emerging Presence ( Stage 1)• Having at least a static official website where in limited but basic information is made available . Links to ministries and departments of Central Government, regional/local Government may or may not be available.• The Government website at this stage may also have some archived information such as the head of states’ messages or the constitution.•
Enhanced presence (The Stage II)• Enhanced online presence of the Government providing more public information resources such as policies of the Government, laws, regulations, reports, newsletters. More and more documents available online• Enhanced search and navigation features ( facilitating easy access to information )• However, there are no interactivity from the citizens end as the information is only flowing towards the citizens rather than also from citizens to Government
Interactive presence (The Stage III) • Governments initiates interactivity in their websites including availability of online services of the government to enhance convenience of the consumer. • Downloadable forms and applications for payment of bills, taxes and renewal of licenses. Audio and video capability to increase the interactivity with the citizens. • The government officials would be able contacted via email, fax, telephone and post. • Regularly updated website keeping the information current and up to date for the public.
Transactional presence – The• Stage IV Offering two-way interaction between the citizens and Government.• Including facilities such as paying taxes, applying for ID cards, birth certificates, passports, license renewals and other similar C2G interactions by allowing the citizen to submit forms and applications online 24/7.• The citizens at this stage will be able to pay for relevant public services, such as motor vehicle violation, taxes, fees for postal services through their credit, bank or debit card.• Providers of goods and services are able to bid online for public contacts via secure links
Networked presence – The Stage V• The most sophisticated level characterized by an integration of G2G, G2C and C2G interactions.• Encourages citizen participation, online participatory decision-making and involves the society in a two-way open dialogue through interactive features such as the web comment form, and innovative online consultation mechanisms, soliciting citizens’ views on public policy, law making, and democratic participatory decision making• Integration of the public sector agencies with offering collective decision-making, where in participatory democracy and citizen empowerment as a democratic right, is initiated
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP)• The National e-Governance Plan (2003-2007) of Indian laid the foundation and the impetus for long-term growth of e-Governance within the country.• The plan sought to create the right governance and institutional mechanisms, set up the core infrastructure and policies and implement a number of Mission Mode Projects at the center, state and integrated service levels to create a citizen-centric and business-centric environment for governance.• e-Governance in India has graduated from pilots to Mission Mode projects
NeGP Vision• "All Government services accessible to the common man in his locality through a One-stop-shop (integrated service delivery) ensuring convenience, efficiency, transparency & reliability"
NeGP Approach• Focus on Public Service Delivery & Outcomes• Process Re-engineering & Change Management are critical• Radically change the way government delivers services• Centralized Initiative, Decentralized Implementation• Implementation framework accordingly• Project Implementation in Mission Mode• Empowered Mission Teams - professionals & domain people• "Think Big, Start Small and Scale Fast"
Some exemplars of eGovernance• Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM”)• Electronic Voting Machines ("EVM") are being used in Indian General and State Elections to implement electronic voting in part from 1999 elections and in total since 2004 elections.• The EVMs reduce the time in both casting a vote and declaring the results compared to the old paper ballot system.
UIDAI (Universal Identification Authority of India)• Aadhaar is a 12 digit individual identification number issued by the UIDAI, Government of India which will serve as a proof of identity and address, anywhere in India.• Each Aadhaar number will be unique to an individual and will remain valid for life. Aadhaar number will help you provide access to services like banking, mobile phone connections and other Govt and Non-Govt services in due course.
Karnataka : e-Governance Initiatives Bhoomi Kaveri Major e-Governance Khajane initiatives by the State Bangalore One Government Nemmadi E-Procurement Human Resource Management System Karnataka State Wide Area Network
Bhoomi20 lakh land records in the State computerisedOnline delivery of computerised land recordsthrough 203 taluk locationsFully automated online mutation processFIFO principle adoptedCentralised database available at BangaloreIssue of land records decentralised to hoblilevel through Nemmadi telecentres
Kaveri• All 235 Sub-Registrars offices and 33 District Registrar offices in the sate computerized• Activities computerised include:o Registration of documents, Marriages and Firms.o Scanning and archival of Registered Documents.o Issue of Encumbrance Certificate.o Scanning and Microfilming of legacy records.o Establishment of Data Centre for storage and archival of data.o Scanning and archival of Registered Documents.
KHAJANE• 216 treasury offices in Karnataka computerised under KHAJANE project.• Connected to a central server at the State Secretariat through VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal).• Provides regular updates regarding the State expenditure and receipts to the central server.• KHAJANE aims to bring about a more transparent and accountable system of financial transactions and also discipline in operations and management, resulting in
A project at ISiMthat is building aplatform to shareOpen Data inspreadsheets andbuild a datawarehouse togain intelligenceand insightswww.wikigyan.org
Aspects of E-Governance1. Information Management2. Identity and Access Management3. Content Management4. Standards Management5. ICT Legal Framework
Information Management• Gathering and storing at one place, the information relating to the Government and Governing process.• It is about the systematic arrangement/classification of information.• Information management addresses the issues like – How to provide? What to provide? Whom to Provide? When to provide? Where to provide? Why to provide?• Primarily entails Database Management, Metadata Management, and Knowledge Management
Information Management• Gathering• Creating• Storing• Accessing• Distributing• Updating• Securing
Identity and Access Management• A set of processes and infrastructure for the creation, maintenance and use of digital identities• The object is to create scalable, extensible and secure standards based framework for identity data acquisition and storage.• Access to the Government and public information available online through a process of identity authentication of the user• Objective is to give a secure access to information to the public. Security of information is very necessary and is to be done through Access management.
Identity and Access Management • Citizen Request • Verification • Assignment of identifier. Identifiers may also be in the form of biometrics, digital certificates, smart cards, etc. • Storage of Identities in ID stores/databases • Authentication • Authorization • Access Control • Audit and Reporting
Content Management• The process of organising, distributing and tracking information/data through a website over the internet is known as Content Management .• It helps to make users more knowledgeable or informed by offering easy access to correct information online. It deals with providing right information, to right people at right time.• Contents of a website can be divided as Text, Graphics, Audio, Video, Diagrams, Links, etc.• Managing this various type of content is important. It is necessary to decide where to provide text and where images and graphics.
Content Management aspects• Centralised storage – information must be stored centrally, i.e. at one place to make access easy and avoid complications of networking and computing;• Reviewing and Authentication of Contents – The contents of the website are continuously reviewed and authenticated so as to maintain the authenticity of the data available on the website.• Access of data by the end user – Unless the user access the data published on the website, the whole effort is in vain.• Many open source CMS are available – Joomla, Drupal …
Standards ManagementThere are multiple formats to deal with webpages,text, graphics, audio, and video and different securityissues. Standards management involves the following : 1. Network and information Security Standards 2. Meta data and data standards 3. Localisation and language technology ( Indian Languages issues) 4. Quality and documentation standards 5. Technical standards 6. Web accessibility standards ( for example for differently enabled)
ICT Legal Framework• We need to frame laws which will fully incorporate the established as will as emerging technology.• These IT laws need to be flexible to adjust with the rapidly changing technology.• Currently India has only the IT Act, 2000, (also known as ITA-2000, or the IT Act. This was amended in 2008• I T Act 2000 addressed the following issues:• Legal Recognition of Electronic Documents• Legal Recognition of Digital Signatures• Offenses and Contraventions• Justice Dispensation Systems for Cyber crimes
Global e-Government Development Index by UN* http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/docume nts/un/unpan048065.pdf
UN eGovernment Survey 2012• The Survey tracks progress of the 192 Member States in implementing e-government programs and measures and compares their state of e-government development via the Global e-Government Development Index as the barometer• According to the Survey rankings, the Republic of Korea is the world leader (0.9283) followed by the Netherlands (0.9125), the United Kingdom (0.8960) and Denmark (0.8889), with the United States, Canada, France, Norway, Singapore and Sweden close behind.
UN eGovernment Survey 2012• The steady improvement in all the indicators of the e-government development index has led to a world average of 0.4877 as compared to 0.4406 in 2010• On a regional level, – Northern America (0.8559) – Europe (0.7188) – Eastern Asia (0.6344) – Asia (0.3464) – Africa (0.2762)
Open Data• Open data is the idea that certain data should be freely available to everyone to use and republish as they wish, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control.• The goals of the open data movement are in line with those of other "Open" movements such as open source, open content, and open access.• Though historically data has always been outside of copyrights domain and the philosophy of open data has been long established, the term "open data" itself is recent.•
Open Data• However the concept of open data has gained popularity with the rise of the Internet and World Wide Web and, especially, with the suite of tools and technologies of Web 2.0, which enable the sharing and “mashup” using open APIs• launch of open-data government initiatives such as Data.gov in the US and other countries have advocated the philosophy of Open Data.• Projects such as Dataone (http://www.dataone.org/) and a host of others have demonstrated not only feasibility but also the benefits of Open Data.
Data.go vThe purpose isto increasepublic access tohigh value, machinereadabledatasetsgenerated by theExecutive Branchof the FederalGovernment.
Government Platform (OGPL) developed through India - US collaboration• OGPL is a joint product from India and United States to promote transparency and greater citizen engagement by making more government data, documents, tools and processes publicly available. OGPL will be available, as an open source platform.• By making this available in useful machine-readable formats it allows developers, analysts, media & academia to develop new applications and insights that will help give citizens more information for better decisions.
OGPLIn using an open source method of development, theOGPL community will provide future technologyenhancements, open government solutions, andcommunity-based technical support. OGPL hasbecome an example of a new era of diplomaticcollaborations that benefit the global community thatpromote government transparency, citizen-focusedapplications, and enrich humanity
In the end…• Deploying ICTs for – Accelerating participatory governance – ensuring equity of access – Reducing information asymmetry – Putting in place a national/global information infrastructures – Empowering citizens