General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Orgs 20130208

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General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Orgs 20130208

  1. 1. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 1© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 1 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Knowledge Management, Strategic Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Series on Management of Science, Technology & Innovation McDonald R. Stewart Adjunct Assistant Professor The Graduate School Spring 2013
  2. 2. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 2 For continuity, slides 3 thru 6 repeat slides 19 thru 22 from the previous slideshow on Technology & Innovation, Information Systems, and Dystechnia
  3. 3. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 3 • There must be a flow of knowledge – To enable the transfer of capability and expertise across from where it resides to where it’s needed • Most IT targets data and information, not knowledge – There is an inverse relationship between abundance and actionability in the knowledge hierarchy • The relationships depicted here provide the conceptual basis for Expert Systems and Knowledge Management systems ©2005E.G.Carayannisetal. Abundance Actionability Data Information Knowledge ?  What is it that distills in the apex tagged with the question mark?  And can technology ever embody and deploy that potential?  Intelligence is the process of filtering, consolidating, and comprehending our way up the pyramid  Intelligence is how well we learn  Aptitude is the bandwidth across which intelligence progresses  Aptitude is the potential for rapid learning Noise Information Is Not Enough (from Carayannis, GWU Lectures, 2000-2013) Wisdom or Intuition
  4. 4. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 4 • Knowledge dynamics occur within an organization and across organizational boundaries: – Knowledge can be derived from data and information stored and processed using technology. – Knowledge flows in and through people (or fails to) – Knowledge sharing behaviors are constrained by culture. • IT efficacy depends on education, attitudes, behaviors, policies, and practices. P T C Organizational Environment Components People Culture Technology Capacities Creation Absorption Diffusion Reprocessing Transfer ©2004E.G.Carayannis Technology Is Not Enough (from Carayannis, GWU Lectures, 2000-2013)
  5. 5. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 5 Knowledge Management Systems • A Knowledge Management (KM) system is an integrated mechanism for supporting the creation, absorption, diffusion, reprocessing, and transfer of expertise and knowledge in an organization. A KM system can be: 1) Document-based—including indexed paper, microfilm, and page images; formatted electronic documents such as Lotus Notes, distributed databases, etc. 2) Ontology-based—adding linkages to facilitate functionality; terminologies to summarize the documents such as author, subject, key words, etc. (as in DAML & other XML-based ontologies) 3) AI-based—using customized schemata to represent the problem domain (still in early development). • KM Functions: – Knowledge Creation (Research & Discovery) – Knowledge Absorption (Capture & Storage) – Knowledge Diffusion (Internal Sharing) – Knowledge Reprocessing (Assimilation) – Knowledge Transfer (External Sharing)
  6. 6. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 6 Knowledge Management Systems (cont) Some Benefits of KM:  To share valuable organizational knowledge.  To facilitate teaching and learning.  To avoid re-inventing the wheel.  To reduce redundant work.  To reduce training time for new employees.  To free the experts for additional knowledge creation.  To free experts for additional knowledge reprocessing.  To retain intellectual property after employees leave.  To safeguard organizational memory.  To enable organizational wisdom. • However: There is no such thing as complete “automation” of these capacities! – The KM “System” includes components which are technology enablers, but any system also depends on processes and operators.
  7. 7. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 7© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 7 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Strategic Learning – 1 CHAOS Unknown Unknowns (Ignorance of Ignorance) QUESTIONS Known Unknowns (Awareness of Ignorance) ANSWERS Known Knowns (Awareness of Awareness) EXPERTISE Unknown Knowns (Ignorance of Awareness) The challenge becomes learning what you need to know, and then transferring to others what you have come to know.    
  8. 8. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 8© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 8 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Strategic Learning – 2 ANSWERS Known Knowns (Awareness of Awareness) EXPERTISE Unknown Knowns (Ignorance of Awareness) Expertise is the pinnacle of learning • see also wisdom and intuition at slide 3 These most advanced states of learning and knowledge tend to be deeply internalized • hence ignorance of awareness This deep state of knowledge embeddedness is called tacit knowledge Working knowledge is the product of questioning and learning, subject to the organizational capacities and functions as previously described • see Creation, Absorption, Diffusion, Reprocessing, and Transfer at slides 4 & 5 These more common states of learning and knowledge tend to be conspicuous and more freely shared • hence awareness of awareness This communicable state of knowledge openness is called explicit knowledge
  9. 9. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 9 – Knowledge and experience can only exist in a usable way inside a single, live mind – Knowledge Management facilitates the storage, retrieval, and sharing of knowledge and experience between minds • Strategic Learning is part of a triple-layered architecture of technological learning: – Operational level, accumulating experience and learning by doing • We learn new things – Tactical level, learning how-to-learn • We adapt the rules and contingencies for decision making to facilitate the learning of new things in the short term – Strategic, learning to learn-how-to learn • We internalize and institutionalize new views to redefine the fundamentals of our operating universe in the long term Strategic Learning – 3 Adaptedfrom TheStrategicManagement ofTechnologicalLearning ©1998-2013E.G.Carayannis
  10. 10. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 10© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 10 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Strategic Learning – 4 • The objective is to leverage the exchange of knowledge within and among organizational members and KM archives for enhanced organizational development. – Transitioning Explicit Knowledge to Tacit Knowledge through personal learning and growth – And transitioning Tacit Knowledge to Explicit Knowledge through training and mentoring • In a dynamic and empowering positive feedback cycle
  11. 11. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 11© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 11 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Strategic Learning – 4 The Spiral of Enlightenment • The objective is to leverage the exchange of knowledge within and among organizational members and KM archives for enhanced organizational development. – Transitioning Explicit Knowledge to Tacit Knowledge through personal learning and growth – And transitioning Tacit Knowledge to Explicit Knowledge through training and mentoring • In a dynamic and empowering positive feedback cycle
  12. 12. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 12© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 12 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Strategic Learning – 5 Tacit Knowledge Transferability Factors Content Context Processes Impact
  13. 13. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 13© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 13 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Creativity & Innovation The uncreative mind can spot wrong answers, but it takes a very creative mind to spot wrong questions. –Anthony Jay • Creativity • The result of inspiration and cognition • The liberation of talent in a nurturing or provocative context • Mostly an intensely private and individualistic process • Operates at the micro (individual) level • Innovation • Changes the yield of resources • A new product or method that boosts supply-side productivity or increases the value obtained from resources by the consumer • Not just invention, but economically viable adaptation, improvement, or creation • Research is transforming money into knowledge • Innovation is turning knowledge into money • Operates at the meso (team/group/organizational) level
  14. 14. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 14© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 14 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Creativity + Innovation = Competitiveness • Competitiveness • The edifice resting on the pillars of creativity, invention, and innovation • The capacity of a project team, organization/firm, industry, or nation to attain and sustain greater productivity than similar entities • The drive for survival and ascent • Operates at the macro (project/firm/industry/national/regional) level • Creativity, Innovation, and Competitiveness • Can be modeled as a double helix • Akin to nature’s fundamental scaffold and evolutionary competence • One strand represents the flow and record of creativity • The other strand represents competitiveness • The value-adding chain of creativity, invention, innovation, productivity and competitiveness links both strands • This chain catalyzes strategic learning • To do things better, cheaper, faster • At the micro, meso and macro levels
  15. 15. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 15© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 15 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart The CIC Double Helix and Value-Added Chain Individual,organizational,socio-economiclearning Levels – Scale and Scope Invention Early Innovation Late Innovation Productivity CREATIVITY CIC Value-Added Chain COMPETITIVENESS COMPETITIVENESS CREATIVITY Micro-level Meso-level Macro-level Micro Meso Macro Mostly Project Firm Industry Nation Region Mostly Team Group Organization Mostly Individual Diagram©2003E.G.Carayannis&E.Gonzalez
  16. 16. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 16© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 16 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Creativity & Innovation — A Different Perspective on Project Slack • Common purposes of slack in a project: – To permit smoother coordination of transitional nodes and milestones when individual task schedules are uncertain but interdependent (between node slack) – To improve likelihood of completing a given task on time, given risks and uncertainties of forecasted task requirements (within node slack) • What if some of this built-in slack could be used in advance to develop assurances that the rest of the project will need less slack to still meet the quintuple constraint? – Or even exceed stakeholder expectations? – Could such a “slack-time investment” deliver an adequate return? – Isn’t this called “working smarter – not harder?” • If given initial (and periodic) freedom to create and innovate, can a Project Management team boost their own performance?
  17. 17. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 17© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 17 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart Nurturing Creativity & Innovation – 1 • An example of businesses inspiration from an unlikely source: • MacDowell Colony, the nation's oldest and most famous artist colony • Engineers, software programmers, lab technicians and marketers assigned to the same office, freed from other duties, given unusual creative license, instructed to work together rather than separately • Colonists work in isolated cabins containing a bed, a fireplace and relevant tools • Picture windows offer panoramic views of pine trees and wildlife on 450-acre campus • To minimize interruptions, the studios aren't equipped with radios, television sets, phones or Internet • Breakfast and dinner are served communally in a converted barn. At lunchtime, a wooden picnic basket silently appears on each studio doorstep • MacDowell fosters creativity by mixing disciplines • Informal exchanges occur during odd-hour encounters, dinner chats and presentations about pending projects • Participants say the reduced distractions make them so productive that a week at MacDowell is the equivalent of four elsewhere • Yet there's no requirement to produce anything • Although many participants place expectations and deadlines on themselves • Is it possible to set a due date for a breakthrough innovation? FromJ.S.Lublin,“BusinessesLooktoTechniquesThatHelpPoetsandPaintersBe MoreCreative,Productive”ManagingNurturingInnovation,Mar20,2006;p.B1
  18. 18. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 18© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 18 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart • Creativity is not all about unbridled, free-form artistry: • Some of the most inspiring art forms, such as haikus, sonatas, and religious paintings, are fraught with constraints • They are beautiful because creativity triumphed over the “rules” • Constraints must be balanced with a healthy disregard for the impossible • Too many curbs can lead to pessimism and despair • Disregarding the bounds of what we know or accept gives rise to ideas that are non- obvious, unconventional, or unexplored • The creativity realized in the balance between constraint and disregard for the impossible is fueled by passion and leads to revolutionary change • Constraints can speed development • Rapid prototyping provides a good sense of how good a new concept is, while limiting the investment of how many work on it for how long • Since only 1 in every 5 or 10 ideas shows merit, the strategy of limiting time on any one idea allows more time to try more ideas, increasing the odds of success • Speed also lets you fail faster • Have you ever wondered how a product so lame got to market, a movie so bad got released, or a government policy so misguided got passed? • It’s likely that the people working on the project invested so much time that it was too painful to walk away • That’s why it’s important to discover failure fast and abandon it quickly FromM.A.Mayer,“CreativityLovesConstraints,”BusinessWeek,Feb13,2006,p.102 Nurturing Creativity & Innovation – 2
  19. 19. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 19© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 19 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart • Confronted with a problem ask: • How many different ways can I look at it? • How can I rethink the way I see it? • How many different ways can I solve it? • Don't ask, “What have I been taught by someone else about how to solve this?” • If you are the team leader, give generously to innovators of your time and attention • Expose people to a variety of conflicting perspectives • Hire for raw ideas • Allow for experimentation, mistakes, and dead ends • Employ short-term mentors • Engage in conversations that lead to new conclusions rather than persuade people of foregone ones • Periodically switch environments If I’d listened to customers, I’d have given them a faster horse. –Henry Ford Nurturing Creativity & Innovation – 3
  20. 20. General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart © 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 20© 2003-2013 M.R. Stewart, E.G. Carayannis 20 General Lecture on Knowledge, Learning, Creativity & Innovation in Organizations Spring 2013 Prof. McDonald R. Stewart • Predominant personality indicators of creative style: • Conscientiousness • Openness to experience • Extraversion • Providing a basis for comparing the personality traits associated with creative style and occupational creativity • Creative people have an internal locus of control • Responsible for one’s own future • As opposed to an external locus of control • Looking to the world for guidance and fate • Focusing on obstacles kills creativity • Innovation is born from the interaction between constraint and vision Failure is only the opportunity to begin again more intelligently. –Henry Ford Nurturing Creativity & Innovation – 4

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