Smart meter functionality for today and for the future


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Smart meter functionality for today and for the future

  1. 1. © Sentec 2012© Sentec 2007 MAKING A ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES SMART WORLD OF DIFFERENCE Smart meter functionality – for today and the future IET Smart Metering Conference 17 April 2012 SLIDE 1
  2. 2. UK status April 2012© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES SLIDE 2
  3. 3. SMETS© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Published 5th April 2012 – Notified to European Commission• Provides sufficient confidence – For manufacturers to design against – For energy suppliers to install• First step to Smart Change of Supplier• Few if any existing compliant Smart Metering System designs ? SLIDE 3
  4. 4. Issues in deployment and commissioning© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Initiating a new positive relationship with customer – Trouble-free on-time high-quality process – Belief of installation team that it is a good system• Consider total cost of (hardware + installation) – More expensive hardware could improve installation • Less time on site • Lower risk of a failed installation and subsequent revisit• Installation efficiencies make material cost savings – 10% saving in install time = £157m saving for the UK rollout • Based on April 2012 Impact Assessment costs SLIDE 4
  5. 5. War stories from meter installers© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Restarting gas appliances after interruption of supply ‘I had many occasions where pilots wouldnt relight (faulty piezo or thermocouple) and was told by the utility not to work on the appliance in any way. The fault was classed as existing, which technically it was, but try explaining that to a vunerable customer on a cold day. I had to say not my fault, call a gsr plumber.’ Time taken in like for like replacement ‘dont forget most people think you will be there for half a day so make sure you say if you can take a quick look then you can let them know how long it will take ! most are shocked its only say 5mins power off and 15mins max unless tails need updating (25mm) so 30 mins max and your be on your way ! ’ Issues with first generation SEDs ‘The Ecometer only comes with a Eon booklet that tells me how to use it and the first bit of the manual says "...... Our Smart Meter Installer will have set up your SED aand linked it to your smart meters, so your ready to go" But I am pretty sure he hasnt done that at all as my ecoMeter just says "this function is not currently enabled" and from the Menu/System Info there are no meter serial number listed..’ SLIDE 5
  6. 6. Installations© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES SLIDE 6
  7. 7. Potential problems ...© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES SLIDE 7
  8. 8. WAN and HAN performance© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Strongly influenced by property characteristics – Location (overall WAN coverage) – Meter location (indoor, meter box, semi-concealed) • Distance between gas and electric meter – Construction materials (timber, brick, stone etc) – Type of dwelling (apartment, detached property etc)• Minimise chance of failed installation – Collect information on the meter locations and properties – Use coverage maps for WAN – Provide tools, feedback and alternate options for installer SLIDE 8
  9. 9. The impact of meter design on total cost© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES METERS IN FIELD Reliability rates OPEX Revisit rates Install INSTALL PROJECT Speed costs Meter INSTALL PROCESS hardware METER DESIGN DESIGN costs SLIDE 9
  10. 10. Beyond installation – future proofing© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Challenge of rapidly evolving markets for a long lifetime asset – Maintaining functionality – Predicting total cost of ownership and ROI• International experience – it isn’t easy! – Italy – Australia/New Zealand – Sweden• But it is possible – E.g. In-field upgrade of FlexNet meters in USA SLIDE 10
  11. 11. Choosing the right smart meter© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Traditional • Additional Smart specs – Hardware cost – Which processor – Performance stability – How much memory – Reliability – Which OS – Day 1 functionality – WAN hardware capability • Standards – HAN hardware capability • Protocols – Metrology capability • Compatibility – User interface capability – Upgrade processes – Ease of configuration SLIDE 11
  12. 12. Requirements trends to consider© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Time of Use with increasing complexity – Multiple tiers – Daily TOU profiles – Consumption thresholds – Energy prices stored in the meter• Credit, Prepayment and PAYG operation – Prepay and PAYG require local user interface • As backup to WAN and for safe re-connection• Load profiling with increasing resolution – For in-home display – For consumption analysis SLIDE 12
  13. 13. Future requirements to consider© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• New devices interfacing with SMS – EVs – HEMS – Microgeneration – Demand response appliances SLIDE 13
  14. 14. Recent history in smart meter evolution© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Code growth 1000 Code growth in US market from 2002• Non volatile storage 100 – Even faster than code size Code size (kB)• Increasing frequency of 10 communications – From monthly to hourly 1 2001 2002 2004 2005 2006 2008 2009 2010 2012 2013• Increasing communications bandwidth – Larger volumes of data• Security requirements – an unknown component, potentially heavy SLIDE 14
  15. 15. Maximising a meter’s useful life© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Consider every aspect of the design – Processor, flash – Operating system capability – WAN/HAN capability – Metrology – Disconnect – Product operating modes – Supply chain and manufacturability• Choose architecture that permits design re-use – Structured firmware, standard internal interfaces SLIDE 15
  16. 16. Processor and memory© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• 32-bit architecture – 8 and 16 bit processors are obsolete • Limited linear address space – 64k • Often lacking e.g. MPU, VIC, AES, DMA – Compression and encryption must be supportable• External flash memory – Sufficient for multiple code images – Sufficient for deep profiles and logs – Sufficient to store advanced configurations – Running a flash filing system for maximum flexibility SLIDE 16
  17. 17. WAN/HAN communications© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Define as much upgradable firmware as possible – Protocol – Modulation – Security• Ensure hardware can support known evolution path – Sufficient resources for updated stacks – E.g. ZigBee SEP 2.0• Consider secure binding to evolving IHD – IHD lifetime is likely to be less than meter lifetime SLIDE 17
  18. 18. Reconfigurable core elements of meter© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Metrology – Ensure metrology can measure wide range of parameters • Even if they are not part of today’s tariffs – Ensure it is accurate and stable beyond current standards • E.g. ability to measure standby powers • E.g. power quality analysis• Disconnect – Allow multiple methods to control • Credit default • Current and power limits SLIDE 18
  19. 19. Firmware architecture© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Too large and complex for monolithic code – Meters are now more complex than early PC’s • And include multiple processors for different functions – Need the ability to patch and selectively upgrade • Remotely in the field – Must be able to update all the processors • And robustly roll back to factory versions• Embedded operating system approach is needed – Many examples from consumer world – Many choices of OS for electric meters – Ability to lock and protect core parts is important SLIDE 19
  20. 20. Firmware functionality© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Traditional • Smart – Meter vendor writes – Meter vendor provides firmware core OS • Using subcontractors • Including core metrology • Licensing in stacks etc • Including hardware drivers – No third party access – Applications for everything • Code is proprietary else • Code often monolithic • Third parties can develop • Security issues • Defined interfaces – Slow code evolution • Independently installable • Limited set of resources • Meter vendor certifies • Limited customisation per customer SLIDE 20
  21. 21. Customising and future proofing© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Who writes the upgrades ? – E.g. streamlining the install process – E.g. Adding support for smart appliances Traditional Smart Meter Vendors Meter Vendors Systems Integrators Device suppliers Energy supplier team Third party application suppliers• Managing the code and building a community – Certification – Security – Safety SLIDE 21
  22. 22. A winning deployment© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES• Installation process feeds into the meter design – Small choices in design = BIG impact on installation• Future proofing isn’t impossible: – Select products based on capability – Consider firmware evolution path – Learn from requirements trends – Avoid early obsolescence – Be prepared for evolution of supply chain Smart meters can have an asset life of 20 years ! SLIDE 22
  23. 23. For further information© Sentec 2012 SMART ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES Dr Mark England CEO, Sentec Ltd Office UK: +44 1223 303800 SLIDE 23