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Smart metering-system

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The topic gives a brief insight into the working and infrastructure of the Smart Meters and the networking protocols.

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Smart metering-system

  1. 1. Smart Metering System Presented by- Satabdy Jena Mtech (Power & Energy Systems) T14EE003 Department of Electrical Engineering NIT Meghalaya SEMINAR DATE :07/12/2015
  2. 2. 2/21/2016 2
  3. 3. 1.Introduction Traditionally power measurement by electromechanical meters, reactive energy meters, maximum demand meters, dominated before 1970. 2/21/2016 3 Fig.1. Traditional Energy Meters
  4. 4. between 1970 and 2000, automated meter reading was added to electronic meter. However it could provide only one-communication. Limitation was overcome by smart meter. Not until the Smart Grid initiatives were established were these meters and systems referred to as ―Smart Meters and Smart Meter Systems. Hence, the present state of these technologies should be more appropriately referred to as ―an evolution, not a revolution. 2/21/2016 4 Fig.2. Smart Energy Meters Fig.3. Evolution of smart meters
  5. 5. 2.Definition  An electronic device that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing.  enable two-way communication  Theodore George “Ted” Paraskevakos(1972)-sensor monitoring system.  1977, launched Metretek,Inc.-remote meter reading and load management system, IBM series 1 mini- computer. 2/21/2016 5 Fig.4. Smart meter functional block diagram
  6. 6. 3.Smart Metering Infrastructure  A smart metering system is built with smart meters, control devices and a communication link  Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an integrated system of smart meters, communications networks, and data management systems that enables two-way communication between utilities and customers. 2/21/2016 6 Fig.5. AMI Fig.6. Smart metering Infrastructure
  7. 7. The hardware structure of the smart meter consists of Voltage and current sensing unit Power supply Energy measurement unit (metering IC) Microcontroller Real time cock Communicating system. 2/21/2016 7 Fig.7. Components of Smart meter
  8. 8. (a)Voltage sensing unit Simple resistor dividers are used as voltage sensors. AC mains voltage is divided down to fit the input range of ADC of energy measurement chip. where, 𝑉𝑜 is the output voltage & 𝑉𝑖𝑛 is the input voltage. 2/21/2016 8 R1 R2 To ADC Vin 𝑉𝑜 = 𝑅2 𝑅1 + 𝑅2 𝑉𝑖𝑛 Fig.8. Voltage sensing unit
  9. 9. (b)Current sensing unit Four types of sensors are widely used: Hall effect based linear current sensors Current transformers Shunt resistor Rogowski coils 2/21/2016 9 • Consist of current sensors and anti-aliasing filters. Fig.9. Current sensors
  10. 10. (c)Power supply  consists of step-down transformers, rectifiers, AC-DC converters,DC–DC converters and regulators.  Energy measurement chip designers provide their own reference power supply schematics. 2/21/2016 10 Fig.10. STPM10 Fig.11. Typical power supply unit for smart meter
  11. 11. (d)Energy measurement unit Signal conditioning, ADC, and computation are done inside the energy measurement unit. Modern energy measurement chips have digital signal processor (DSP) to perform signal conditioning, ADC and energy calculations. They provide active, reactive, and apparent energy information as data or frequency (pulse) output. RMS voltage measurement, RMS current measurement, frequency, temperature measurement, tampering detection, power management, THD, line SAG detection and communication are also possible in some of them. 2/21/2016 11 (e)Microcontroller Communication with the energy measurement chip Calculations based on the data received Display electrical parameters, tariff and cost of electricity Smartcard reading Tamper detection Data management with EEPROM Communication with other communication devices Power management.
  12. 12. (f)Real time clock an essential hardware component in all smart meters which keeps track of the current time. It provides time and date information and alarm signals. Some energy measurement chips have a built-in real time clock device. For an example ADE5166 has a built-in real time clock (RTC) which communicates with the internal MCU. 2/21/2016 12 (g)Smart meter communication • As traffic generator assigned with a global IPv6 address receives demand response data from the collector Smart meter • Responsibility of relaying packets • Determines the next ‘hop’ Router • Serves interconnection between NAN & WAN • Aggregates all meter reading Collector
  13. 13. Classification of smart meter communication systems Smart meter systems As defined by their LAN Radio frequency Transmitted by wireless radio Mesh technology Talk to each other to form a LAN cloud to a collector Point-to-point technology Talk directly to the data collector Power line carrier Transmission of data across the utility power lines 2/21/2016 13
  14. 14.  AMI can consist with a HAN, a Neighborhood Area Network (NAN) and a WAN.  HAN is used to establish a communication link between the smart meter and the smart appliances, other meters, in-home display, and the micro generation unit.  Zig-bee, Z-wave, Wi-Fi, and power line communication (PLC) are widely used protocols in HANs.  A NAN is used to transfer the data between neighboring smart meters. Zigbee communication protocol is widely used in NAN due to high speed of data transferring and low cost.  Some smart meters are connected to a remote server through a WAN.  GSM, GPRS, 3G, and WiMax communication technologies can be used to connect the meter to the WAN. GSM provides wider coverage than other media. 2/21/2016 14 Wireless channels are Powerline communications suffer from • Prone to interference due to the populated ISM bands • Have lower bandwidth than wired communication technologies • Do not penetrate well through concrete construction • Their range is limited • The impact of harsh smart grid environment on wireless communications is not explored well • Noisy channel conditions • Channel characteristics that vary depending on the devices plugged in • Electromagnetic interference (EMI) due to unshielded power lines • Poor isolation among units
  15. 15. 4.Smart meter : Benefits Stakeholders Benefit Utility customers  Better access and data to manage energy use  More accurate and timely billing  Improved and increased rate options  Improved outage restoration  Power quality data Customer service & Field operations  Reduced cost of Metering reading  Reduced trips for off-cycle reads  Eliminates handheld meter reading equipment  Reduced call center transactions  Reduced collections and connects/disconnects Revenue cycle services  Reduced back office rebilling  Early detection of meter tampering and theft  Reduced estimated billing and billing errors 2/21/2016 15
  16. 16. 2/21/2016 16 Transmission & Distribution  Improved transformer load management  Improved capacitor bank switching  Data for improved efficiency, reliability of service, losses, and loading  Improved data for efficient grid system design  Power quality data for the service areas Marketing & Load Forecasting  Reduced costs for collecting load research data Utility general  Reduced regulatory complaints  Improved customer premise safety & risk profile  Reduced employee safety incidents External stakeholders  Improved environmental benefits  Support for the Smart Grid initiatives
  17. 17. 5.Smart meter : Issues Meter Accuracy Case study of Texas:  99.96 % were within +/- 2% and 99.91% were within +/-0.5%.  more stable with tighter accuracy control, and consistently performed better than their mechanical counterparts.  no statistically significant difference in electricity usage  The increase in customer complaints correlated with a difference in weather. Radio Frequency Exposures  RF frequency  Transmitter power  Distance  Duty cycle  Spatial averaging Smart meter security Security guidelines, recommendations, and best practices for AMI system elements 2/21/2016 17
  18. 18. 2/21/2016 18 (Courtesy: California Council on Science and Technology) Fig.13.Radio frequency exposures
  19. 19. 6.Smart meter standards STANDARDS REGULATIONS FOR INSTALLATION  Intentional and unintentional radio emissions, and safety related to RF exposure (FCC standards, parts 1 and 2 of the FCC’s Rules and Regulations [47 C.F.R.1.1307(b), 1.1310, 2.1091, 2.1093.  Meter accuracy and performance (ANSI C12.1, 12.10, and 12.20 specifications)  Local technical codes and requirements  Functional tests to satisfy the utilities technical and business requirements  Utility specifications designed for special area requirements (surge protection for areas vulnerable to lightning, stainless steel enclosures for seaside areas).  The National Electric Safety Code (NESC) for utility wiring  The National Electric Code (NEC) for home wiring  ASNI C12.1—Code for Electricity Metering  Local building codes. 2/21/2016 19
  20. 20. 7.Deployment of Smart meter Selection of Smart meter system  Development of Business, Financial and Technical Requirements  Project RFP Bidding Process  RFP evaluation Customer care and communications  Explaining the process of installation Meter and system certification and acceptance  Certification of system components Logistics  logistic and warehousing process Smart meter installation  The National Electric Safety Code (NESC) for utility wiring  The National Electric Code (NEC) for home wiring  ASNI C12.1 – Code for Electricity Metering  Local building codes Data management  MDMS 2/21/2016 20
  21. 21. 8.Conclusion Smart metering systems are thus an indispensable part of the evolving technology for smart grid. They find application in various fields and have manifold benefits. However their design has to meet certain pre-laid standards and regulations. This is a mandatory feature as these systems have to be environment and user friendly. The radio frequency emissions having the potential to damage public health is a hoax as for ionization of body atoms require high frequency radiations which are not emitted by smart meters. The only concern is the security and privacy of data as they are prone to cyber attack. 2/21/2016 21
  22. 22. References [1] S. Meters, Smart meter systems: a metering industry perspective," An Edison Electric Institute-Association of Edison Illuminating Companies-Utilities Telecom Council White Paper, A Joint Project of the EEI and AEIC Meter Committees, Edison Electric Institute, 2011. [2] S. S. S. R. Depuru, L.Wang, and V. Devabhaktuni, Smart meters for power grid: Challenges, issues, advantages and status," Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 2736{2742, 2011. [3] R. van Gerwen, S. Jaarsma, and R. Wilhite, Smart metering," Leonardo-. org, p. 9, 2006. [4] M. Schneps-Schneppe, D. Namiot, A. Maximenko, and D. Malov, Wired smart home: energy metering, security, and emergency issues," in Ultra Mod- ern Telecommunications and Control Systems and Workshops (ICUMT), 2012 4th International Congress on. IEEE, 2012, pp. 405{410. [5] Z. Fan, G. Kalogridis, C. Efthymiou, M. Sooriyabandara, M. Serizawa, and J. McGeehan, The new frontier of communications research: smart grid and smart metering," in Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Energy- Ecient Computing and Networking. ACM, 2010, pp. 115{118. [6] S. R. Rajagopalan, L. Sankar, S. Mohajer, and H. V. Poor, Smart meter privacy: A utility-privacy framework," in Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2011 IEEE International Conference on. IEEE, 2011, pp. 190{195. [7] K. Weranga, S. Kumarawadu, and D. Chandima, Smart metering design and applications. Springer, 2014. 2/21/2016 22
  23. 23. Thank you… 2/21/2016 23

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