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37021790 just-in-time-by-sashi-prabhu

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Transcript

  • 1. Just-In-Time “Eliminate Waste”
  • 2. Flexible Resources
    • Multifunctional workers
      • Operate more than one machine & jobs
    • General-purpose machines
      • Machines that are not highly specialized
  • 3. Cellular Layouts
    • Manufacturing cells
      • Often U-shaped or linear
      • Work flows through cell in one direction and experiences little waiting
  • 4. Pull System
    • Coordinating production and delivery of materials and components
    • Traditionally, inventory has been used as a cushion against lapses in coordination and inventory can be huge
    • Pull system a la at US supermarkets
  • 5. Pull System
    • Do not order more product than can be used
      • (or items that can be sold)
    • Reversal of normal ‘ push’ system
  • 6. Kanban Production Control System
    • Japanese word for ‘card’
    • Associated with fixed-quantity inventory system
    • Two-bin system Kanban
  • 7. Small-Lot Production
    • Requires less space and capital
    • Produces small amounts at a time
      • Processes can be moved closer together
      • Transportation between stations is simplified
    • Quality problems are easier to detect
    • Reveals errors and bottlenecks
      • video
  • 8. Lead Time
    • Processing time
      • Can be reduced by reducing number of items processed and the efficiency or speed of the worker
    • Move time
      • Can be decreased if machines are moved closer together, method of movement simplified, routings are standardized, or need for movement eliminated
      • Con’t
  • 9. Lead Time
    • Waiting Time
      • Can be reduced through better scheduling of materials, workers, machines and sufficient capacity
    • Setup Time
      • Reduction of setup time is important to JIT
  • 10. Quick Setups
    • Separate internal setup from external setup
      • Internal setup requires the machine to be stopped
      • External setup can be done while machine is running
    • Convert internal setup to external setup
      • Prepare as much as possible in advance (preheating injection mold, standardizing die heights, centering die, etc)
  • 11. Quick Setups
    • Streamline all aspects of setup
      • Organize workplace properly locating tools near points of use
      • Keep machines and fixtures in good repair
      • Simplify or eliminate adjustments
        • precoding desired settings, using locator pins, etc.
    • Perform setup activities in parallel or eliminate
      • Add a person, standardize components, parts, materials
  • 12. Uniform Production Levels
    • Smoothing production requirements on the final assembly line
      • Better forecast
      • Mixed production throughout the day in small quantities on all production facilities.
  • 13. Quality at the Source
    • For JIT to work, quality has to be high
      • No extra inventory to buffer against defective units
    • Producing poor-quality items and reworking items or rejecting them is wasteful
    • Workers are responsible for inspection
    • NEVER pass along defective item
  • 14. Quality at the Source
    • Jidoka
      • Authority to stop production line if quality problems are encountered
    • Andons
      • Call lights activated by switches
    • Undercapacity scheduling
      • Making time to plan, train, solve problems, maintain work environment
  • 15. Quality at the Source
    • Visual control
      • Quality improves when problems are made visible and workers have clear expectations of performance
      • Kanbans, andons, process control charts, tool boards, material handling routes clearly marked, demos, instructional photos, performance data
  • 16. Quality at the Source
    • Poka-yoke
      • Foolproof device or mechanism that prevents defects from occurring
    • Kaizen
      • Continuous improvement
  • 17. Total Productive Maintenance
    • Breakdown maintenance
    • Preventive maintenance
    • Total Productive Maintenance
      • Accurate records on time between breakdowns
      • Frequency of breakdowns
      • Costs of breakdowns
      • Determine a preventive maintenance schedule
      • Employee involvement
      • Zero defects
  • 18. Supplier Networks
    • Working with suppliers to improve responsiveness and quality
    • Trends:
      • Locate near the factory
      • Use small, side-loaded trucks and ship mixed loads
      • Consider establishing small warehouses near to the factory.
      • Use standardized containers and make deliveries according to a precise delivery schedule
      • Become a certified supplier and accept payment at regular intervals rather than upon delivery
  • 19. Benefits of JIT
    • Reduced inventory
    • Improved quality
    • Lower costs
    • Reduced space requirements
    • Shorter lead time
    • Increased productivity
  • 20. Benefits of JIT
    • Greater flexibility
    • Better relations with suppliers
    • Simplified scheduling and control activities
    • Increased capacity
    • Better use of human resources
    • More product variety