37021790 just-in-time-by-sashi-prabhu


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37021790 just-in-time-by-sashi-prabhu

  1. 1. Just-In-Time “Eliminate Waste”
  2. 2. Flexible Resources <ul><li>Multifunctional workers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate more than one machine & jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General-purpose machines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Machines that are not highly specialized </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Cellular Layouts <ul><li>Manufacturing cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often U-shaped or linear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work flows through cell in one direction and experiences little waiting </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Pull System <ul><li>Coordinating production and delivery of materials and components </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally, inventory has been used as a cushion against lapses in coordination and inventory can be huge </li></ul><ul><li>Pull system a la at US supermarkets </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pull System <ul><li>Do not order more product than can be used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(or items that can be sold) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reversal of normal ‘ push’ system </li></ul>
  6. 6. Kanban Production Control System <ul><li>Japanese word for ‘card’ </li></ul><ul><li>Associated with fixed-quantity inventory system </li></ul><ul><li>Two-bin system Kanban </li></ul>
  7. 7. Small-Lot Production <ul><li>Requires less space and capital </li></ul><ul><li>Produces small amounts at a time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processes can be moved closer together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation between stations is simplified </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality problems are easier to detect </li></ul><ul><li>Reveals errors and bottlenecks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>video </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Lead Time <ul><li>Processing time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be reduced by reducing number of items processed and the efficiency or speed of the worker </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be decreased if machines are moved closer together, method of movement simplified, routings are standardized, or need for movement eliminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Con’t </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Lead Time <ul><li>Waiting Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be reduced through better scheduling of materials, workers, machines and sufficient capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Setup Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of setup time is important to JIT </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Quick Setups <ul><li>Separate internal setup from external setup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal setup requires the machine to be stopped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External setup can be done while machine is running </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convert internal setup to external setup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare as much as possible in advance (preheating injection mold, standardizing die heights, centering die, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Quick Setups <ul><li>Streamline all aspects of setup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize workplace properly locating tools near points of use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep machines and fixtures in good repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify or eliminate adjustments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>precoding desired settings, using locator pins, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Perform setup activities in parallel or eliminate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add a person, standardize components, parts, materials </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Uniform Production Levels <ul><li>Smoothing production requirements on the final assembly line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed production throughout the day in small quantities on all production facilities. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Quality at the Source <ul><li>For JIT to work, quality has to be high </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No extra inventory to buffer against defective units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Producing poor-quality items and reworking items or rejecting them is wasteful </li></ul><ul><li>Workers are responsible for inspection </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER pass along defective item </li></ul>
  14. 14. Quality at the Source <ul><li>Jidoka </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority to stop production line if quality problems are encountered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Andons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call lights activated by switches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Undercapacity scheduling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making time to plan, train, solve problems, maintain work environment </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Quality at the Source <ul><li>Visual control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality improves when problems are made visible and workers have clear expectations of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kanbans, andons, process control charts, tool boards, material handling routes clearly marked, demos, instructional photos, performance data </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Quality at the Source <ul><li>Poka-yoke </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foolproof device or mechanism that prevents defects from occurring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kaizen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous improvement </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Total Productive Maintenance <ul><li>Breakdown maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Preventive maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Total Productive Maintenance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurate records on time between breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency of breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs of breakdowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine a preventive maintenance schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero defects </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Supplier Networks <ul><li>Working with suppliers to improve responsiveness and quality </li></ul><ul><li>Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate near the factory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use small, side-loaded trucks and ship mixed loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider establishing small warehouses near to the factory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use standardized containers and make deliveries according to a precise delivery schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Become a certified supplier and accept payment at regular intervals rather than upon delivery </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Benefits of JIT <ul><li>Reduced inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Improved quality </li></ul><ul><li>Lower costs </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced space requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Shorter lead time </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Benefits of JIT <ul><li>Greater flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Better relations with suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified scheduling and control activities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Better use of human resources </li></ul><ul><li>More product variety </li></ul>